industrial Estate

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The commercial area in Hamburg-Billbrook

Commercial area , also operating area , in Switzerland commercial zone , is a specially designated area of ​​a municipality in the sense of urban planning law , in which primarily commercial operations are permitted.


To the commercial areas include business parks in the narrow sense ( operating construction areas without excessive environmental impacts, such as impairment through noise or odors, such as handicraft businesses). In some cases, industrial areas and special areas (such as companies that require special location security, such as hospitals, waste disposal companies, explosives storage facilities, etc.) are also included, as well as pure business areas (for areas characterized by office or retail trade, such as shopping parks ). there are also mixed areas (commercial and residential use, mostly small to medium-sized companies at most ). Business parks that are specifically created for this purpose and are often managed by just one operator are also called business parks .

The designation of commercial areas usually leads to an increase in traffic because jobs can only be reached with the help of individual (e.g. car) or collective (e.g. bus) means of transport, which includes works traffic such as customer and employee traffic . Commercial areas were originally set up in order to avoid the disruptive effects of businesses (noise, smell, dangers) on apartments. Later, the desired separation of living and working meant that non-disruptive businesses (such as administration buildings) were spatially separated from residential areas.

The deliberate separation of residential and commercial areas is viewed differently. On the one hand, the separation is politically promoted in order to preserve purely residential areas that are largely free of trade and therefore also free of trade. Opposing positions attempt a mixed planning in which only particularly disturbing companies are outsourced to industrial areas, while working and living are to be brought closer together.



In Germany, this is regulated in Section 8 of the Building Use Ordinance. According to this, commercial enterprises of all kinds, warehouses , storage areas , public companies, commercial, office and administrative buildings , petrol stations and facilities for sporting purposes may be built in commercial areas without any particular further planning law requirements .

Only in exceptional cases are apartments (for people assigned to the commercial enterprise) as well as facilities for church, cultural, social and health purposes and entertainment venues permitted in commercial areas.

The boundaries of an industrial area are determined by a development plan. Restrictions apply to the type of trade due to the fact that particularly troublesome businesses may only be located to the extent that the orientation values ​​of DIN 18005 are complied with. These guide values ​​are 65 dB during the day and 55 dB at night. Thus, in terms of planning law, a commercial area differs from an industrial area in which higher noise levels are permitted.

There are 62,074 industrial parks in Germany (as of 2019).


The zoning plan and the development plan , in which the development and use is specified, are laid down in the regional planning laws of the federal states.

Web links

Commons : Commercial Areas  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Industrial area  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  2. Broadband expansion. Every third business park lacks a fast network., July 5, 2019