Weimar

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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Weimar
Weimar
Map of Germany, position of the city of Weimar highlighted

Coordinates: 50 ° 59 ′  N , 11 ° 20 ′  E

Basic data
State : Thuringia
Height : 208 m above sea level NHN
Area : 84.48 km 2
Residents: 65,228 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 772 inhabitants per km 2
Postcodes : 99423, 99425, 99427, 99428
Primaries : 03643, 036453Template: Infobox municipality in Germany / maintenance / area code contains text
License plate : WE
Community key : 16 0 55 000
City structure: 12 districts

City administration address :
Schwanseestraße 17
99423 Weimar
Website : www.weimar.de
Lord Mayor : Peter Kleine (independent)
Location of the city of Weimar in Thuringia
Weimar Eisenach Suhl Gera Jena Landkreis Altenburger Land Landkreis Greiz Tschechien Saale-Holzland-Kreis Freistaat Sachsen Freistaat Bayern Saale-Orla-Kreis Landkreis Sonneberg Niedersachsen Hessen Sachsen-Anhalt Landkreis Eichsfeld Landkreis Saalfeld-Rudolstadt Landkreis Hildburghausen Landkreis Schmalkalden-Meiningen Ilm-Kreis Landkreis Weimarer Land Erfurt Landkreis Gotha Wartburgkreis Landkreis Sömmerda Kyffhäuserkreis Unstrut-Hainich-Kreis Landkreis Nordhausenmap
About this picture

Weimar is an independent city in Thuringia in Germany , which is best known for its cultural heritage. The middle town is located on an arch of the Ilm, southeast of the Ettersberg , the highest mountain in the Thuringian Basin at 478 meters . The city is the fourth largest in Thuringia after Erfurt , Jena and Gera and is located about halfway between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east.

Weimar is a medium-sized center that partly fulfills the functions of a regional center and has been officially designated as a university town since 2004 . In addition to the Bauhaus University , the city is also home to the Liszt School of Music and the Duchess Anna Amalia Library . In addition, numerous authorities have their headquarters in Weimar, for example the Thuringian Higher Administrative Court , the Thuringian State Administrative Office , the Thuringian Constitutional Court and the Thuringian State Office for Monument Preservation and Archeology .

In addition to the traditions of the Weimar Classics around Wieland , Goethe , Herder and Schiller , the city's cultural heritage also includes the Bauhaus and the National Assembly of 1919 , from which the name of the Weimar Republic is derived, as well as a large number of other high-ranking cultural legacies from the 16th century. Century ( Lucas Cranach the Elder and the Younger ), 17th century (founding of the Fruit Bringing Society ), 18th century ( Johann Sebastian Bach ), 19th century ( Franz Liszt , Richard Strauss , Friedrich Nietzsche , the Landscape painter from the Weimar School of Painting at the Grand Ducal Saxon Art School Weimar ) and 20th century ( Harry Graf Kessler , Henry van de Velde ). The Bauhaus and its sites in Weimar (and Dessau ) were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996 and the “ classic Weimar ” in December 1998 . The last-mentioned decision was justified with the "great art-historical importance of public and private buildings and park landscapes from the heyday of classical Weimar." In addition, the Goethe and Schiller archive in Weimar was included in the UNESCO cultural memory of Goethe in 2001 Humanity recorded as World Document Heritage (Memory of the World). Since 2015, early writings of the Reformation have also been part of the world document heritage, some of which are kept in the Duchess Anna Amalia Library in Weimar. National and international cultural heritage is presented in over 25 museums and exhibition venues.

Weimar had been the capital and residence of the Duchy of Saxony and Saxony-Weimar from 1547/52 , later Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach (from 1815: Grand Duchy ). This was the first state in Germany to adopt a constitution (1816). From 1920 to 1952 Weimar was the capital of the state of Thuringia . In 1999 it was the European Capital of Culture .

geography

overview

The Ilm near Tiefurt
Weimar with the Ettersberg
Karst landscape near Belvedere Palace (Weimar)
Travertine quarry in Weimar-Ehringsdorf
The ox eye, one of the Leutra springs in the Park on the Ilm

Weimar is about 200 meters above sea level in the middle of Thuringia. The landscape is determined by five regions. The Ilm runs through the city in an arc. It enters the urban area near Taubach in the southeast, flows on through Oberweimar and the old town, before leaving the urban area in a northeastern direction below Tiefurts. To the west extends from the Ilm Valley to the Thuringian Basin as a second landscape component. It is a fertile, gently undulating loess landscape in which the districts of Gaberndorf , Tröbsdorf and Niedergrunstedt are located.

The northern urban area is occupied by the Ettersberg . At 481.6 meters, it is the highest mountain in the Thuringian Basin and stretches for around eight kilometers from Ottstedt am Berge in the west to Schöndorf in the east. The Ettersberg is made up of mixed beech and oak forests. On the side facing away from Weimar, there is the Buchenwald Memorial .

In the southern part of the city rises the Ilm-Saale-Platte , a mighty, dry-karstified shell limestone formation. It breaks off steeply towards the Ilm valley, which is clearly visible in some areas of the city, for example in Tiefurt Park. The red sandstone formation of the Tannrodaer saddle lies to the southwest outside the urban area . The district Süßenborn lies on it . The highest peaks here are the 380 meter high Rosenberg and the 363 meter high Gelmerodaer Höhe. The federal motorway 4 runs in this area . To the north of it lies the district of Gelmeroda and to the south the villages of Legefeld and Possendorf . The Belvederer Forst is the city's second forest area alongside the Ettersberg.

The extension of the urban area is about 13 kilometers in north-south direction and about nine kilometers in west-east direction. Neighboring cities are Erfurt about 20 kilometers to the west, Jena about 20 kilometers to the east and Apolda about 15 kilometers to the northeast. As a result, Weimar takes on a connection function on the Thuringian city chain between the two largest cities in Thuringia, Erfurt and Jena.

geology

Weimar is located in the center of the Thuringian Mulde, a sedimentary structure of the Zechstein and the Triassic . The near-surface geological subsurface of the city is characterized by the rocks of the shell limestone and the Keuper . Several faults in the urban area, such as the Weimar Fault and the Oberweimar Fault, which run in a northeast-southwest direction, and ridges created by folding complicate the geological structure. The Ilm has been flowing along the Ilmgraben, the depression created by the faults, since the Middle Pleistocene , and provided alluvial gravel there. Pleistocene and Holocene travertine and loess form cover layers, while solifluction tongues formed in the northwest direction during the Pleistocene glaciation . The Weimar urban area is rich in karst forms in the area of ​​the shell limestone. As a result of the leaching of gypsum in the Middle Muschelkalk under the limestone of the Upper Muschelkalk, after the collapse of caves on the surface, bowl- to funnel-shaped karst depressions and sinkholes formed. Numerous examples can be found on the Ettersberg, southwest of Belvedere and south of Possendorf. In the Quaternary, during the Elster Glacial Age, the southernmost ice edge area demonstrably extended to around Belvedere Palace. A memorial with a metal plaque was erected there to commemorate the location of the southernmost edge of the ice. Other "ice curbs" are also in other representative locations, e.g. B. in the Gothaer Schlosspark. Up to this line erratic blocks and debris were found. Further north, only the Ettersberg remained ice-free. Due to the faults, numerous springs, some of which pour heavily, emerge at the edges of the Ilm Valley, such as the Leutra springs in the Ilmpark or the Herzquelle. The city was able to supply itself from these sources for many years.

Waters

Some of the smaller Ilm tributaries have been relocated several times since the Middle Ages, so that the original course can no longer be determined today. The Lottenbach coming from the Kirschbachtal in the (south) west was divided up within the urban area in order to supply various local businesses including the later demolished Bornmühle with service water. Like the Asbach, the Lotte runs underground in the old town today. The Wilde Graben, which only had water at times, was separated from the course of the Lotte and led through the former trench to protect the city center from flooding. The trench was also transformed into an underground canal in the 19th century.

climate

Due to its location, Weimar belongs to the vegetation zone of the deciduous deciduous forest in the humid climatic area . The local climate is influenced by the location "behind" the Ettersberg, which shields the city from the north and northwest. This makes the climate a bit warmer and drier than in other regions of Central Thuringia. The average precipitation is 574 mm / year (DWD).

Urban area

City structure
City center with Herder Church and City Palace

The oldest settlement center in Weimar is the area between Graben, Schillerstraße and the city palace with Herderplatz as the center. In the Middle Ages, the Jakobsviertel north of the moat up to Friedensstraße was included in the city fortifications. In the 18th century the city grew beyond its medieval borders and the city walls were torn down. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the city grew rapidly in different directions. Between the old town and the railway line, the north suburb was built around the main streets leading to Ettersburg and Buttelstedt , in the west between Schwanseestraße and Humboldtstraße the west suburb, in the south the south town between Berkaer Straße and Belvederer Allee . The Parkvorstadt was built in the east along Jenaer Strasse. Due to the high proportion of civil servants and employees, there are mainly villas and town houses and relatively few tenements in these districts. Between the First and Second World War, the Ettersberg settlement was built five kilometers to the north. During the time of the GDR, there was hardly any population growth in Weimar. The prefabricated building areas Weimar-Nord on the Thuringian Railway , Weimar-West on the Berkaer Bahn and Schöndorf -Waldstadt north of the city on Ettersberg were created. The commercial space is concentrated in the area behind the train station and, to a lesser extent, in the west near Erfurter Straße. New building areas emerged after 1990, particularly in the newly added districts of Gaberndorf , Süßenborn and Legefeld . A few new industrial areas were created in the vicinity .

Weimar is divided into ten statistical districts in the core city and eleven incorporated districts. They are detailed in the list of districts of Weimar .

The neighboring communities of Weimar are all in the Weimarer Land district . They are named clockwise, starting in the northwest: Am Ettersberg , Ettersburg , Ilmtal-Weinstrasse , Umpferstedt , Mellingen , Vollersroda , Buchfart , Hetschburg , Bad Berka and Grammetal .

history

introduction

Weimar is rich in history, for better and for worse. A major German exhibition at the British Museum in London in 2014 summarized this in the “Goethe, Bauhaus, Buchenwald complex”.

prehistory

In Ehringsdorf , a district in the southeast of Weimar, the skeleton of the Ehringsdorf prehistoric man was found in 1925 , the age of which is estimated to be around 200,000 to 250,000 years. These are the fossil remains of a 20 to 30 year old woman. Human skull bones were discovered in the same quarry as early as 1908.

In a peat cut near Possendorf in 1850 a large, badly worn copper kettle was found about 6 m deep, which had been repaired several times. Seven vessels were arranged around it. There was also an anthropomorphic wooden figure with tucked-in arms. Nearby was a large oak tree with a human skeleton. The cauldron was built between the 4th and 1st centuries BC. The only surviving clay vessel is dated from the 2nd to the 1st century at the turn of the century. Longer use of the space cannot be determined. It could be a ritual burial of cult implements.

middle Ages

The oldest records about Weimar go back to the year 899. The name goes back to the Old High German or Old Saxon words wīh for "sanctuary, temple" and mer, meri for "lake, sea" and originally meant "sanctuary lake". Early traditional forms are “actum Wimares” ([9th century] 1150/65), “in Wimeri” ([984] 1012/18), “de Wimari” (1123/37), “Wymar” (1506) and finally “Weimar” (1556).

Between 946 and 1346 the Grafschaft Weimar (later as Grafschaft Weimar-Orlamünde ) existed as an independent political unit. Emperor Otto II mentioned the Weimar Castle settlement on a document issued on June 3, 975 for the Fulda Abbey ; this is regarded as the “birth certificate of the city”, although it is not entirely certain whether “Wimares” really means today's city. It could also have been the place Wechmar, which fits in much better with Otto's supposed travel route. What is certain, however, is that although the castle was by no means a stone rampart, but only a palisade, it must have been relatively safe. Both the troops of King Otto III. who besieged Count Wilhelm II from the noble family Weimar in his castle in 984 , as well as in 1002 the Ekkehardines fighting for supremacy in Thuringia had to abandon the siege unsuccessfully. It was destroyed in the winter of 1173/74 by the Landgrave Ludwig III. from the house of the Ludowingers , who in the meantime had risen to become territorial power in Thuringia. However, it was quickly rebuilt, because in 1214 another siege took place, this time expressly called castrum Wimar .

In the year 1250 there is talk of a settlement for the first time, which must have formed earlier under the protection of the castle. The later town church was built between 1245 and 1249 and was consecrated to the apostle Peter in 1254 at the latest and to both apostles Peter and Paul by 1433 . The patronage of the town church was handed over to the Teutonic Knights Order on September 16, 1284 , which provided the clergy until the Reformation. The order, which was subordinate to the Diocese of Mainz, had extensive property around the city church and in Rittergasse, which the city acquired in 1525. Since 1307 at the latest, the knightly order was entrusted with the school system, with nursing from 1383 in a hospital on the site of today's Marstall.

After the Ludowingers died out in 1247, the Counts of Weimar-Orlamünde found it difficult to hold out against the Wettins , who had taken over most of Thuringia after the Thuringian-Hessian War of Succession . First they sold Orlamünde to the House of Wettin and finally, after the defeat in the Thuringian Count's War in 1365, they also had to cede Weimar as a fiefdom to the Wettins. Since the division of Leipzig it was in the hands of the Ernestine line of the Wettins and from 1547, after the Wittenberg surrender and the associated loss of the previous capital Wittenberg , its headquarters.

City map Weimar by Johannes Wolf, 1569

It was not until 1410 that Weimar was granted city rights and thus a legal status comparable to that of the other Wettin cities. However, already from around 1350 under the Counts of Orlamünde and from around 1406 under Friedrich the Friedfertigen of Thuringia until the foundation of a Thuringian state mint in Weimar after 1444, the city had a municipal mint. The upswing that followed the award of town charter was soon destroyed by a devastating town fire in 1424. The Wettins tried to promote the reconstruction through repeated tax waivers, interest exemptions and the granting of additional market rights. As the most important measure, the previously existing insignificant fortifications of the castle complex were extended to the entire city. A double city wall was created in the form of a double ring at a distance of eight to ten meters with ten towers and four additionally fortified gate systems. Remnants of these city fortifications are still there today, including the cash tower on Goetheplatz.

Modern times

Weimar around 1650

In 1552 Duke Johann Friedrich the Magnanimous made Weimar the capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar (later Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach ). It remained the capital and residence of this state until 1918.

From 1561 to 1681 there were also witch hunts in Weimar . Six people were charged in witch trials . In 1628 the events surrounding Duke Johann Friedrich von Sachsen-Weimar , who confessed a pact with the devil and was found dead in his cell a day later, became particularly well known . Two women were beheaded and burned in 1669 and 1676.

On October 4, 1653, the Weimar onion market took place for the first time , originally a market for fruit and field crops, which has now turned into a national festival with a national appeal.

"Golden age"

City map of Weimar by Franz Ludwig Güssefeld, 1784

The city played an important role as a place of Weimar Classicism during the reign of Duchess Anna Amalia and under her son Duke Carl August at the end of the 18th / beginning of the 19th century through the presence of Wieland, Goethe, Herder, Schiller and Falk as well as others Personalities of the era. On the one hand, Carl August was prepared to employ artists at his court, on the other hand, he also gave them the freedom to realize what they themselves believed in. Duke Carl August was considered tolerant and enlightened; in 1816 he was also the first monarch in Germany to give his state a constitution . The Wartburg Festival of German students of 1817 took place on its territory.

The Falkenburg pleasure palace, built in 1732, was destroyed in the Seven Years' War in 1756.

"Silver Age"

City map of Weimar (1894)

Under the Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna and her son Carl Alexander and his wife Grand Duchess Sophie , the city experienced a new boom on an artistic and cultural level. In 1842 Franz Liszt was appointed Kapellmeister; In 1849 Richard Wagner fled to his sponsor and later father-in-law in Weimar before he left for Switzerland; Liszt had the world premiere of Wagner's Lohengrin in Weimar in 1850 .

But not only the music was promoted; In 1860 Carl Alexander founded the Grand Ducal Saxon Art School in Weimar , where Arnold Böcklin , Franz Lenbach and Reinhold Begas taught. The realistic art movement they shaped went down in art history as the Weimar School of Painting . The memory of the Weimar Classic was another concern of Carl Alexander and his wife: The monuments of Goethe, Schiller, Herder and Wieland that were erected on his behalf still adorn the cityscape today. 1859/60 was reading Museum (now Nike temple ) to Maria Pavlovna cost Founded in 1831 Lesegesellschaft built, whose aim was to enable their members and the general public access to magazines.

In the "Silver Age", the workers 'movement took off, for example in the cultural field with the establishment of the Friendship Choir Association in 1885, which was led to cultural prosperity by the court choir singer and choir conductor Emil Steiniger since 1907 and led to the establishment of various follow-up workers' choirs in the surrounding area. At the inauguration of the first Thuringian trade union building, the “Volkshaus”, with a speech by Reichstag member August Baudert on April 26, 1908, the Friendship Singers Association also sang.

New Weimar

Carl Alexander's grandson Wilhelm Ernst also undertook a. a. the promotion of the fine arts; under his reign, Weimar became a center of modernity. In 1910 he raised the Grand Ducal Saxon Art School in Weimar, founded by his father, to the rank of university. In 1905 he founded the Weimar School of Sculpture under the direction of Adolf Brütt . In 1907, the foundation followed Grand Ducal Saxon School of Applied Arts in Weimar at the initiative of the Belgian architect Henry van de Velde , who had already 1905/06 establish the necessary arts and crafts school construction as well as for planning the opposite 1904-1911 Jugendstil building benefited the art school Weimar responsible . In 1903 van de Velde designed the interior for the Nietzsche archive in the Villa Silberblick in Weimar and built the Hohe Pappeln house in Belvederer Allee for himself and his family from 1907 to 1908 .

In 1846 Weimar was connected to the railroad ( Halle –Erfurt route ). Another important railway line was the Weimar-Geraer Bahn , which opened in 1876, to Jena and Gera . In 1887 the Weimar-Rastenberger Railway followed to Buttstädt (closed since 1946) and the Ilm Valley Railway to Bad Berka . Nevertheless, weimar did not experience the great industrial boom that occurred in other cities in Thuringia after the rail connection. Weimar remained an administrative and residential city. On November 9, 1918, after negotiations with August Baudert , Wilhelm Ernst renounced the throne of the Grand Duchy for himself and his descendants and moved with his family to Heinrichau (today: Henryków).

Weimar Republic

Memorial plaque for the Weimar National Assembly at the Great House of the German National Theater

In 1919 the constituent assembly of the National Assembly took place in the German National Theater in Weimar, which was constituted after the abolition of the monarchy in Germany and the proclamation of the republic. Because of the location, parliamentary Germany, as it existed from 1919 to 1933, was called the Weimar Republic. Weimar also became the capital of the newly founded state of Thuringia on May 1, 1920 . 1919 the Bauhaus by the union was in Weimar art school in Weimar with the 1907 Henry van de Velde founded Saxon Großherzoglich Kunstgewerbeschule Weimar founded.

During the Kapp putsch of reactionary military against the constitutional order, hundreds of Weimar workers took part in a general strike in defense of the democratic republic. When they gathered for a rally in the Volkshaus on March 15, 1920 , coup soldiers from the Reichswehr shot them and killed nine demonstrators. After the putsch was suppressed, the director of the Bauhaus, Walter Gropius, erected a memorial on behalf of the local trade union cartel in honor of the dead, who have since been called the “ March fallen ” in memory of that day in March - based on the victims of the revolution from 1848 from the same month. The monument, popularly known as "The Lightning", was inaugurated on May 1, 1922.

In the run-up to the National Socialist era , the cultural workers in Weimar fought real “publication battles”. In particular, the disputes between the free-spirited group around Harry Graf Kessler (from which the Bauhaus emerged) and the völkisch-nationalist group around Adolf Bartels (which prepared the spiritual path to Adolf Hitler's power ) kept the city in constant polarity. This also led to the move of the Bauhaus from Weimar to Dessau in 1925 .

Bauhaus Museum (during the construction phase)
81 years later: In Weimar in 2013, the original campaign advertisement “Vote Thälmann ” for the KPD candidate for the 1932 presidential election can still be read

Politically, Weimar developed into a center of conservative and nationalist currents between the wars. In 1926 the NSDAP held its second party congress after its re-establishment from July 3rd to 4th, 1926 in Weimar. At this party congress on July 4, 1926, the Hitler Youth was officially founded. For the National Socialists, Weimar was of double symbolic importance: as the place where the hated republic was founded and as the center of the great German cultural tradition. Hitler himself visited Weimar over 40 times. In 1939, half of all those in work in the city were civil servants in the administration. The city also enjoyed great popularity as a retirement home between the world wars.

Despite weak industry, the population grew rapidly, from around 37,000 in 1914 to around 50,000 in 1928. Tourism also developed well. Nevertheless, the dominant middle class was hit by the economic crisis of 1923/24. The loss of assets due to inflation and the labor unrest increased the distance between the middle class and the Weimar Republic. The world economic crisis in 1929 caused a significant decline in tourism in a tense situation.

Against this background, a national-conservative milieu developed from which the DVP and the DNVP in particular benefited. This development was supported by currents within the Protestant Church . Weimar was a stronghold of German Christians during the Nazi era .

The Nazi party rallies were not only held in the famous Nuremberg. At the first party congress of the newly founded NSDAP in Weimar in July 1926, at a special conference for youth issues in the club's "Armbrust", today's cinema at Schützengasse 14, the "Greater German Youth Movement" (GDJB) in "Hitler Youth, Federation of German Workers Youth" renamed. To commemorate this event, a commemorative plaque was attached to the outer facade of the “crossbow”. However, this was removed again after the Second World War in 1945.

As early as March 1930, Wilhelm Frick, Minister of the Interior and Education for the People, was the first Nazi minister to appear in a state government, which in Weimar led to an infiltration of the police with National Socialists . The NSDAP increasingly established itself in Weimar and finally ran for the city council elections in 1932 together with the DNVP and DVP. In the Reich presidential elections in March and April 1932, the NSDAP candidate Hitler received 34.5% and 42.8% of all votes in Weimar, while the KPD candidate Ernst Thälmann still got 10.5% and seven percent respectively. In August 1932 the NSDAP took over the government in Thuringia under the NSDAP Gauleiter Fritz Sauckel, who resided in Weimar .

Period of National Socialism and World War II

VdN grove of honor for surviving victims of fascism

As everywhere in the Reich, the persecution of political and humanist opponents began with the handover of the Chancellorship to Adolf Hitler . On April 1, 1933, Jewish shops and establishments were boycotted. On June 21, 1933, a book burning took place in today's Niedergrunstedt district at the solstice celebration of the German National Handlers Association in imitation of the " Action against the un-German spirit " . Many opponents of the Nazis were sentenced to prison and hard labor, and in the first concentration camp Nohra and Bad Sulza and later in the Buchenwald concentration camp spent. Nonetheless, communist and social democratic resistance groups were formed to carry out reconnaissance and sabotage work. Clergymen and other supporters of the Confessing Church also opposed measures by the Nazi regime.

In Weimar, death sentences were also carried out against enemies of the National Socialists or those executed by the People's Court in the Brandenburg prison. After the November pogrom of 1938, numerous Jewish people from Weimar left the city to emigrate. From 1942 onwards, the Jews who remained in the city were deported to the eastern extermination camps by Reichsbahn transport . The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the Victims of the National Socialist Persecution of Jews in Germany (1933–1945) lists 62 Jewish residents of Weimar who were deported and mostly murdered .

Prisoners were cruelly tortured and killed in the Gestapo headquarters . When the SS and Gestapo withdrew in April 1945, 149 prisoners, including seven women, were murdered in the Webicht . After the war, a memorial stone was erected there for the victims. Forced sterilizations were carried out in the city's hospitals and the disabled were transferred to “euthanasia” institutions. Hundreds of forced laborers and prisoners of war were killed and buried in the main cemetery. At the place where 114 unknown prisoners of the Buchenwald concentration camp are buried in a communal grave, there is today an "honorary grove for the victims of fascism ", inaugurated on September 12, 1948 , on which surviving resistance fighters received an honorary grave or a memorial plaque.

As the district capital of the " Schutz- und Trutzgau Thuringia ", the Nazi Gau leadership experienced a military upgrade with the establishment of Wehrmacht barracks on the Lützendorfer Flur. One of their prominent literary recruits was the poet Wolfgang Borchert , who was encouraged here in the anti-militarist impetus of his works.

Due to the cultural importance of Weimar, the city received special attention from Hitler. A far-reaching redesign of the city was planned by the architect Hermann Giesler and implemented in parts. The Gauleiter of Thuringia, Fritz Sauckel , had part of the Asbachgrünzug district and the viaduct demolished to build a Gauforum . Important buildings of this time were:

  • Hotel Elephant
  • NS-Pressehaus, 1934/1935, today “Thüringische Landeszeitung” / editorial office
  • State Office for Racial Affairs, 1934/1935, today Bauhaus University Weimar
  • House of the Reich Medical Association , 1935, today Bauhaus University Weimar
  • Gauforum Weimar with
    • House of Organizations of the NSDAP, from 1936, today House 3 of the Thuringian State Administration Office (TLVwA)
    • Hall of the Volksgemeinschaft, from 1937, today the Weimar Atrium shopping center
    • Building of the German Labor Front , 1937, today House 2 of the TLVwA
    • Building of the Reich Governor and the Gauleitung, from 1938, today House 1 of the TLVwA
  • District building of the NSDAP, 1936/1937, today Weimar City Administration
  • Emmy Göring -Stift, 1936/1937, today Marie-Seebach-Stift / extension
  • Nietzsche Memorial Hall, from 1937, vacant today
  • Cattle auction hall, 1937, completely burned down on April 22, 2015
  • Villa Sauckel - official residence of the "Reichsstatthalters" Fritz Sauckel, 1937/1938, today the education center of the Federal Employment Agency
  • Guest house of the city of Weimar, 1939/1940, today student union / boarding school
  • Replacement residential buildings on X-Straße, 1937/1939, today Ferdinand-Freiligrath-Straße
  • Administrative building of military district IV, around 1934/1935, today Weimar Administrative Court
  • Nazi residential development in the Windmühlenstraße area, 1930s

The construction of the Buchenwald concentration camp on the Ettersberg began in the summer of 1937 . Of the approximately 250,000 prisoners there, more than 56,000 had been murdered by 1945. On April 11, 1945, the US troops reached the vicinity of the camp. The increasing noise of battle and the triggering of enemy alarms led to the escape of most of the guards. In this situation the International Military Command (IMK) was able to give the order to overpower the remaining guards. Although the US troops received a radio call for help from the camp on April 8, the prisoners were only able to disarm the remaining SS men after the US army had arrived in the Weimar region. The US Sergeant Paul Bodot reported to the staff of III. US Army on April 11th that the camp was in the hands of a well-organized prison committee.

In bombing raids - almost exclusively by the USAAF - on Weimar on February 9 and 27 and on March 10, 1945, the inner city was badly affected. 965 tons of bombs were dropped. On February 9, 1945 alone, around 460 people lost their lives in a daytime attack by 198  B-17 bombers (“flying fortresses”) from a height of around 6,000 meters. Among them were 80 out of 90 children from the NSV kindergarten (now the “Hufeland” day care center). A total of 1254 residents and 600 Buchenwald prisoners died in the air raids. 325 buildings were destroyed and another 210 badly damaged. These included the Herder Church, the Yellow Castle , Jägerhaus, Armory, Wittumspalais, Tempelherrenhaus in Goethepark, Scenery House on Theaterplatz, State Museum, National Theater, Court Pharmacy, Town House, Prince's Cellar and Inn for the Hereditary Prince. The following were also affected: Goethe House, Vulpius Houses, Schiller House, Residenzschloss, Goethe's Garden House, Kirms-Krakow House, Sächsischer Hof and Teutonic Knights House. Most of these culturally valuable buildings were rebuilt, quite a few - despite the general shortage - shortly after the war.

In the last months of the war, Weimar and the surrounding area also suffered heavily from low-flying attacks . Particularly tragic was the death of 117 Allied prisoners of war , who were killed on February 27, 1945 on the autobahn west of Weimar by gunfire from American fighter-bombers.

Monuments - such as the Goethe-Schiller monument in front of the theater - had been “enclosed” because of the threatened air raids. Movable cultural assets were relocated outside. Museum holdings were taken to Schwarzburg Castle , the Wachsenburg Castle near Arnstadt, the Dornburg castles and the State Carving School in Empfertshausen / Rhön. There, however, valuable objects were stolen during the American and especially the Soviet occupation, especially many paintings.

At the end of the Second World War, Lieutenant Colonel Josef Ritter von Gadolla , an Austrian, decided not to obey the order for the absolute defense of Weimar and, as combat commander, prevented the destruction of Weimar. This act cost him his life, as he was arrested by Wehrmacht soldiers on the way to the advancing Americans, and one day after Gotha's surrender on April 5, 1945 in the Weimar Mackensen barracks because of the "abandonment of the Gotha fixed place" to death was convicted and shot dead. Gadolla thus became a victim of Nazi military justice, the verdict was overturned in 1997 and he was thus rehabilitated.

Weimar during the US occupation, in the Soviet occupation zone and GDR

View over the roofs of Weimar to the city church St. Peter and Paul (Herderkirche), in the background the Jakobskirchturm (photo from approx. 1963)

After the 3rd US Army had reached Buchenwald concentration camp, which was in the hands of the International Buchenwald Camp Committee, on April 11, 1945 and an American city command had been set up in Weimar, the latter ordered a mandatory visit of one thousand residents to the liberated camp to meet them to show the horror of the concentration camp. At the beginning of July, the US troops withdrew from Thuringia, and the Soviet occupation began in Weimar as well .

Weimar became a major location for Soviet troops with the command of the 8th Guards Army in nearby Nohra . They occupied the former Wehrmacht barracks .

In 1945 the Wednesday association “Schlüssel” zu Weimar , which had existed since 1847, was dissolved. On August 12, 1945, the special camp No. 2 Buchenwald was put into operation by the Soviet secret police NKVD on the grounds of the Buchenwald concentration camp . By the time the special camp was closed in February 1950, around 7,000 of the 28,000 prisoners died there.

After the Second World War, Weimar initially remained the state capital of Thuringia, which was enlarged in 1945 to include the Prussian areas around Erfurt . After the legal dissolution of the State of Prussia on February 25, 1947 with the Allied Control Council Act No. 46 , Erfurt was declared the capital of Thuringia on July 7, 1948. With the formation of the districts in the GDR in 1952, the state of Thuringia, as well as the other countries of the Soviet Zone, lost its function. Weimar was now an urban district in the Erfurt district .

On June 17, 1953 and June 18, 3,000 employees went on strike at the VEB combine harvester plant in Weimar. They called for a lowering of labor standards and the resignation of the SED government. A move to demonstrations in the city was prevented on both days by guards of the People's Police armed with rifles and by a platoon of the Soviet Army with two heavy machine guns at the factory gate. On June 18, the Soviet city commander declared a state of emergency in the city and in the district. Strong forces of the Soviet Army were stationed at all public buildings and "important objects". The main unsuccessful demand of the strikers on June 18 was the release of the 17 representatives they had elected the day before and arrested that night ("ringleaders"). The employee Max Zimmermann (1902–1977), who headed the strike committee, was later sentenced to 6 years in prison. On June 18, 1953, the 26-year-old car mechanic Alfred Diener from Jena was shot dead by the Soviet Army in Weimar. There were still isolated opposition movements in Weimar. On June 29, 1955, Gerhard Benkowitz , Russian teacher and deputy headmaster of the Pestalozzi School in Weimar, and Hans-Dietrich Kogel, clerk for planning and statistics at the city administration of Weimar, were executed with the guillotine in Dresden after a show trial in Berlin. You were u. a. Contacts with the combat group against inhumanity (West Berlin) were charged.

In the GDR, Weimar was a well-groomed “gem” that could also be shown abroad, at least in terms of its main tourist attractions. During the entire time of the GDR, the mayor did not belong to the SED (but always his deputy), but to the CDU . One of them was Luitpold Steidle , who was able to enforce an Albert Schweitzer monument, the only one in the GDR. During this time, new districts of Weimar were built using prefabricated panels with thousands of apartments on the outskirts: Weimar-Nord from 1962, Weimar-West from 1978 and Schöndorf -Waldstadt from 1986 .

In and near Weimar there was one of the largest garrisons of the Soviet armed forces in Thuringia until the withdrawal in the early 1990s due to the two-plus-four treaty . The attack helicopters stationed in neighboring Nohra were particularly annoying for the population .

Weimar also played a role in the Peaceful Revolution in the GDR in 1989/90. As early as the 1980s, various non-conformist groups had emerged here, which acted independently of state structures - and in some cases also outside the Protestant parish - and developed oppositional traits. In the spring of 1989 the fraudulent GDR local elections on May 7, 1989 sparked outrage and protests - Pastor Erich Kranz was one of the first in Weimar to question the results and to seek discussion with those responsible. It was also Erich Kranz who a few months later invited an open discussion in the Jakobskirche with the biblical phrase “Seek the city's best” on October 4, 1989 - because the crowd was very large, one gave way to the larger one and then also overcrowded City Church of St. Peter and Paul . Beginning on October 24, 1989 and starting from the Platz der Demokratie, large-scale demonstrations took place on Tuesdays, and on October 31 the number of participants was estimated at 15,000. The demonstration marches led to state offices, including and especially to the district office of the Ministry of State Security . The demonstrations were led by Pastor Christoph Victor, Deacon H. J. Olbrecht and activists of the New Forum . Initially, democracy in the GDR and the opening of the Stasi archives were called for, and later the reunification of Germany.

Since German reunification

Theater cube in the Ilmpark, venue in the City of Culture year 1999
World Heritage emblem, also in Weimar since 1996
Burnt roof of the Duchess Anna Amalia Library
Anna Amalia Library 2015

On November 5, 1993, the EU culture ministers decided to appoint Weimar as the European Capital of Culture for 1999 . This was a particular challenge because the city of Weimar was practically bankrupt in 1995 and Horst Krautter, an external controller, was employed in Weimar as the first German municipality . Krautter, who came from Württemberg, was employed by the state municipal supervisory authority together with the former city treasurer Egbert Geier to rehabilitate the city's finances. Otherwise Weimar would have threatened the appointment of a state commissioner .

Weimar's special cultural and historical significance over various epochs has already been recognized several times by UNESCO . In 1996 the entry Bauhaus and its sites in Weimar and Dessau was added to the World Heritage List , with Weimar being represented with three objects: the former Weimar School of Applied Arts , the current main building of the Bauhaus University Weimar and the Haus Am Horn . Another entry followed in 1998, declaring the Ensemble Klassisches Weimar, made up of a total of eleven different monuments in the city, to be a UNESCO World Heritage Site . In 1999, the Friedrich Nietzsche College of the Weimar Classic Foundation created a place for free discussion of philosophy, science and culture. In 2001 the literary estate of Goethe from the Goethe and Schiller Archives was included in the World Document Heritage (Memory of the World).

The city of Weimar has been known as the University City since May 1st, 2004 . The Bauhaus University Weimar was expanded from a college to a university in 1996.

In 2004 and 2008, the city received a gold medal in the national competition Our city is blossoming .

On the evening of September 2, 2004, a fire in the Duchess Anna Amalia Library destroyed 50,000 books. There were considerable losses of works from the 16th to 20th centuries. Immediately afterwards, work began to rebuild the library and to reconstruct damaged but not completely burned works. The reopening took place on October 24, 2007 in the presence of Federal President Horst Köhler .

Since May 7, 2008, 15 stumbling blocks laid by the Cologne action artist Gunter Demnig in front of their last homes have been remembering the fate of Jewish residents of Weimar who were persecuted by the Nazis and victims of the Shoah .

On September 23, 2008, the city received the title “ Place of Diversity ” awarded by the federal government .

Population development

Population development in Weimar from 1779 to 2016
Population development (as of the end of 2017) and forecasts
City administration in Schwanseestrasse

In 1955 the population of the city of Weimar reached its historic high of almost 67,000. The population has remained relatively stable since the late 1930s and has fluctuated between 60,000 and 67,000 all the time - despite high unemployment and the decline in the birth rate since the fall of the Wall in the GDR in 1989. The incorporation of today's districts Gaberndorf, Gelmeroda, Legefeld, Niedergrunstedt, Possendorf, Süßenborn, Taubach and Tröbsdorf in 1994 was decisive for the population development of Weimar after the fall of the Wall. In recent years, Weimar has seen the highest population growth in a Thuringian municipality. In addition to an almost balanced birth balance, this is primarily due to a positive migration balance (2008: +266; 2007: +317; 2006: −29; 2005: +175; 2004: +160). In the years 2001 to 2003, the migration gains were particularly high, as a second home tax was introduced beforehand , which mainly encouraged students to convert their second home into a first home.

The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Up to 1833 these are estimates, then census results (¹) or official updates by the respective statistical offices or the city administration itself. From 1843 onwards, the information relates to the "local population", from 1925 to the resident population and since 1966 to the " Population at the place of the main residence ”. Before 1843, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey methods.

year Residents
1779 6,041
1818 8,000
December 1, 1834 ¹ 10,638
December 1, 1850¹ 12,798
December 3, 1861 ¹ 13,887
December 3, 1864¹ 14,300
December 3, 1867 ¹ 14,800
December 1, 1871 ¹ 16,000
December 1, 1875 ¹ 17,500
December 1, 1880¹ 19,944
December 1, 1885 ¹ 21,565
December 1, 1890¹ 24,546
December 2, 1895 ¹ 26,700
December 1, 1900 ¹ 28,479
December 1, 1905 ¹ 31,117
December 1, 1910¹ 34,582
year Residents
December 1, 1916 ¹ 32,733
December 5, 1917 ¹ 32,717
October 8, 1919 ¹ 37,200
June 16, 1925 ¹ 45,957
June 16, 1933 ¹ 49,327
May 17, 1939 ¹ 65,916
December 1, 1945 ¹ 62,768
October 29, 1946 ¹ 66,659
August 31, 1950 ¹ 64,452
December 31, 1955 66,675
December 31, 1960 63.996
December 31, 1964 ¹ 63,943
January 1, 1971 ¹ 63,634
December 31, 1975 63.004
December 31, 1981 ¹ 63,725
December 31, 1985 63,373
year Residents
December 31, 1988 63,412
December 31, 1990 60,326
December 31, 1995 62.122
December 31, 2000 62,425
December 31, 2005 64,594
December 31, 2010 65,479
December 31, 2011 65,542
December 31, 2012 63,236
December 31 2013 63,315
December 31, 2014 63,477
December 31, 2015 64.131
December 31, 2016 64,355
December 31, 2017 64,426
December 31, 2018 65,090
December 31, 2019 65,228

¹ census result

politics

Election of the Weimar City Council in 2019
Turnout: 61.5% (2014: 49.6%)
 %
20th
10
0
18.5%
17.9%
17.5%
16.2%
13.2%
11.0%
3.6%
2.0%
n. k.
Gains and losses
compared to 2014
 % p
 12
 10
   8th
   6th
   4th
   2
   0
  -2
  -4
  -6
  -8th
+ 3.0  % p
+ 3.5  % p
-6.1  % p
-3.2  % p
-4.9  % p
+ 11.0  % p
+ 0.4  % p
-0.9  % p
-2.8  % p
Template: election chart / maintenance / notes
Remarks:
b weimarwerk bürgerbündnis eV

City council

Since the local elections on May 26, 2019 , the city council has been composed as follows:

Political party Seats
Distribution of seats in the
Weimar City Council in 2019
        
A total of 42 seats
GREEN 8 (+1)
WW 1 7 (+1)
CDU 7 (−3)
LEFT 7 (−1)
SPD 6 (−2)
+1 (OB)
AfD 5 (+5)
FDP 1 (± 0)
PIRATES 1 (± 0)
NPD 0 (−1)
1 weimarwerk bürgerbündnis eV

Lord Mayor

List of Mayors and Lord Mayors (since 1793)

The years after the names indicate the years of office, whereby the year of office did not correspond to the calendar year.

The city has had a mayor since 1838.

Lord Mayor Peter Kleine

The Lord Mayor Peter Kleine was elected on April 15, 2018 and prevailed in the first ballot with 60.3 percent of the votes against three other applicants, including the incumbent incumbent Stefan Wolf , who has been in office since 2006 .

CDU, Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen and the Weimarwerk civic alliance formed a coalition in the city council from January 2015 to July 2017. Since then, there have been changing majorities in the city council.

coat of arms

Coat of arms of the city of Weimar
Blazon : "In a gold , with red heart -studded shield a red gezungter , rising black lion ."
Justification of the coat of arms: The lion in the heart-sprinkled shield is the coat of arms of the Counts of Orlamünde , the original blue tinging of which refers to the Danish Princess Sophia , the wife of Siegfried III. (1176–1206), and which was colored black after the county passed into Wettin ownership . In the period from 1938 to 1945, a new city coat of arms was used: an old red swastika made of four eagle heads in a gold frame , over which a gold, four-spoke wheel was placed. The current form of the coat of arms was introduced in 1975 as part of the 1000th anniversary celebration.

Town twinning

  • FinlandFinland Hämeenlinna , Finland, since September 6, 1970
  • GermanyGermany Trier , Germany, since May 24, 1987
  • ItalyItaly Siena , Italy, since April 15, 1994
  • FranceFrance Blois , France, since February 18, 1995
  • PolandPoland Zamość , Poland, since May 25, 2012

City friendships

tourism

Basic classification

“Congress center new weimarhalle” by gmp

Weimar is the most important destination for city ​​tourism in Thuringia due to its numerous classic sites, other museums, galleries and monuments as well as cultural sites (theaters, student and alternative culture) . Educational tourism is particularly important. The city is equipped with guided tours in the individual museums and numerous thematic city and costume tours. Furthermore, the memorial for the Buchenwald concentration camp and the special camp No. 2 Buchenwald are among the most frequented tourist destinations in Thuringia. Weimar is also a conference city. In addition to the new weimarhalle congress center, which opened in 1999, for conferences, meetings, trade fairs, concerts, exhibitions, etc., there are also other educational and conference locations. The accommodation offer is also adapted to the tourism functions, ranging from the hotel of the highest category to several youth hostels. Weimar alone has 28 hotels, including two five-star hotels.

Hiking, cycling

Weimar is located, among other things, on the 124-kilometer Ilmtal cycle path and is well integrated into the network of hiking trails in Thuringia . The Goethehaus in Weimar, for example, is the starting point of the historic Goethe hiking trail to Großkochberg . Weimar is also a stop on Thüringer Klassikerstraße , which runs along federal highway 7 across the Free State. The Thuringian-Bavarian Beer and Castle Road along federal highway 85 between Bad Frankenhausen and Passau also leads through Weimar. The city can come up with rustic beers such as the 1533 Schwanenblond , which is served in Weimar's oldest restaurant, the White Swan .

Protected areas

There are three designated nature reserves in the city area (as of January 2017).

Cultural institutions and sights

National Theater

The German National Theater with the Staatskapelle Weimar is the most important theater company in Weimar. It is a double institution, consisting of the German National Theater and the Weimar Staatskapelle Orchestra .

Castles and palaces

Weimar City Palace with castle tower

Weimar has had a city ​​palace since the Middle Ages , which has been renovated several times. In contrast, the Wittumspalais , where Anna Amalia spent her last years, dates from the Weimar Classic period . Belvedere Palace and Park , located outside the city center, were originally the summer residence of the Weimar princes. Tiefurt Castle and Park were of particular importance as Anna Amalia's favorite residence and meeting point for her literary and musical circles. Even Palace and Park Ettersburg at that time had a similar function and today the Foundation of Weimar Classics .

Churches

The church Gelmeroda as light sculpture

The largest church in Weimar is the city ​​church of St. Peter and Paul , which was essentially built around 1500. It is also known as the Herder Church; this name goes back to the work of the theologian and philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder at the time of the Weimar Classic. The altarpiece was created by Lucas Cranach the Elder and the Younger .

The baroque Jakobskirche , the former court church, is the wedding church of Johann Wolfgang Goethe. The tombs of several famous personalities can be seen in her churchyard.

The Catholic Herz-Jesu-Kirche was built between 1889 and 1891 according to plans by the architect Max Meckel in the style of historicism . In its mixture of neo-Gothic and neo-renaissance , it is reminiscent of the model-giving cathedral of Florence .

The cruciform church was originally built in 1899 as the church of Saint Michael and All Angels for Weimar's then Anglican congregation in the Anglican late Gothic style. When the congregation dissolved in 1914 (since its mostly English members were considered to be Germany's opponents of the war and left the country), the church lost its task and stood empty. In 1927, Weimar's parish acquired the sacred building and rededicated it as a cruciform church in 1928. In 1962 it received bells from Apolda, and there has been a Schuke organ since 1989. It has recently been extensively renovated.

The Gelmeroda district has a village church that is known nationwide as Feininger Church and Autobahn Church .

More Attractions

Goethe's house on Frauenplan
Schiller's house on Schillerstrasse
Foundation walls of the Bach House , in which the composer Johann Sebastian Bach lived
Buchenwald Memorial
Weimar New Museum

Memorials

Art museums and galleries

Contemporary art is exhibited in the Neues Museum Weimar , an institution of the Weimar Classic Foundation, as well as in the Eigenheim gallery run by an association and in the Harry Graf Kessler art gallery. The Bauhaus Museum shows more than 200 exhibits from the Bauhaus art school founded in Weimar in 1919, including works by Walter Gropius and Johannes Itten . In 2015, a museum for Bauhaus architecture and design is to be built opposite the congress center Neue Weimarhalle, replacing the temporary space on Theaterplatz. The Berlin architect Heike Hanada emerged as the winner of an international competition.

History museums

The Thuringian State Office for Archaeological Monument Preservation maintains the Museum of Prehistory and Early History of Thuringia in Weimar .

The history of the city itself is presented in the city ​​museum , which is located in the Bertuchhaus . The exhibition begins with traces of the earliest settlement and focuses on the work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Friedrich Justin Bertuch in Weimar as well as the National Assembly in 1919 and the Weimar Republic.

The House of the Weimar Republic on Theaterplatz commemorates the adoption of the Weimar Constitution in 1919.

The Weimarhaus , a private "history and adventure museum", shows important historical events in the form of entertaining dioramas.

Archives

Libraries

Duchess Anna Amalia Library

Other museums

Cultural centers

Mon ami youth center at Goetheplatz
  • New Weimarhalle , built in 1999 as the successor to the Weimarhalle built in 1932 and demolished in 1997, "is one of the most beautiful event and congress venues in Europe" - on December 1, 2013, MDR television broadcast a detailed documentary about the house and its history
  • ACC Galerie Weimar - Autonomes CulturCentrum - with a gallery for contemporary art, events and a restaurant / café
  • C-Keller & Galerie, Markt 21 - Café, bar, art gallery, event location
  • E-Werk Weimar with tram depot
  • Gasworks - project workshop and event location
  • Gerber 1 and Gerber 3 - House for Socioculture
  • Mon Ami - youth and cultural center
  • Schützengasse Student Club - Student Club (closed)
  • Volkshaus (Weimar)

Movie theaters

Weimar has four film theaters, the Cinestar in Schützengasse, the independent Lichthaus Kino, the municipal cinema in the mon ami cultural center and the CineStar in the atrium on Friedensstrasse.

Regular events

Neptune in front of the Weimar town hall
  • Weimar Onion Market : Every year on the second weekend in October, the Weimar Onion Market takes place, the traditions of which go back to 1653. The onion market extends over the entire old town area and attracts up to 350,000 visitors annually. In addition to the sales stands, stages with music and performances provide entertainment.
  • Weimar rendezvous with history : Since 2009 the city of Weimar has been holding a history festival based on the model of the rendez-vous de l'histoire in the twin town of Blois . On a weekend in November, lectures, panel discussions, a film festival and other events will take place on a general topic. The members of the scientific advisory board and the participants in the events usually come from the countries of the Weimar Triangle .
  • “Weimar Master Classes” For more than 50 years, the FRANZ LISZT Weimar University of Music has been offering summer master classes. For this purpose, students worldwide are invited to take classes in public courses from internationally recognized musicians. The master classes have meanwhile developed into a music festival with numerous public concerts.
  • " Genius Loci Weimar " is a festival for site-specifically developed audio-visual art with a special focus on facade projections. The festival took place for the first time from August 10th to 12th, 2012. A production by the Istanbul artist collective NERDWORKING was presented on the facade of the Princely House in Weimar, today's main building of the "Franz Liszt" School of Music. The festival is supposed to be held annually.
  • Weimar Art Festival : The Weimar Art Festival takes place every year from the end of August to the beginning of September. The Weimar Art Festival is Thuringia's largest and internationally known festival for contemporary arts. From 2004 to 2013 Nike Wagner was artistic director of the Weimar Art Festival, which is largely financed by the Thuringian Ministry of Education, Science and Culture and the City of Weimar. The art festival has been organized by the German National Theater Weimar since 2014 . Christian Holtzhauer is the artistic director .
  • “Yiddish Summer Weimar” is an annual international course for klezmer music and at the same time a music festival of the Other Music Academy . The YSW is one of the most important Klezmer master classes worldwide. The founder and director of Yiddish Summer is the musicologist and musician Dr. Alan Bern. The Yiddish Summer gave rise to the project The Other Europeans , which deals with the connection between Lautari and Klezmer music, and in 2012 the documentary “The Broken Sound” by 1Meter60Film.
  • "Bach Biennale:" Festival for baroque music and historical performance practice. Since 2012, the Bach Biennale has been expanded to include a children's music festival, the only German baroque music festival for children.
  • For the Long Night of the Museums , the cultural institutions in Weimar and Weimarer Land are open until well after midnight every summer. Interested parties can visit museums, galleries, archives and churches, take guided tours and listen to concerts and lectures.
  • Cabaret Festival: Since 2004, a six-week cabaret festival has been held every year from May to June on Beethovenplatz in Weimar. In the "Köstritzer mirror tent" erected for this purpose on the meadow, artists from different countries present a program of music, theater and cabaret. The Audience Award Marlene was awarded for the first time in 2010 at the end of the festival. 35 artists were available in 40 performances. The trio Malediva had won .
  • Fête de la Musique : Every year on June 21, Weimar takes part in the international Fête de la Musique .
  • Classic open-air concert: At the beginning of July each year, the Weimarhallenpark is the venue for a classic open-air concert by the Staatskapelle Weimar . The theme of the event relates to the music of a particular nation (2007: “A Hungarian Night”, 2008: “A French Night”, 2009: “An American Night”). The musicians play on a floating stage on the pond, while the up to 3,000 spectators sit on the terraces and meadows of the illuminated park.
  • For Goethe's birthday on August 28th, the Klassik Stiftung Weimar organizes various activities and artistic interventions every year. A wine festival is held in front of Goethe's house.

Sports

societies

The city's best-known club is the SC 1903 Weimar football club , formerly Motor Weimar. During the GDR era, he mostly played in the GDR league (2nd division), briefly also in the Oberliga (1st division), and is currently in the Thuringian league . The home games are played in the football stadium Am Lindenberg , which is located on the arterial road towards Jena.

Weimar successes, with victories at the state, federal and GDR level or membership in the top division, there were in a surprising number of sports. One example of this is white water canoeing in KGC 66 Weimar, which Weimar athletes had dominated in the GDR for a time. Weimar also has teams or individual athletes at a good amateur level in hockey, tennis , volleyball, chess , boxing, fencing, judo, basketball, gymnastics, table tennis, lifeguarding and senior football .

Sports facilities

Between the center and Weimar West lies the largest concentration of sports facilities in the city, consisting of the Schwanseebad, Johannes swimming pool, Wimaria stadium, tennis grounds and three-field hall. There are also other facilities, such as the Falkenburg, a football hard court including a three-field hall, the boathouse as a canoeing center on the Ilm and the school sports halls open to clubs from the afternoon.

Economy and Infrastructure

In the Future Atlas 2016 , the independent city of Weimar was ranked 108th out of 402 districts, municipal associations and independent cities in Germany. It is one of the regions with “future opportunities” and takes second place within Thuringia.

Public facilities

The city is the seat of the local court of Weimar , which the district of the Regional Court Erfurt heard of . Courts complements the Weimar Administrative Court , the Thuringian Higher Administrative Court and the Thuringian Constitutional Court .

economy

The VEB Weimar plant in 1974

In 2016, Weimar achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 2.001 billion within the city limits . The GDP per capita in the same year was € 31,147 (Thuringia: € 27,674 / Germany € 38,180). In 2017 there were around 34,300 employed people in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 5.7% and thus slightly above the average for Thuringia of 5.2%.

In Weimar, 11.2 percent of employees work in the manufacturing industry and 87.7 percent in the service sector . 37.6 percent of this is attributable to gastronomy and retail. In Weimar in 2002 there were 3,344 beds in 37 hotels with a total of 435,677 overnight stays with an average length of stay of 1.9 days.

The largest industrial company is Bayer Weimar GmbH und Co. KG, a subsidiary of Bayer HealthCare , with around 500 employees. The site of the Weimar Waggonwerk, which was founded in 1898 and manufactured agricultural machinery as VEB Weimar-Werk during the GDR era , is now a site of the Hydrema Group, which manufactures construction machinery in Weimar.

A Coca-Cola bottling plant in Weimar, which emerged in 1991 from the soft drinks manufacturer VEB Limona Weimar, was closed in 2018.

During the GDR era, the VEB Uhrenwerk Weimar and the VEB Weimar-Werk existed in Weimar .

The Heerwagen organ building workshop was located in Weimar from 1896 to 1935 .

traffic

Rail and public transport

In Weimar, the Thuringian Railway , the Ilmbahn and the Holzlandbahn meet. The Weimar station is an important station in Thuringia in station category 3. Weimar is mainly connected to long-distance traffic via the Erfurt ICE stop, which can be reached in less than 15 minutes by train. Only a few IC and ICE trains stop in Weimar itself.

In local transport, Weimar can be reached every two hours on the regional express Göttingen- Erfurt-Weimar- Jena - Glauchau / Zwickau or Erfurt- Weimar-Jena- Gera / Altenburg , plus the regional train Eisenach-Erfurt-Weimar- Naumburg- Halle (Saale) and the regional train Weimar– Kranichfeld important connections.

In the city area there is next to the main train station Weimar , the small Berka train station and five stops : Oberweimar, Weimar West, Nohra (b Weimar), Holzdorf, Legefeld. Although not on the Weimar corridor, the Obergrunstedt station is also part of the Weimar tariff area.

The city economy Weimar GmbH operates a city bus . The central transfer station at Goetheplatz is served by all nine city bus routes. Other important transfer stops are located at the main train station, in Gropiusstraße and at Wielandplatz. In the surrounding region, i.e. in Weimarer Land , local public transport is operated by the Weimarer Land company.

The Weimar tram operated in the city between 1899 and 1937 . Their line network with 1000 millimeters gauge was shut down in favor of buses and trolleybuses , so that Weimar is the largest city in the new federal states without a tram network. The Weimar trolleybus operation existed from 1948 to 1993. On April 1, 2006, the uniform network tariff for Central Thuringia was introduced in the cities of Erfurt, Jena, Weimar, Apolda and in the northern district of Weimarer Land .

Flight operations

Airmail transport between Berlin and Weimar in February 1919

From February 1919 , the Deutsche Luft-Reederei flew a regular airmail service between Weimar and Berlin from the airfield at Lindenberg .

Since June 30, 2011, the Erfurt-Weimar airport near Erfurt has been offering holiday flight connections.

Motor traffic The Weimar junction of the A 4 is the connection to the city, the Apolda exits from the east and Nohra from the west complement this. The federal highways 7 (west-east direction from Erfurt to Jena) and 85 (north-south direction from Bad Frankenhausen to Rudolstadt ) cross in the city. The B 7 coming from Erfurt today connects in a west-north direction to a partly two-lane northern bypass. The continuation of the bypass road to the east in the direction of Jena is controversial, as the Tiefurt Park , which is part of the world cultural heritage , would be crossed.

Hiking trails and long -distance cycle paths Weimar is on the Ilm cycle path , the Thuringian chain of cities cycle path and the Laura cycle path . The Goethe hiking trail leads from Weimar to Großkochberg.

Media location

  • Seat of the Thuringian State Newspaper (TLZ). There is also a local edition of the Thüringer Allgemeine (Erfurt)
  • Headquarters of the Central German church newspaper Glaube + Heimat
  • The former Faculty of Media at the Bauhaus University Weimar is in the Faculty of Art and Design risen
  • Headquarters of the regional television channel Salve.TV
  • Headquarters of the local non-commercial radio broadcaster Radio Lotte
  • The Bauhaus.FM facility is located at the Chair for Experimental Radio at the Bauhaus University Weimar
  • Headquarters of the private radio stations Antenne Thüringen and Radio Top40
  • Location of a free, self-administered and non-commercial WLAN network - Weimar network based on Freifunk
  • Headquarters of the film producers Ostlicht Filmproduktionen GmbH, 1Meter60Film, Gruppe Weimar, Makido Film, Nivre Film & Studio GmbH

energy

In 2014 Weimar was named an “ energy municipality” because it excelled particularly positively in the area of ​​inter-municipal wind projects.

education

Friedrich-Schiller-Gymnasium 2009

schools

  • Grammar schools: “Friedrich Schiller” / “Johann Wolfgang v. Goethe ” / “ Humboldt ” / Belvedere Palace Music High School
  • Community school: State Community School Weimar / "Carl Zeiss"
  • Regular schools: "Weimar-Schöndorf" / "Parkschule" / "Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi"
  • Primary schools: "Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi" / "Louis Fürnberg" / "Johannes Falk" / "Albert Schweitzer" / "Park School" / "Lucas Cranach" / "Weimar-Schöndorf" / "Legefeld"
  • Vocational schools: SBBS for economics, administration and nutrition "Friedrich Justin Bertuch" / State Vocational Training Center Weimar - (competence center for health, social affairs and technology), during the GDR times a. a. the medical school " Walter Krämer "
  • Independent schools: Thuringia International School Weimar (ThIS) / Free Waldorf School Weimar / "Johannes Landenberger" School (special school for the mentally handicapped)
  • Other schools: Thüringenkolleg Weimar (2nd educational path) / "Ottmar Gerster" music school / Herderschule (state regional support center) / Weimar Adult Education Center

Universities / colleges

Libraries

Duchess Anna Amalia Library 1991
  • library
  • Environmental library of the Green League
  • Catholic Public Library
  • GDR bookstore Taubach

Literary Societies

Personalities

Others

The residents of Weimar are referred to as Weimarers , with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe referring to the residents of Weimar as Weimaraner . Today, the Weimaraner is a breed of dog that was bred here in the 19th century. Both Weimarer (then mostly in relation to the city) and Weimar / -r / -s (then mostly in relation to the state of Sachsen-Weimar / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach ) are used adjectivally or adverbially (e.g. Weimarer Mayor, Weimar State Council).

See also

literature

Web links

Commons : Weimar  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Weimar  - travel guide
Wikisource: Weimar  - Sources and full texts
Wiktionary: Weimar  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Population of the municipalities from the Thuringian State Office for Statistics  ( help on this ).
  2. See Classical Weimar. (No longer available online.) In: unesco.de. German UNESCO Commission V., archived from the original on June 4, 2016 ; accessed on December 31, 2018 .
  3. Hydrogeological map of Thuringia from the Thuringian State Institute for Environment and Geology (PDF; 4.37 MB) ( Even finer maps are available for each district .)
  4. Weimar. Lexicon on city history. P. 143 ff.
  5. Axel Stefek: Weimar underground - The Lottenbach and the trenches as historical city waters , from "Weimar - Jena: The big city" 4/4 (2011) pp. 241-261, Verlag Vopelius. In: www.VerlagVopelius.eu
  6. Gina Thomas: Interview with Neil MacGregor: Imagine you are German. faz.net, October 14, 2014, accessed October 14, 2014.
  7. Bemman / Hahne, p. 35, with further literature.
  8. ^ German book of place names. Edited by Manfred Niemeyer. De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2012, p. 677.
  9. Weimar. Lexicon on city history. P. 91.
  10. Weimar. Lexicon on city history. P. 293.
  11. See Rudolf Feustel (Ed.): Alt-Thüringen (= annual publication of the Museum for Pre- and Early History of Thuringia. Volume 15). Weimar 1978. Therein: Günther Röblitz: The stamp of the Weimar Mint (table p. 111). (PDF; 828 kB).
  12. Ronald Füssel: The witch persecutions in the Thuringian area (= publications of the working group for historical witchcraft and crime research in Northern Germany. Volume 2). DOBU, Wiss. Publication documentation and book, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-934632-03-3 , p. 247 f. (Zugl .: Marburg, Univ., Diss., 2000).
  13. ^ Wilhelm Möller: Places of execution and executions in the city of Weimar (= contributions to the history of the city of Weimar. Issue 21). Bimaria Verlag, Weimar, p. 21.
  14. Weimar. Lexicon on city history. P. 73
  15. Weimar. Lexicon on city history. P. 477 f.
  16. Weimar. Lexicon on city history. P. 276.
  17. Weimar. Lexicon on city history. P. 496.
  18. Historical Lexicon of Bavaria - Hitler Youth.
  19. Jens Schley: Neighbor Buchenwald. The city of Weimar and its concentration camp 1937–1945. Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-412-15298-6 , p. 12.
  20. ^ Gitta Günther, Wolfram Huschke, Walter Steiner (eds.): Weimar. Lexicon on city history. Weimar 1998, ISBN 3-7400-0807-5 , p. 383.
  21. Guido Dressel: Sources on the history of Thuringia. 75 years of the Free State of Thuringia. Elections and voting results 1920–1995. P. 100 ff.
  22. Among them are two people that suicide committed; 3 people who died as a result of imprisonment; 1 person who was killed in the Bernburg killing center and 9 people who were pronounced dead . Memorial book. Search in the name directory. Search for: Weimar - Residence. In: bundesarchiv.de, accessed on April 16, 2017.
  23. Manfred Hartung: The settlement of the military in Weimar-Nord , pdf (8 pages) from March 2017, accessed on October 12, 2019
  24. Michael Baar: With Weimar's cattle auction hall, a place of remembrance burned down. In: thueringer-allgemeine.de, April 22, 2015, accessed on December 31, 2018 (beginning of the article freely available).
  25. Jorge Semprún in the "Glocke vom Ettersberg" II / 1997, p. 11.
  26. ^ The liberation of Buchenwald concentration camp. (No longer available online.) In: kriegsende.ard.de. Archived from the original on April 28, 2009 ; accessed on December 31, 2018 .
  27. ^ Modern military archives, Washington, 4th armored division, 604-2.2-daily reports, June 1944-May 1945.
  28. ^ Protest against marches. In: Thüringische Landeszeitung. February 8, 2013.
  29. a b Joachim Lattke: At lunchtime everything sank into rubble. In: Thüringische Landeszeitung. February 9, 2013.
  30. Commemoration of bomb victims. In: Thüringische Landeszeitung. February 10, 2012.
  31. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HkeTelVFmb8 The Wehrmacht Series 5: To the Bitter End Part 5 of 6
  32. ^ Secret report of the Erfurt district authority of the People's Police of June 29, 1953 on the events of June 17 and the following days. In: 17juni53.de, accessed on November 8, 2016.
  33. Axel Stefek: Protest rally in the dining room - the “17th June “in Weimar. In: Axel Stefek: Weimar unadjusted. Resistant behavior 1950–1989. Stadtmuseum Weimar, Weimar 2014, pp. 39–44, here p. 42.
  34. The cry for freedom. June 17, 1953 in Thuringia. Catalog for the exhibition of the Ettersberg Foundation on the 50th anniversary of June 17, 1953. Last shown in the Thuringian Parliament in Erfurt in June 2012.
  35. Axel Stefek: Death sentences for two Weimar residents. In: Axel Stefek: Weimar unadjusted. Resistant behavior 1950–1989. Stadtmuseum Weimar, Weimar 2014, pp. 23–28.
  36. Axel Stefek: Weimar unadjusted. Resistant behavior 1950–1989. Stadtmuseum Weimar, Weimar 2014, pp. 73–136.
  37. Heinz Voigt: Motto '89: "Seek the city's best ..." Memories of the times of change and new beginnings - On the death of the Weimar pastor Erich Kranz. (No longer available online.) In: horch-und-guck.info. Horch and Guck , 1999, pp. 20-21 , archived from the original on December 2, 2013 ; accessed on December 31, 2018 (issue 25/1999).
  38. Christoph Victor : October spring. The turning point in Weimar. Edited by the Weimar City Museum. 1992 and 2009, ISBN 3-910053-25-4 .
  39. Stefan Schulz: Example Weimar. In: Berliner Morgenpost. November 19, 2002 (only available to online subscribers).
  40. City council election in Weimar 2019 In: wahlen.thueringen.de .
  41. Weimar's city leaders since 1793. In: stadt.weimar.de, accessed on April 17, 2018.
  42. Election of the district administrators and mayors of the urban districts 2018: District-free city 054 Stadt Weimar. State Returning Officer Thuringia, accessed on July 1, 2018 .
  43. Thorsten Büker: Weimar coalition wants to stay on course until 2019. In: weimar.tlz.de. Thüringische Landeszeitung, January 21, 2015, accessed on March 1, 2018.
  44. Weimar. Lexicon on city history. P. 427.
  45. ^ Peter Rathay: Weimar enters into partnership with Zamosc in Poland. In: Thuringian General. May 26, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
  46. see e.g. B. Gitta Günther, Wolfram Huschke, Walter Steiner (eds.): Weimar - Lexicon for city history. Springer-Verlag, 2017, p. 201
  47. Also Goethe Hafis Memorial.
  48. https://leninisstillaround.com/2017/03/14/der-leuchtkasten/
  49. weimar.de - Tourism: Bauhaus Museum. ( Memento from November 9, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: weimar.de, accessed on November 8, 2016.
  50. ^ Bauhaus Museum Weimar. In: klassik-stiftung.de, accessed on November 8, 2016.
  51. Weimar is building a new Bauhaus Museum. In: zeit.de. Retrieved September 18, 2013 .
  52. ^ Library of the University of Music.
  53. ^ Library of the Buchenwald Memorial.
  54. Summer of Music. Venues. (No longer available online.) In: mdr.de. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013 ; accessed on December 31, 2018 .
  55. Where the shows are at home. The Weimar City Hall. (No longer available online.) In: mdr.de. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013 ; accessed on December 31, 2018 .
  56. See Weimar Rendezvous with History. Website.
  57. International Student Film Festival backup.
  58. Future Atlas 2016. (No longer available online.) In: prognos.de. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016 ; accessed on March 23, 2018 .
  59. Current results - VGR dL. In: statistik-bw.de. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
  60. ^ Federal State of Thuringia. In : arbeitsagentur.de. Federal Employment Agency, accessed on January 7, 2019 .
  61. ↑ In 2005, the main station was named station of the year by the Pro Schiene Alliance in the small and medium-sized towns category.
  62. Transport. Retrieved August 19, 2020 .
  63. About us. Retrieved August 19, 2020 .
  64. ^ Weimar: Engaged in wind projects. 29th August 2014.
  65. FOCUS NWMI-OFF / City of Weimar: Musäus regular school becomes the state community school "Carl Zeiss". (No longer available online.) In: focus.de. August 10, 2017, archived from the original on September 7, 2017 ; accessed on July 25, 2019 .
  66. ^ GDR bookstore Taubach. Retrieved August 19, 2011 .
  67. Christoph Victor (ed.): The courage to walk upright - memories of the Weimar pastor and honorary citizen Erich Kranz. Weimar 2013.
  68. Christiane Weber: 300 years of Weimar Jakobskirche: Pastor Erich Kranz honored with a book. In: tlz.de. Thüringische Landeszeitung, October 31, 2013, accessed on July 25, 2019 .
  69. Belief rooms . Jakobskirche Weimar. Church service, concerts, readings & projects 2013. Published by the Evangelical Lutheran Church Community Weimar / Luthersprengel, p. 10; online in: kirchenkreis-weimar.de, accessed on 23 August 2017 ( PDF; 967 kB ).
  70. Notes on awarding honorary citizenship. Prize winners ( memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). In: weimar.de, accessed on November 8, 2016.
  71. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Zahme Xenien 5 at Zeno.org . ("Am Weimaraner").