A historian or historian is a scientist engaged in the research and presentation of history . In addition to the representatives of the historical sciences , the ancient, medieval and early modern historians are also referred to as historians, although they are not considered scientists in today's sense - for better delimitation, the terms "historians" or " historiographers " or " historiographers " are often used here which is not mandatory. One form of history is the chronicle . The designationHistorians derive from ancient Greek ἱστορία [ hɪstoˈʁia ] ("exploration", "exploration").
Historian is not a legally protected professional title in Germany and research and teaching are free according to the Basic Law. Accordingly, anyone who deals scientifically or journalistically with historical questions can be called a historian. The Association of Historians in Germany (VHD) only accepts members who have a corresponding university degree or literary work devoted to history. Many historians - provided they work in their actual subject - work as teachers in schools as well as in museums or in archives , as journalists and specialist book authors or as scientists at universities and research institutes. Due to the limited budgets of public institutions, many history graduates work in business these days . There they are mainly active in marketing and management consulting. Entry into the economy, but increasingly also into the public sector, can sometimes only be achieved through additional qualifications and specializations.
At German universities, history studies can be completed with the academic degrees of Bachelor and Master . These have largely replaced the old Magister degrees and the state examination for teaching. The doctorate to Dr. phil. also applies to historians as evidence of the ability to do independent academic work. According to the guidelines of the German Research Foundation , historians from the doctorate onwards are also qualified, independent scientists. In Germany today, the prerequisite for holding a professorship in the history sciences is as a rule (despite the introduction of the junior professorship ), however, a habilitation is still required .
Historians are often specialized and are then called
- by epoch: ancient historians, medievalists, modern historians, contemporary historians, etc.
- by topic: social historians, mentality historians, cultural historians, economic historians, etc.
- or by region: Byzantinists, Americanists, etc. - here there is often an overlap with the corresponding linguistic and cultural studies; Regional historian.
There are also the historical auxiliary sciences with disciplines such as diplomats , palaeography , chronology , heraldry , numismatics , epigraphy , genealogy , etc. The archaeologists with their scientific approach and also the prehistory and early historians, because this is where the written sources are located, are a little outside of the actual science of history not yet play a role. The beginning of the “real” story is often defined with the onset of a written culture , which is why history is largely a science of letters. Nevertheless, historians are also open to the knowledge of other disciplines.
Historians of the ancient world
The following assignments to Greek or Roman-Latin historiography are based on the language used in the respective works up to 300 AD, not on the origin of the authors.
Greek-speaking historians up to approx. 300 AD
The following list is in alphabetical order. For a chronologically ordered overview cf. List of Greek-speaking historians of the ancient world .
|Akusilaos of Argos||2nd half of the 6th century BC Chr.||1st half of the 5th century BC Chr.|
|Antiochus of Syracuse||around 423 BC Chr.|
|Appianus of Alexandria||2nd century|
|Aristobulus of Kassandreia||1st half of the 4th century BC In Kassandreia||301 BC Chr.|
|Arrianus of Nicomedia||at 95||175|
|Cassius Dio||155 in Nikaia (Nicaea) in Bithynia||after 229|
|Charon of Lampsakos||approx. 480 BC Chr. – 477 BC Chr.||2nd half of the 5th century BC Chr.|
|Dinon of Colophon||4th century BC Chr.|
|Diodor||1st century BC Chr.|
|Dionysius of Halicarnassus||1st century BC Chr.|
|Ephorus of Kyme||around 400 BC BC, Kyme||330 BC Chr.|
|Hecataeus of Miletus||550 BC Chr. (?)||approx. 485 BC Chr. – 475 BC Chr.|
|Hecataeus of Abdera||2nd half of the 4th century BC Chr.||3rd century BC Chr.|
|Hellanikos of Lesbos||approx. 490 BC BC / 480 BC Chr. Mytilene ( Lesbos )||around 400 BC Chr. Perperene ( Mysia )|
|Herodianos||around 178, maybe Syria||about 250|
|Herodotus||approx. 484 BC BC, Halicarnassus||approx. 425 BC Chr.|
|Jerome of Cardia||around 360 BC Chr.||after 272 BC Chr.|
|Hippys of Rhegion|
|Ion from Chios||around 480 BC Chr.||around 422 BC Chr.|
|Callisthenes of Olynthos||around 370 BC Chr.||around 327 BC Chr.|
|Clitarchus||4th / 3rd Century BC Chr.|
|Ktesias of Knidos||2nd half of the 5th century BC Chr.||1st half of the 4th century BC Chr.|
|Megasthenes||approx. 350 BC Chr.||approx. 290 BC Chr.|
|Pausanias||approx. 115 (Asia Minor)||about 180|
|Pherecydes of Athens||2nd half of the 6th century BC Chr.||1st half of the 5th century BC Chr.|
|Quintus Fabius Pictor||around 254 BC Chr.||around 201 BC Chr.|
|Philinos of Akragas||3rd century BC Chr.|
|Plutarch||at 45 in Chaironeia||at 125|
|Polybios||around 201 BC In Megalopolis on the Peloponnese||around 120 BC BC, location unknown|
|Strabo||approx. 63 BC In Amaseia in Pontos ( Amasya )||after 23 (26?) AD|
|Theopompus of Chios||around 378 BC Chr./377 BC On Chios||between 323 BC BC and 300 BC In Alexandria|
|Thucydides||around 460 BC Chr.||between 399 BC BC and 396 BC Chr.|
|Timaeus of Tauromenion||approx. 345 BC BC ( Tauromenion )||approx. 250 BC Chr.|
|Xanthos the Lydian||5th century BC Chr.|
|Xenophon of Athens||around 426 BC Chr.||after 355 BC Chr.|
Roman historians up to approx. 300 AD
|Gaius Iulius Caesar||July 13, 100 BC In Rome||March 15, 44 BC Chr.|
|Cremutius Cordus||25 AD|
|Marcus Porcius Cato Censorius||234 BC In Tusculum||149 BC In Rome|
|Publius Annius Florus||2nd century|
|Flavius Josephus||37/38 in Jerusalem||about 100|
|Titus Livius||probably 59 BC In Patavium, today's Padua||around 17 AD in Patavium|
|Marius Maximus||approx. 165 AD||230 AD|
|Cornelius Nepos||around 100 BC Chr.||around 25 BC Chr.|
|Velleius Paterculus||around 19 BC Chr.||at 31|
|Quintus Curtius Rufus||probably 1st century|
|Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus||between 70 and 75 AD||approx. 130–140 AD|
|Gaius Sallustius Crispus||October 1, 86 BC In Amiternum||May 13, 35 BC BC or 34 BC In Rome|
|Tacitus||at 55||after 115|
|Pompey Trogus||1st century BC Chr.|
Late antique historians (approx. 300 to 600 AD)
|Agathias||at 536 in Myrina||around 582 in Constantinople|
|Ammianus Marcellinus||around 330 Antioch on the Orontes / Syria||around 395 probably in Rome|
|Aurelius Victor||probably around 320 in one of the North African Roman provinces||probably around 390, possibly in Rome|
|Cassiodorus||at 490 in Scylaceum||at 583|
|Eunapios of Sardis||345||420|
|Eusebius of Caesarea||260 to 264||337 to 340|
|Historia Augusta||late 4th / early 5th century|
|Johannes Malalas||at 490 in Antioch||around 570 in Constantinople|
|Marcellinus Comes||after 534|
|Menander protector||6th century|
|Olympiodorus of Thebes||5th century|
|Philostorgios||at 368 in Borissos||probably after 433|
|Prokopios of Caesarea||around 500||at 562|
|Theophylactus Simokates||early 7th century|
|Zosimos||2nd half of the 5th century||1st half of the 6th century|
|Theophanes Homologetes||around 760 in Constantinople||817/18 in Samothrace|
|Georgios Monachos||late 9th century|
|Johannes Skylitzes||2nd half of the 11th century|
|Michael Psellos||1017/18 in Constantinople||1078|
|Nikephoros Bryennios||1062 in Orestias (Adrianople)||1137 in Constantinople|
|Anna Komnena||1083 in Constantinople||circa 1154|
|Niketas Choniates||around 1150 in Chonai||around 1215 in Nikaia|
From the Middle Ages to the early modern period
Historians of the 18th and 19th centuries
Historians of the 20th and 21st centuries
Historian of non-European cultures
Other cultures have also developed forms of comprehensive historiography, especially in the Islamic world and in today 's People's Republic of China . The oldest tradition of historiography is over 3000 years old and comes from China. The oldest historians are not known by name, but their works already have documentation of the sources used; only with Sima Guang's Zizhi Tongjian of 1084 is a precise description of the historiographic methods available.
The Islamic history (ilm at-Tarikh) religious origin. History was regarded as a traditional science whose mission was the unadulterated transmission of central religious content. For this purpose, the Arab historians used sophisticated methods of source criticism, which is based on so-called “chains of narrators” ( Isnad ) . In later times one increasingly finds works of secular content.
- Tabari ( Al-Tabari , 839-923)
- al-Balādhurī († approx. 892 )
- al-Mas'udi (around 895-957)
- Usama ibn Munqidh (1095–1188)
- Ibn al-Athīr (1160-1233)
- Ibn Challikan (1211-1282)
- Ibn Chaldun ( Ibn Chaldun , 1332-1406)
- Al-Maqrīzī (Maqrizi, 1364-1442)
- Ibn ʿAsākir (1105–1176)
- Sima Qian ( Han Dynasty ) (around 145 BC to around 90 BC)
- Ban Gu ( Han dynasty ) (32-92)
- Faxian ( Jin Dynasty around 337 to around 422)
- Sima Guang ( Song Dynasty ) (1019-1086)
a) by epoch:
- List of ancient scholars and archaeologists
- Prehistory and early history
- Old story
- Medieval Studies , Middle Ages
- Modern times
- Contemporary history
b) by subject matter:
- Agricultural history
- Population history
- Church historian , history of religion
- Cultural history
- Art historian
- List of literary historians
- National history
- History of aviation
- Medical history
- Military historian
- Philosophy , history of ideas
- Legal history
- Political history
- Social history
- Technology history
- Environmental history
- Company history
- Economic history
- History of science
c) according to world regions and cultures:
- African studies in the German-speaking area
- Ancient American Studies
- English studies
- Arabic studies
- Byzantine Studies
- German studies
- Global history
- Greek Studies
- Hispanic Studies
- Iranian Studies
- Judaic Studies
- Latin Studies
- Romance Studies
- Scandinavian Studies
- Slavic Studies
d) Archeology and historical auxiliary sciences:
- Kelly Boyd (Ed.): Encyclopedia of historians and historical writing. Fitzroy Dearborn, London et al. 1999, ISBN 1-88496-433-8 .
- Ahasver von Brandt : tool of the historian. An introduction to the historical auxiliary sciences (= Kohlhammer-Urban pocket books. Volume 33). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1958. 11th supplemented edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart et al. 1986, ISBN 3-17-009340-1 .
- Rüdiger vom Bruch , Rainer A. Müller: Historikerlexikon. From antiquity to the 20th century. 2nd Edition. Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-47643-0 .
- Ruth Dölle-Oelmüller, Rainer Piepmeier, Willi Oelmüller: Philosophical work books. Volume 4: Discourse History. Paderborn 1983.
- Fritz Fellner, Doris A. Corradini: Austrian History in the 20th Century. A biographical-bibliographical lexicon (= publications of the Commission for Modern History of Austria. Volume 99). Böhlau, Vienna et al. 2006, ISBN 3-205-77476-0 .
- Hiram Kümper (Ed.): Historians. A biobibliographic search for traces in the German-speaking area. With a foreword by Angelika Schaser (= writings of the archive of the German women's movement. Volume 14). Archive of the German Women's Movement Foundation, Kassel 2009, ISBN 978-3-926068-15-6 .
- Anne Kwaschik, Mario Wimmer (ed.): From the work of the historian: A dictionary on theory and practice of historical science. Bielefeld 2010, ISBN 978-3-8376-1547-0 .
- Wolfgang Weber: Priest of the Klio. Historical and social science studies on the origins and careers of German historians and on the history of German historical studies 1800–1970 (= European university publications . Series 3, Volume 216). Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al. 1984, ISBN 3-8204-7435-8 .
- Wolfgang Weber: Biographical lexicon for historical studies in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The chair holders from the beginnings of the subject until 1970. Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al. 1984, ISBN 3-8204-8005-6 .
- Dieter Wolf : Conveying history far from the ivory tower. Historians in the small museum. In: Margot Rühl (ed.): Professions for historians. Scientific Book Society Darmstadt 2004. pp. 119–129.