Under planning the scheduled order, maintenance and development of larger territorial units (is regions , countries , Federal Territory ) understanding of the habitat to ensure the long-term use. Different demands on the space must be coordinated, conflicts must be balanced out and long-term development options must be kept open. Spatial planning serves the spatial planning with regard to future developments. However, there are many substantive and historical cross-connections between spatial planning and spatial planning. The term spatial planning was first used in Germany in 1925/26 by the government master builder Gustav Langen.
Guiding concept of spatial planning
The guiding principle of spatial planning in Europe since 2009 has been sustainable spatial development, which brings the social and economic demands on the area in line with its ecological functions and is intended to lead to a lasting, spacious, balanced order with equivalent living conditions in the sub-areas.
Spatial planning includes:
- summarizing, interdisciplinary and regional spatial plans,
- the cooperation between bodies that are responsible for neighboring rooms,
- the coordination of space-relevant plans and measures.
The European Spatial Development Concept (ESDP) was developed at the EU level .
The states of the Council of Europe have committed themselves to the so-called CEMAT guidelines (guidelines for sustainable spatial development on the European continent).
Spatial planning in the Federal Republic of Germany is regulated by law in the Spatial Planning Act (ROG) and the state planning laws of the federal states. Instead of the traditional term spatial planning, the term spatial development is often used. To support the spatial planning policy of the federal and state governments, the Federal Institute for Building, Urban and Spatial Research (BBSR) carries out nationwide analyzes of spatial development and prepares forecasts for future spatial development. It also prepares the regular regional planning reports required by Section 22 of the ROG . In addition, the Advisory Board for Spatial Development advises the responsible Federal Ministry on fundamental questions of spatial development, in particular on future spatial development and spatial planning policy and their influencing factors.
Regulations of the spatial planning law
The regional planning law defines:
- Terms and responsibilities
- the concept of spatial planning and principles for spatial planning
- Spatial planning plans and procedures
- the legal effect of the content of spatial plans and procedures
- the cooperation between the federal and state governments in the field of spatial planning.
Spatial planning instruments
In order to achieve this guiding principle, space-relevant plans and measures must be coordinated, contradicting demands on the space must be weighed up and the conflicts that arise must be balanced out. At the same time, provision should be made for individual room functions and room uses. The task of spatial planning falls to the federal states. They implement these through state-wide plans ( state plans, state development plans ) and regional spatial plans (often regional plans ). The federal government essentially has the competence to draw up spatial plans for the external economic zone and to monitor the area . Together with the federal states, he is also involved in the Ministerial Conference for Spatial Planning (MKRO) on the guidelines for spatial development .
In addition to spatial planning, spatial planning procedures and the possibility of prohibiting measures that are significant in terms of space also belong to the spatial planning instruments.
Essential planning contents of the spatial plans include a .:
- System of Central Places
- Settlement and open space structure
- Establishment of development axes
- Priority and reservation areas for significant uses of space
- Infrastructure locations and routes
Objectives and principles: binding and to be considered content of the spatial planning
The goals of spatial planning have the strongest binding effect of spatial planning specifications . According to the legal definition of terms in § 3 No. 2 Spatial Planning Act, they are "binding specifications in the form of spatially and objectively determined or determinable , text or graphic specifications in spatial planning plans for the development, order and safeguarding of the area, finally weighed by the state or regional planning authority" . Specifications with these characteristics are goals of spatial planning , to which all public authorities, private planning agencies and municipal land-use planning are strictly bound. Deviations from this require a deviation procedure to be carried out . In addition, spatial plans also contain principles of spatial planning . These must be taken into account, so their binding effect is not strict. Deviations from the principles of spatial planning can be made possible by weighing up sufficiently weighty reasons .
The feature of definiteness or determinability is necessary so that the bound bodies can even recognize or determine what the respective goal requires of them (norm clarity for the norm addressee ).
The characteristic of the final balance of the objective of spatial planning is necessary because other planning agencies are bound to the objectives. Spatial planning must therefore take into account all potentially affected spatial aspects in its decision and (with regard to the goals) make a final judgment (“finally weigh up”, obligation to weigh up for the providers of state or regional planning ). This means that all requirements and conditions for assessing the development, order and security of the entire area and its sub-areas are recorded by the state or regional planning agency and taken into account in the planning according to their weight. This also includes the obligation to adequately take into account the local conditions and requirements ( countercurrent principle ). A spatial planning specification that has not been finally weighed up is not an objective of spatial planning, but at most a principle of spatial planning that is still accessible to subsequent consideration by the urban development planning .
The feature of the textual and graphic definitions in spatial planning relates to the legal source and mode of objectives of spatial planning: firstly, they can only be specified in spatial planning and, secondly, there only in textual or graphic form. Spatial planning plans are exclusively plans in accordance with § 8 and § 9 of the Spatial Planning Act.
The characteristic of the definition of the development, order and safeguarding of the area relates to the legally permissible content of spatial planning objectives (obligation to maintain a sufficient spatial planning reference). Requirements that do not serve to develop, organize or secure the area (see Section 1, Paragraph 1 of the Regional Planning Act) cannot be defined as the aim of regional planning.
Regional planning agency
The actual spatial planning - in the sense of planning - is carried out by the federal states. Your state planning authorities draw up and decide - often together with the respective cabinet or responsible state parliament committee or the entire parliament - the state plans (often also: state development plans, state development programs, etc.). These plans will be further specified by the regional planning authorities.
In Austria, spatial planning is the responsibility of the federal states . With the Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning (ÖROK), a transnational platform is available under the patronage of the Federal Chancellor, which also coordinates the agendas of the European Union.
Structure of the Austrian spatial planning and regulation, state and regional development:
- European level: Framework conditions of the ESDP, program such as Europe of the Regions , INTERREG (regional development),
- National level: Austrian Spatial Development Concept (ÖREK)
- Federal and state level: regional spatial planning programs / concepts / development programs, regional spatial planning, subject programs
- Municipal level: municipal development concepts , zoning plan , development plan , but also implementation of the Local Agenda 21 (UNO / UNCED)
- as well as supraregional projects at the state level and bilaterally with the neighboring regions
Countries, their spatial planning authorities and the spatial planning structure
- Burgenland : Regional Management Burgenland (RMB) - outsourced company, responsible for the entire handling of spatial planning
- Carinthia : Department 20 Regional Planning ; 8 regional development models ( Feldkirchen , St. Veit an der Glan , Völkermarkt , Wolfsberg district , Hermagor region , Spittal / Drau district , Villach area , Carnica region Rosental )
- Lower Austria : Department of Spatial Planning and Regional Policy ; 5 regional spatial planning programs ( Niederösterreich-Mitte , Untere Enns , Wiener Umland Süd , Wiener Umland Nord , Wiener Neustadt-Neunkirchen ), as well as 45 small-regional development concepts
- Upper Austria : Directorate for State Planning, Economic and Rural Development ; NaLa - Guiding principles for nature and landscape (41 spatial units)
- Salzburg : Department 7 Spatial Planning ; 16 planning regions ( Flachgau North , Salzburg Lake District , Salzburg and surrounding communities Osterhorngruppe , Salzach Tennengau , Lammertal , Lower Saalachtal , Upper Saalachtal , Oberpinzgau , Zeller basin , sub Pinzgau , Low Salzachpongau , Enns-Pongau , High Salzachpongau, Gastein , Lungau )
- Styria : Department 7 State and Community Development ; 7 regions ( Liezen , Obersteiermark Ost, Obersteiermark West, Oststeiermark , Südoststeiermark , Südweststeiermark , Central Styria )
- Tyrol : Departments of building and regional planning law, land planning, regional planning statistics ; 36 planning associations
- Vorarlberg : Department of Spatial Planning and Building Law ; Planning regions: Regio Bodensee , Bregenzerwald , Rheintal Mitte , Walgau
- Eastern region (Burgenland, Lower Austria, Vienna)
- European regions
- Alpine Convention ; The Austrian Alpine Association (Department of Spatial Planning-Nature Conservation) also plays an important role
- Development plan (Germany)
- Development axis
- Zoning plan
- Human geography
- Land planning
- Public room
- Space research
- Urban development
- urban planning
- Urban planning
- Traffic planning
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- Burkhard Heuel-Fabianek, Kerstin Kühn, Günter Mank: Spatial Compatibility Study (RVS) for the European Spallation Neutron Source ESS at the Jülich Research Center. Project-related change in the area development plan for the Cologne administrative district - sub-section Aachen region.
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- Academy for Spatial Research and Regional Planning (ARL)
- Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Home Affairs (BMI): Spatial planning and spatial development
- Martin Lendi ; Karl-Hermann Hübler (Hrsg.): Ethics in spatial planning: approaches and reflections. ARL, Hannover 2004, p. 80; see: online version
- § 1 Paragraph 2 ROG
- § 3 Paragraph 1 No. 7 ROG , Art. 2 No. 7 BayLplG
- Federal Ministry of the Interior, for Building and Home Affairs: Spatial planning and development: What is it actually? (Article - Heimat & Integration). Retrieved April 1, 2020 .
- Federal Institute for Building, Urban and Spatial Research: Spatial Development and Spatial Planning in Germany. Retrieved April 2, 2020 .
- Federal Ministry of the Interior, for Building and Home Affairs: Advisory Board for Spatial Development. 2020, accessed April 3, 2020 .
- Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure: Festschrift on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the MKRO. June 12, 2017, accessed April 1, 2020 .
- Spatial planning in Austria , an overview, Office of the Carinthian regional government
- 30 years of spatial planning in Austria - 30 years of ÖGRR 1954–1984 (= series of publications by the Austrian Society for Spatial Research and Spatial Planning . Volume 29 ). Vienna 1985, ISBN 3-900-322-5 ( defective ) .
- Peter Haßlacher: Alpine spatial planning yesterday - today - tomorrow . Online trade journal of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management. In: Federal Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry, Environment and Water Management (Hrsg.): Rural area. 2007 ( pdf - extended written version of the lecture of the same name, held on the occasion of the international symposium “klima: wandel >> nature: driven” jointly organized by the Ministry of Life and the Environment Association; September 10–12, 2006 in Neukirchen am Großvenediger / Salzburg).
- Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning (ÖROK)
- ÖREK 2001, short version (pdf)
- rmb.at ( Memento of the original from July 3, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Regional Management Burgenland
- Regional Planning Department , Office of the Carinthian Regional Government
- raumordnung-noe.at , Planning Lower Austria, Office of the Provincial Government
- Small- regional development concepts , regional planning for Lower Austria
- Regional planning , Directorate for regional planning, economic and rural development, Upper Austrian regional government
- Village and urban development
- NaLa Nature and Landscape ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Spatial Planning and Development Upper Austria
- Department of Spatial Planning ( Memento of the original from July 1, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , State of Salzburg
- planning . In: Land Salzburg, SAGIS (Ed.): Geodata land Salzburg . ( pdf ). pdf ( Memento of the original from March 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Department 7 State and Community , Department Group State Building Directorate, Styrian State Offices
- State Development Program ( Memento of the original dated August 31, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Office of the Styrian Provincial Government ; (pdf)
- Regional development , Tyrolean regional government
- Region profiles ( Memento of the original dated November 30, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Tyrolean provincial government
- Building - Spatial Planning and Building Law ( Memento of the original dated February 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , State of Vorarlberg
- pgo.wien.at , Planning Community East