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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Georgsmarienhütte
Map of Germany, position of the city Georgsmarienhütte highlighted

Coordinates: 52 ° 12 '  N , 8 ° 2'  E

Basic data
State : Lower Saxony
County : Osnabrück
Height : 110 m above sea level NHN
Area : 55.44 km 2
Residents: 31,756 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 573 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 49124
Area code : 05401
License plate : OS , BSB, MEL, WTL
Community key : 03 4 59 019
City structure: 6 districts

City administration address :
Oeseder Strasse 85
49124 Georgsmarienhütte
Website :
Mayoress : Dagmar Bahlo ( SPD )
Location of the city of Georgsmarienhütte in the Osnabrück district
Nordrhein-Westfalen Landkreis Cloppenburg Landkreis Diepholz Landkreis Emsland Landkreis Vechta Osnabrück Alfhausen Ankum Bad Essen Bad Iburg Bad Laer Bad Rothenfelde Badbergen Belm Berge (Niedersachsen) Bersenbrück Bippen Bissendorf Bohmte Bramsche Dissen am Teutoburger Wald Eggermühlen Fürstenau Gehrde Georgsmarienhütte Glandorf Hagen am Teutoburger Wald Hasbergen Hilter am Teutoburger Wald Melle Kettenkamp Menslage Merzen Neuenkirchen (Landkreis Osnabrück) Nortrup Ostercappeln Quakenbrück Rieste Voltlage Wallenhorstmap
About this picture

Georgsmarienhütte is a town and an independent municipality in the southwest of the Osnabrück district in Lower Saxony . Its most important architectural monument is the former monastery church of the former Oesede monastery, built in the 12th century in the district of the same name.


Geographical location

The "City in the Green" is located in the Osnabrück region between the city of Osnabrück in the north and the Teutoburg Forest in the south. On the southern border of Bad Iburg is the 331 meter high Dörenberg , the highest point in the Lower Saxon part of this low mountain range . Geographically located Georgsmarienhütte so in Osnabrück hills .

Neighboring communities

clockwise starting from north

City structure and area of ​​the respective city districts

The information on the number of inhabitants and area information relates to the reference date July 1, 2017.

district Residents Area
(in km²)
(Ew / km²)
(including Malbergen )
7,500 9.86 761
Harderberg 2,960 7.84 378
Holsten-Mündrup 725 5.73 127
Holzhausen 4,569 4.26 1,073
Oesede Monastery 4,403 13.02 338
(including Dröper )
11,925 14.70 811


St. Johann, church of the former Oesede monastery
The Luther Church was built in 1877 for the Protestants who had moved there

In Georgsmarienhütte there are the following churches and their parishes:

Roman Catholic Church :

Since February 2009 the parishes Herz Jesu and St. Antonius von Padua have formed the parish community Georgsmarienhütte-West. The existing parish community Georgsmarienhütte-Ost consisting of the parishes of St. Peter and Paul, Holy Spirit and St. Maria Frieden was expanded in May 2009 to include the parish of St. Johann / St. Marien expanded. Thus there are two Catholic pastoral teams, each with a leading pastor with offices in St. Peter and Paul or St. Antonius of Padua, as well as with several pastors and pastoral or parish officers and pastoral workers. There is also a small wooden church, the Brother Klaus Church, which belongs to the Catholic rural community college in Oesede.

The Catholic Christians from the Holsten-Mündrup district belong to the Kath. Dionysius parish in Bissendorf (district of Osnabrück).

Evangelical Lutheran Church :

  • Luther Church (Alt-Georgsmarienhütte)
  • King Christ (Oesede)
  • Resurrection (Oesede Monastery)
The evangelical congregations have been working together since 2009 in a cooperation of pastors , deacons and in congregational projects.
The Evangelical Lutheran Christians from the Holzhausen district belong to the Apostle community in Osnabrück - Sutthausen .

The Evangelical Reformed Christians from Georgsmarienhütte are members of the Evangelical Reformed community in Osnabrück.

Apostel-Engelauf-Church (Oesede, since December 2014 decommissioned)

Due to the age structure, the New Apostolic Congregation belongs to the Dissen - Bad Rothenfelde congregation .

Fatih mosque

The Turkish - Islamic community in Georgsmarienhütte is subordinate to the umbrella organization DITIB .


After 1857 the Georgs-Marien-Bergwerks- und Hüttenverein built an ironworks in the municipality of Malbergen . It was named after the last ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover , Georg V and his wife Marie . The Georgsmarienhütte community emerged from the associated workers' colony in 1860. After years of spatial expansion, Malbergen was incorporated into the municipality in 1937. In 1970 the rural communities of Oesede, Kloster Oesede, Harderberg, Holsten-Mündrup, southern Holzhausen and the industrial village of Georgsmarienhütte merged to form the new community Georgsmarienhütte. This received city rights on September 19, 1970. Since then it has been referred to as an "industrial city in the country". After the dismantling of the steelworks, people have only spoken of the “city in the country” for a few years.

From 1857 to 1925, Monbrillant Castle stood in Georgsmarienhütte , which was built in Hanover in the 18th century as a pleasure palace . There it was dismantled and rebuilt in Georgsmarienhütte as a house for the directors of the iron and steel works. In 1925 it gave way to the expansion of the iron and steel works. The name Schloßstraße reminds of the earlier castle .

Population development

Population development in Georgsmarienhütte since 1987

The following overview shows the population of Georgsmarienhütte in each area (on December 31st). The numbers are updates by the State Office for Statistics and Communication Technology Lower Saxony based on the census of May 9, 2011 .

year Residents
1987 30,789
1990 31,910
1995 32,909
2000 32,872
2005 32,536
2010 32,057
2011 32,026
2013 31,616
2014 31,543
2015 31,520
2017 31,624
2018 31,827


City council

The city ​​council currently has 38 members from five parties or groups. The mayor is also the chairman of the council with voting rights.

The following table shows the local election results since 1996.

City Council Georgsmarienhütte: Election results and city councils
total electoral
Electoral term % Mandates % Mandates % Mandates % Mandates % Mandates % Mandates % Total number of seats on the Council %
1996-2001 52.3 21st 35.4 14th 7.4 2 1.6 - 3.2 1 - - 100 38 71.1
2001-2006 54.2 21st 34.9 14th 4.8 1 3.2 1 2.6 1 0.1 - 100 38 64.7
2006-2011 52.2 20th 35.0 13 7.8 3 2.8 1 2.2 1 - - 100 38 57.9
2011-2016 49.6 19th 34.3 13 13.4 5 1.0 - 1.7 1 - - 100 38 49.8
2016 - 2021 44.0 17th 33.1 13 14.5 5 3.7 1 4.0 2 - - 100 38 61.1
Percentages rounded.
Sources: State Office for Statistics and Communication Technology Lower Saxony, District of Osnabrück.
The data from the State Office for Statistics and Communication Technology were used in the case of different information in the sources mentioned,
as they are generally more plausible. The results of the 2016 local elections come from the city of Georgsmarienhütte ( )


  • since June 1, 2019 Dagmar Bahlo (SPD)
  • 2011–2019 Ansgar Pohlmann (CDU)
  • 1996–2011 Heinz Lunte (CDU)
  • 1986–1991 Hans Tegeler (CDU)
  • 1970–1986 Ludwig Siepelmeyer (CDU)

Since 1996 as full-time mayor

Town twinning

Coat of arms, flag and banner

Banner, coat of arms and flag
Banner Georgsmarienhuette.svg Used by the city with no outline
Flag of Georgsmarienhuette.svg
Georgsmarienhütte coat of arms
Blazon : "In the red shield a silver, crowned, soaring leopard."
Foundation of the coat of arms: The coat of arms was awarded to the municipality of Oesede in 1951 by the Lower Saxony Minister of the Interior. It was continued by the town of Georgsmarienhütte, which was newly founded in 1970, and is derived in a hardly changed form from the coat of arms of the founder of the Oesede Monastery , the Counts of Oesede. The colors come from the coat of arms of the County of Ravensberg .

The banner and flag have also been awarded with the coat of arms:

"The city's flag consists of three horizontal stripes in the colors red, white and red, and it shows the city's coat of arms on a white background."

- This imprecise formulation is taken from the main statute.
The correct description is: "The hoisted flag shows the coat of arms of the city on a white track accompanied by two red vertical stripes in a ratio of 1: 3: 1."
In addition, the city carries a banner: "It shows the coat of arms moved upwards on a white track accompanied by two red vertical stripes in a ratio of 1: 3: 1."

Culture and sights





  • Memorial of the Augustaschacht in Ohrbeck
  • Stumbling blocks
  • Frescoes in the crypt of the Heilig-Geist-Kirche , dedicated to the martyrs and confessors of the 20th century
  • Theodor Holste Monument (Casino Park in Alt-Georgsmarienhütte)
  • Carl Wintzer monument (casino park in Alt-Georgsmarienhütte)
  • Memorial stone Hohe Linde
  • Ottoschacht monument
  • Gaußstein (technical monument on the Dörenberg)

Music events

The Artium Forum at the Kasinoteich in Alt-Georgsmarienhütte regularly organizes concerts with participants in its masterclasses in its own chamber concert hall. Every year the Forum Artium organizes the Musica Viva festival , which was founded in 1989 as the “Days of Early Music in Osnabrücker Land”. Venues are historically valuable buildings in Osnabrück and the surrounding area.

Every year the “Hütte Rockt” open-air festival takes place in the Harderberg district . Here bands perform regionally (for example “ Frog Bog Dosenband ”), but also nationally known (for example “ JBO ”, “Heart disease”, “ Serum 114 ”, “ Donots ”, “ Jupiter Jones ”). The focus is on styles of music from rock to metal . The Waldbühne Kloster Oesede is the venue for a varied musical program.

Regular events

  • February: Hut Sunday / Carnival parade
  • April: Hut market in Alt-Georgsmarienhütte
  • May: Cityfest
  • May: Kirmes Kloster Klipp
  • July: Flea market around the town hall
  • July: Holi Farbrauschfest
  • July: Casino Park Festival (Festival of Lights)
  • July / August: drive-in cinema , Hut Rockt Festival
  • September: Fair in Holzhausen and Oesede
  • October: pub crawl
  • November: Oeseder fire evening (street festival)
  • November: Hut meal (Kolpinghaus Alt-Georgsmarienhütte)
  • Late November to early January: GMHütte on Ice ice rink
  • December: Christmas markets

Infrastructure and economy



Georgsmarienhuette is by extending in the north-south direction national road B 51 without crossing on the road network on the motorway A 30 attached. There are also connections to the A 33 and B 68 in north-south direction in the districts of Harderberg and Kloster Oesede . State road L 95 runs in an east-west direction .


The next ICE stop is Osnabrück main station . The Hamburg  - Bremen  - Ruhr area ( Wanne-Eickel – Hamburg railway ) and Amsterdam  - Hanover  - Berlin ( Löhne – Rheine railway ) intersect in this tower station .

The Osnabrück – Bielefeld ( KBS 402 ) railway runs through the city , on which the regional trainHaller WillemRB 75 runs every hour . There are stops in Oesede and Oesede Monastery. Local rail passenger transport is carried out by the NordWestBahn , which uses Talent diesel multiple units for speeds of up to 120 km / h. Certain settlement areas of the city are also close to train stops in neighboring towns, so the Osnabrück-Sutthausen station can be reached by bus from Holzhausen and the nearest station from the Brannenheide settlement is Wellendorf in Hilter. The Georgsmarienhütte – Hasbergen railway line is only used for freight traffic . It had a train station in Georgsmarienhütte and one in Holzhausen-Patkenhof. The freight line provides a connection to the Wanne-Eickel – Hamburg railway and thus also the connection to the port of Osnabrück, which is important for the steelworks .


In road passenger transport associate regional buses to Bad Iburg, Bad Laer , Glandorf , Hagen, Hilter-Borgloh, Hilter, Dissen , Bad Rothenfelde as well as in 10-minute intervals to Osnabrück . Oesede-Gildehaus is an important bus stop as the junction of the bus routes in the southern district of Osnabrück; it is also close to the Oesede train station and the Oeseder Straße shopping street. There is also a bus to Osnabrück every 20 minutes in Holzhausen, in the other direction it sometimes continues to Hagen or Malbergen.

The town of Georgsmarienhütte has a very strong commuter network to and from Osnabrück. As part of the planning of the planning company Nahverkehr Osnabrück (PlaNOS), there are considerations to interrupt lines at the city limits, for example for the connection from Hagen, Holzhausen to Osnabrück-Mitte with a transfer point in Os.-Sutthausen at the city limits or with the interruption of the Line from Osnabrück via Oesede, Dröper, Brannenheide to Wellendorf- Borgloh with a break between Brannenheide and Wellendorf at the city limits.

In September 2014, the previous continuous bus route 472 Gmh.-Malbergen - Gmh.-Holzhausen (von-Galen-Straße) - Osnabrück-Sutthausen - Osnabrück-Neumarkt at the city limits between Georgsmarienhütte and Osnabrück was interrupted and an additional change at the city limits was introduced ( then from bus 462 to bus 71, 72), with which the PlaNOS starts the additional transfer points at the border from city to district Osnabrück as part of the planning of trolleybuses ending at the city border.


Georgsmarienhütte is situated 32 kilometers from the international airport Münster-Osnabrück (FMO) in Greven and about 15 km from the airfield Atterheide in Osnabrück Airport.

Middle center

The city of Georgsmarienhütte is a medium-sized center in regional spatial planning with the functional focus on work, living, relaxation and a retail offer for both everyday and medium-term needs.

as a business location with a differentiated medium-sized economic structure, the city has a job density ( social insurance jobs divided by population) of approximately 1: 3, and thus the largest influx of commuters of all communities in the district Osnabrück. The unemployment rate is low. There is an office of the Federal Employment Agency and a branch of the municipal employment
agency of the Osnabrück district, MaßArbeit kAöR ( job center ). The town of Georgsmarienhütte is a commuter community, where there were a total of 8,984 in-commuters and 8,852 out-commuters in 2014 among employees subject to social insurance, while only 3,994 employees also live and work in the city itself. The strongest commuter network with 4,532 outbound commuters and 2,322 inbound commuters is with Osnabrück. Furthermore, there are commuter ties, especially with other municipalities in the district of Osnabrück; 870 in-commuters from Hagen aTW and 237 out-commuters to Hagen aTW, 549 in-commuters from Hilter aTW and 339 out-commuters to Hilter aTW, as well as 476 in-commuters from Bad Iburg and 247 Commuters to Bad Iburg. Between 80 and 400 inbound and outbound commuters, there are commuter ties with Hasbergen, Bad Laer , Bad Rothenfelde, Dissen , Melle , Bissendorf, Belm .


Characterized by the steel industry, a business location with a large number of companies with around 13,500 jobs has developed in the last few decades, also due to the good infrastructure.

The most important industrial company remains the eponymous steelworks Georgsmarienhütte GmbH , which belongs to the Georgsmarienhütte group of companies . The third largest employer after Niels-Stensen-Kliniken GmbH, which operates two local hospitals, is Oeseder Möbel-Industrie Mathias Wiemann GmbH & Co. KG (Wiemann Möbel). Due to the proximity to the automobile manufacturer Karmann , there were also spin-offs in the automobile industry. The WELP GROUP is represented locally with Farmingtons Automotive GmbH (formerly pgam ) and with further locations in Wilkau-Haßlau , Wolfsburg , Neckarsulm and Warwick (UK). The SD Automotive, with a location in Hartwell ( Georgia ) is a service provider for the automotive industry. Belec Spektrometrie Opto-Elektronik GmbH is a medium-sized high-tech company that manufactures optical emission spectrometers for metal analysis and sells them worldwide. The food industry ( DMK Deutsches Milchkontor , Indasia Gewürzwerk , Confiserie Gustav Berning GmbH ) and the construction industry ( MBN Bau , BWG Betonwerk Georgsmarienhütte GmbH) also have medium-sized branches on site. With jpc -schallplatten Versandhandelsgesellschaft mbH, not only a media mail order company, but also the music label cpo (classic production osnabrück) , 2015 Grammy award winner, have their headquarters in Georgsmarienhütte. The organ building company Orgelbau Kreienbrink , which was taken over in 1841 by the organ builder Ludwig Rohlfing , is a long-established company .


In addition to elementary and secondary schools, there is a secondary school and the Oesede grammar school . The school, like the special school Comenius school sponsored by the district Osnabrück . In the district of Holsten-Mündrup there is the Dionysiushaus children's and youth education center . Reading is promoted in the Georgsmarienhütte City Library (church public library with over 44,000 media) with its facilities in the districts of Oesede (main office), Holzhausen, Oesede Monastery, Harderberg and Alt-Georgsmarienhütte (Kirchstrasse and Hindenburgstrasse). The art school Paletti, a non-profit art school for children, young people and adults, is supported by the city of Georgsmarienhütte. The communal district music school is represented with a branch. With the Forum Artium , Georgsmarienhütte is also the seat of an academy for music and international master classes.

Adults can take part in adult education courses or in the Catholic rural community college "Johannes-Schlömann-Schule" in Oesede. A state-recognized educational institution and home folk college run by the Order of the Franciscans (OFM) and the Diocese of Osnabrück is located in the Ohrbeck Monastery in Holzhausen with "Haus Ohrbeck" . The Osnabrück University and the University of Osnabrück are located around 11 km away.


There are three hospitals in the city . The Niels-Stensen-Kliniken GmbH, an ecclesiastical hospital operator based in Georgsmarienhütte, operates the Franziskus -Hospital Harderberg. Seven medical departments and an outpatient department mainly care for patients from Osnabrück and the southern district. The Magdalenen Clinic , a private clinic for psychotherapy , psychosomatics and psychiatry, is located in the immediate vicinity, under the same sponsorship . The location of the Osnabrück Clinic at the Kasinopark offers a range of therapeutic options that go beyond the scope of normal internal medicine. The focus is on geriatrics and the addiction competence center .


28 sports clubs offer a wide range of traditional as well as special sports. In addition to sports halls, running tracks and a large number of sports grounds, there are also two swimming pools, the panorama pool with 50 m outdoor pool, adventure area and indoor pool, and the forest pool. A beach volleyball , a skater facility and a mini golf course are also part of the offer.

Associations and choirs


  • Kolping family Georgsmarienhütte / Malbergen eV
  • Musikverein 1860
  • Klosteraner Schützenkapelle from 1982
  • Schützenverein Harderberg from 1653 e. V.
  • Shooting club Holsten-Mündrup from 1904 eV
  • Schützenverein Holzhausen from 1886/1957 eV
  • Malbergen rifle club from 1889
  • Schützenverein Kloster Oesede from 1660 eV
  • German Life Saving Society Local group Georgsmarienhütte e. V.
  • Hockey Club Georgsmarienhütte
  • Police Sports Club Georgsmarienhütte eV
  • Schachgemeinschaft Oesede-Georgsmarienhütte eV
  • Swimming club Georgsmarienhütte from 1957 eV
  • Sports club BSV Holzhausen 1924 eV
  • Sports club Sportfreunde Oesede Georgsmarienhütte eV 1921
  • Sports club SV Harderberg 1950 eV
  • Sports club VfL Kloster Oesede eV 1928
  • Sports club Viktoria 08 Georgsmarienhütte e. V.
  • Gymnastics club "Gut Heil" from 1870 e. V.
  • Motorcycle Club FLYING WHEELS Motorcycle Club from 1977 eV


  • Mixed choir Oesede
  • Mixed choir Harderberg
  • Georgsmarienhütte male choir
  • Bach choir
  • Small choir
  • Schola St. Peter and Paul
  • Children's choir The organ pipes
  • Youth Choir St. Maria Frieden
  • Mountain Singers
  • Ecumenical children's choir
  • Church choir Cäcilia
  • Gospel choir Good News
  • Church choir Cantus Firmus Protestant church district
  • Heart choir of the Herz-Jesu-Gemeinde Alt-Georgsmarienhütte

People and personalities

Born in Georgsmarienhütte

Connected to Georgsmarienhütte


in chronological ascending order

  • Werner Beermann, Dieter Görbing: The hut. Work and life in the region around the Georgsmarienhütte steelworks . Self-published by Dieter Görbing, Georgsmarienhütte 1988, ISBN 978-3-926131-02-7 , 194 pp.
  • Susanne Meyer: Heavy industrial island and rural environment: Georgsmarienhütte 1856–1933. Plant and community, origin, settlement and social structure at a rural industrial location . Coppenrath, Münster 1991, ISBN 3-88547-805-6 ( full text as PDF ), 430 pp.
  • Inge Becher, Wolfgang Seegrün (Red.): Georgsmarienhütte. Young City - Old Traditions: Festschrift on the occasion of 900 years of the church in Oesede, 825 years of Oesede monastery, 135 years of Georgsmarienhütte, 25 years of the city of Georgsmarienhütte . In: Contributions to the history of Georgsmarienhütte and its districts , Volume 2. Stadt Georgsmarienhütte, Georgsmarienhütte 1995, ISBN 978-3-9803658-2-6 , 303 pp.
  • Volker Issmer:  The Ohrbeck labor education camp near Osnabrück. Steinbacher Druck, Osnabrück 2000, ISBN 3-9805661-9-6 , 480 pp.
  • Inge Becher (author) and Gisbert Gramberg (photos): Georgsmarienhütte: At every step . Wartberg, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2005, ISBN 978-3-8313-1306-8 , 108 pp.
  • Oliver Driesen : Black as slag, red as embers: the astonishing history of Georgsmarienhütte and its group of companies . Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-455-50004-2 , 310 pp.
  • Inge Becher (author), Nils Tiemeyer (illustrator): History of the city of Georgsmarienhütte for children: Narrated by Leo, the rising leopard . City of Georgsmarienhütte, Georgsmarienhütte 2007, ISBN 978-3-00-022287-0 , 54 pp.
  • Inge Becher: The negotiation of space: The founding of the city of Georgsmarienhütte and its prehistory . V&R unipress, Göttingen 2020, ISBN 978-3847111023

Web links

Commons : Georgsmarienhütte  - Collection of images

Individual evidence

  1. State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019  ( help ).
  2. ^ Section “Facts and Figures” on the website of the city of Georgsmarienhütte
  3. ^ A b Albert Gieseler: Georgsmarien Hütten- und Bergwerkverein . Retrieved October 23, 2017.
  4. ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes for municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart and Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 258 .
  5. State Office for Statistics and Communication Technology Lower Saxony, population update  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  6. State Office for Statistics and Communication Technology Lower Saxony, Table 5000311
  7. Landkreis Osnabrück, official final results of the district election on September 9, 2001 ( Memento from May 25, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 528 kB)
  8. ^ The local elections for the district of Osnabrück on September 11, 2011 (also includes 2006 results). (PDF 8.0 MB p. 56 column “Municipal elections ”) Osnabrück district, accessed on March 6, 2016 .
  9. georgsmarienhü
  10. ↑ The culmination of political work. In: New Osnabrück Newspaper . May 29, 2011, accessed October 1, 2018.
  11. Kasper Müller: Osnabrücker Land 1992 . 1991, ISSN  0171-2136 , pp. 415 .
  12. Entry about the rural community Kłodzko on the homepage of the town of Georgsmarienhütte.Accessed on May 1, 2019, 02:12
  13. Entry about the partner locations in France on the website of the city of Georgsmarienhütte.Retrieved on May 2, 2019, 3:01 pm
  14. a b Main statutes of the city of Georgsmarienhütte (PDF)
  15. Klemens Stadler: German coat of arms. Volume 5, Bremen 1970, p. 63.
  16. ^ Banner Georgsmarienhütte
  17. ^ Villa Stahmer. In: Retrieved August 23, 2020 .
  18. Villa Stahmer's coach house. In: Retrieved August 23, 2020 .
  19. Residential / farm building. In: Retrieved August 23, 2020 .
  20. Osnabrück: Musica Viva. In: Retrieved September 7, 2016 .
  21. Forum of Arts - Musica Viva. In: Retrieved March 25, 2016 .
  22. Hut Rockt Festival. In: Retrieved March 4, 2016 .
  23. Wolfgang Elbers: GMHütter Kunstschule Paletti opens the coach house. In: June 12, 2015, accessed March 25, 2016 .
  24. ^ Paletti Art School - Home. In: June 12, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2016 .
  25. Wolfgang Elbers: Musical all-inclusive house in GMHütte. In: May 6, 2011, accessed March 25, 2016 .
  26. ^ Forum-artium - home page. In: Retrieved March 25, 2016 .
  27. ^ Johann Jakob Heinrich Czikann: Oesterreichische National-Encyklopädie. In Commission of the F. Beck'schen Universitäts-Buchhandlung, 1836, p. 537 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
  28. ^ Douglas Carl Fricke: Joseph A. Hemann (1816-1897): German-American Educator, Publisher, Banker in Nineteenth Century Cincinnati . Allodium Chase, Martinsville (Indiana, USA) 2015, ISBN 978-0-9799967-2-6 .
  29. Petra Pieper: A steep climb: GMHütter Carl-Stahmer-Weg reminds of the entrepreneur. In: April 9, 2015, accessed December 24, 2017 .