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The theater of Tusculum in front of the Alban Hills (by Thomas Worthington Whittredge , 1860)

Tusculum was a city in Latium in antiquity and the Middle Ages , southeast of Rome in the Alban Hills , in the vicinity of which rich Romans lived in antiquity. The excavations of the ancient city are located on Monte Tuscolo above today's Frascati , in the municipality of Grottaferrata .

Around 1900, the term was a popular name for villas, cozy residences or favorite places to stay.


View from the hill of Tusculum, on the right the excavations

The name Tusculum is probably derived from the Latin name for the Etruscans ( Latin Etrusci, Tusci ). After the defeat of the Tarquinians on Regillus lacus around 496 BC. Tusculum joined the Romans and received 379 BC. Roman citizenship (as municipium sine suffragio ). In the Latin War (340–338) Tusculum took part against Rome , but was treated mildly after his defeat and received full citizenship. The villas of distinguished Romans, for example those of Lucullus , Caesar , Hortensius Hortalus , Cato , Marius and especially Cicero's famous "Tusculanum", to which he referred in his writing Tusculanae disputationes ("Conversations in Tusculum") , have been in its vicinity since the late republic. relates.

middle Ages

In the 10th to 12th centuries there was the capital Tusculum, the county of Tusculum , whose ruling family came from the Roman patriciate and were called Tusculans after their seat .

After long battles with the Crescenti, the latter gained power in Rome in the 11th century, where between 1012 and 1045 they provided three popes ( Benedict VIII , John XIX and Benedict IX ).

In 1167 the battle of Tusculum took place near Tusculum , in which Christian I von Buch and Rainald von Dassel and their knights defeated a majority of Roman troops.

After Pope Celestine III in 1191 . and the designated emperor Heinrich VI. After making peace, the city of Tusculum was destroyed by the Romans. Its ruins ( amphitheater , theater, castle) lie to the east above Frascati, which was founded by the displaced inhabitants of Tusculum.

Counts of Tusculum

  • Theophylact I , † 915/924, Count of Tusculum
  • Johannes Crescentius, papal chamberlain (Vestararius), Count of Tusculum as husband of Theodora II of Tusculum
  • Gregory I, * around 935, † before June 2, 1013, Count of Tusculum, Consul and Dux
  • Theophylact II., * Around 980, † April 9, 1024, his son, Count of Tusculum until 1012, as Pope Benedict VIII from 1012-1024
  • Romanus, † November 6, 1032, his brother, Count of Tusculum, as John XIX. Pope 1024-1032
  • Alberich III. , * around 975, † 1032/1044, his brother, Count of Tusculum, Consul and Dux
  • Gregory II , * around 1000, † 1054, his son, Count of Tusculum
  • John, his son, Count of Tusculum
  • Theophylact III, † end of 1055, brother of Gregory II, Count of Tusculum, as Benedict IX. Pope from 1032-1048
  • Guido, his brother, Count of Tusculum
  • Johannes, † after 1073, his son, Count of Tusculum, Bishop of Velletri, as Benedict X. Antipope 1058-1059
  • Peter I * around 1000, brother Guidos, Count of Tusculum
  • Octavian, his brother, Count of Tusculum
  • Ptolemy I (Tolomeo I), † 1126, Count of Tusculum
  • Ptolemy II (Tolomeo II), † 1153, his son, Count of Tusculum, ⚭ 1117 Bertha, an illegitimate daughter of Emperor Heinrich V ( Salier )
  • Gionata, his son, Count of Tusculum

sons and daughters of the town


  • Luigi Canina : Descrizione dell'antico Tuscolo. Canina, Rome 1841 ( digitized version ).
  • Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri: Tusculum, Counts of , in: Lexikon des Mittelalters , Volume 8, 1997, pp. 1122-1124

Web links

Commons : Tusculum  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ For example , the villa built in 1899/1900 by the silk industrialist Johannes Meyer-Rusca in Winkel in Zurich (see Zurich Monument Preservation. 13th report 1991–1994, Kommunikation-Verlag, Zurich / Elgg 1998, ISBN 3-905647-86-9 , p. 387 [ online ]); furthermore a villa in Coswig , two in Dresden , one in Eisenach , one in Hamburg-Bergedorf , one in Kaaden , one in Müllrose , one in Stockholm- Skärholmen , one in Weimar , one on Würzburger Stein and a pavilion in Coburg and Gottlieb Daimlers Tower in Bad Cannstatt ; see also the “Villa Tusculum” category in the Wikimedia Commons.
  2. a b The name Tusculum and its meaning. Website of the Studentenwerk Dresden on the "Student House Tusculum"
  3. a b Tusculum . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 15, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 949.

Coordinates: 41 ° 48 '  N , 12 ° 43'  E