State of Salzburg
|Country flag||State coat of arms|
|National language :||German|
|State capital :||Salzburg|
|Biggest City :||Salzburg|
|National anthem :||Land of our fathers|
|ISO 3166-2 :||AT-5|
|Map: Salzburg in Austria|
|Area :||7,154.56 km² (December 31, 2019)|
|- of which country:||7,052.88 km² (98.6%)|
|- of which water:||101.35 km² (1.4%)|
|- Rank:||6th of 9th|
|Geographic location :|
|Expansion:||North – South: 113.3 km
West – East: 142.8 km
|The highest point:||
( Großvenediger )
( Sankt Georgen near Salzburg )
statutory city 5 districts
|Judicial districts :||8th|
|Municipalities :||119, of which
24 market communities
|Map: administrative districts|
|Residents :||558.410 (January 1, 2020)|
|- Rank:||7th of 9th|
|Population density :||78 inhabitants per km²|
|Proportion of foreigners:||17.7% (January 1, 2020)|
|Migration background :||23.2% (Ø 2019)|
|Governor :||Wilfried Haslauer ( ÖVP )|
|Ruling parties:||ÖVP , Greens and NEOS|
|Distribution of seats in the state parliament :|
|A total of 36 seats|
|Last choice:||April 22, 2018|
|Gross domestic product :||29.05 billion euros (2018)|
|GDP per capita:||52,400 euros|
|Unemployment rate :||5.3% (September 2020)|
The State of Salzburg is a federal state in Austria . The state capital is the city of Salzburg . The independent historical development of the federal state as an ecclesiastical imperial principality from 1328 to 1803 and as an electorate until 1805 as well as its membership in the Bavarian Empire during this period distinguishes the state from the history of all other Austrian states.
The state of Salzburg covers an area of 7,154.56 km². The highest point in Salzburg is the Großvenediger with a height of .; the mountain is also the fourth highest mountain in Austria. 174 km from the state border are also the Austrian state border, for the most part in the northwest with Bavaria / Germany and a small part in the southwest with South Tyrol / Italy . Otherwise, Salzburg borders on Tyrol in the west and southwest , Upper Austria in the northeast , Styria in the east and Carinthia in the south .
The landscape of Salzburg is divided into five districts, the boundaries of which are identical to the political districts of the state (see administration ).
The northern part of the country is divided into two districts:
- The Flachgau is the northernmost area of the country, which also includes the closest surroundings in the south of the city of Salzburg. Its name, based on the names of the other districts "in the mountains", was created late and expresses the geographical nature of the area. This consists of the Salzburg foothills of the Alps and small parts of the Osterhorn Group, which belongs to the northern Limestone Alps .
- The Tennengau connects to the Flachgau to the south and covers a large area around the city of Hallein and the communities to the south of it. Its name derives from the Tennengebirge , the first part of which goes back to the word fir . It essentially comprises the wide Salzach Valley as well as the mountains of the Northern Limestone Alps on both sides of it.
The southern part of the state of Salzburg is divided into three districts:
- The Pinzgau occupies the western part of it. Its name is possibly derived from the Celtic tribe of the Ambisonter. A common explanation is that the area is the “rush” gau, as this plant used to be found here frequently.
- The Pongau forms the middle of the three southern Gaue. The name is derived from Pongo , the earlier name for today's Bischofshofen . Pongo itself presumably goes on a Celtic bona “border; (limited) area, level “back; a connection with bean is also possible ; What is meant is the horse bean that was to be found here.
- The Lungau is located in the southeast of the state of Salzburg. The origin of the name is not clear, but it can be traced back to a Slavic or a Celtic word. There is a possible connection with Lonka , the name for a stream in the north of the Lungau, which goes back to the Slavic word for “moor, swamp”.
These three southern districts have a share in the Hohe Tauern and in the Lungau in the Niedere Tauern , both of which belong to the Central Alps . Together they are referred to as the “ Inner Mountains ” - especially from the point of view of the less mountainous areas of the State of Salzburg .
|S.||Salzburg city||State capital||65.65||155.021|
|JO||St. Johann im Pongau||Pongau||1,755.37||81.194|
|ZE||Zell am See||Pinzgau||2,641.07||87,628|
Municipalities with city rights
In the state of Salzburg there are eleven municipalities with city rights (population as of January 1, 2020). There is no municipality in Lungau.
|Saalfelden at the Stone Sea||ZE||16,705|
|St. Johann im Pongau||JO||11,235|
|Seekirchen am Wallersee||SL||10,951|
|Zell am See||ZE||9,879|
|Neumarkt am Wallersee||SL||6,402|
|Oberndorf near Salzburg||SL||5,804|
The history of settlement in Salzburg goes back to the oldest Neolithic. The oldest name of the city comes from the Celts : Iuvavum . Under the Romans, Iuvavum was an administrative district within the province of Noricum or Noricum Ripense. Since the conquest of the Bavarians in the 6th century, the area of the later state of Salzburg has belonged to the Duchy of the Bavarians. By founding or renewing the St. Peter monastery in 696 and the founding of the women's monastery on the Nonnberg in 713 on the ruins of the Roman Iuvavum, St. Rupert formed the basis for a diocese (739), which in 798 became the archbishopric of Salzburg and thus the center of the Baier church province. This encompassed almost the entire Old Baier area.
Archbishop Eberhard II , a staunch partisan of the Staufer , managed to build up a closed archiepiscopal territory from 1200 to 1246 from counties , courts and bailiffs . With the recognition of the borders of this - for the time being still Bavarian - state of Salzburg by Duke Heinrich XIII. von Landshut in 1275 the separation of Salzburg from the Duchy of Bavaria began. In 1328 Salzburg became a largely independent state within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation through the enactment of its own regional order. As the archbishopric of Salzburg , it developed into a buffer state between Bavaria and the Habsburg countries. But until the end of the old empire it was considered part of Bavaria in the landscape sense (it was part of the Bavarian imperial circle ; Abraham a Sancta Clara speaks of "Salzburg in Bavaria").
In the 15th and 16th centuries, not only was the salt trade of great economic importance, but also gold mining in the Rauris and Gastein valleys . The mining quantities of gold were briefly the largest in Central Europe. The wealth of the province of Salzburg increased, but with it the social tensions between rich citizens and aristocrats as well as the poor rural population. Combined with an autocratic claim to power by the prince archbishops, the tensions in 1462/63 and 1525 led to peasant uprisings in the mountain districts . The peasant uprising in 1525 was also shaped by the rise of Protestantism. As a result, there were several expulsions of Protestants. The largest wave of expulsions took place under Prince Archbishop Leopold Anton Graf von Firmian , who expelled around 20,000 Salzburg Protestants (" Salzburg exiles ") from the country in 1731/32 .
In 1803 the Principality came to the Habsburg Grand Duke Ferdinand III as a secularized Electorate of Salzburg . of Tuscany, 1805 together with the prince provost of Berchtesgaden to the Austrian empire founded in 1804 . In 1810 Salzburg became a Bavarian province as the Salzachkreis . After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, Salzburg was finally incorporated into the Austrian Empire in 1816. Until 1850, the Salzburg district was only part of Austria ob der Enns (Upper Austria). The western parts of Salzburg , which up until then had always belonged to Salzburg, and the former prince provostie Berchtesgaden remained with Bavaria, the Zillertal and Windischmatrei (Matrei in Osttirol) were annexed to Tyrol.
In 1850, on the decision of Emperor Franz Joseph I , Salzburg became its own Austrian crown land , which had had its own state parliament as legislature and a state committee as executive since 1861 on the basis of the constitution named in February , a preliminary form of the later state government (the state government was then used to denote the governorship ). The country now also elected mandataries to the House of Representatives of the Reichsrat .
At the end of October 1918, the state of Salzburg was called part of German Austria , from November 12, 1918 a republic and from October 25, 1919 the republic of Austria. In the unofficial referendum of May 29, 1921, 99.3% of those who voted voted for the annexation of Salzburg to the German Reich. A secession from Austria, however, contradicted the constitution of Austria, as did the connection to the German Empire with the Treaty of Saint-Germain , so that the plebiscite had no corresponding political consequences.
Like all of Austria, Salzburg was ruled dictatorially from 1934 to 1938 . During the Nazi dictatorship (1938–1945), Salzburg was the only formerly Austrian state with unchanged national borders. The Eugen Grill works in Hallein were the largest armaments factory in the country during the Nazi era. During the so-called occupation (1945–1955), Salzburg, like Upper Austria south of the Danube and part of Vienna, was part of the US occupation zone.
With 61.2 percent, the Roman Catholic Church forms the largest religious community in the State of Salzburg, another 2.9 percent are Protestant . According to estimates, 3.7 percent of the population today belong to an Orthodox Church , 5.6 percent are Muslim and 0.01 percent profess Judaism (all figures: as of early 2018).
No current figures are available on the religious composition of the rest of the population. These figures were last collected as part of the census in 2001: At that time, 3.9 percent of the population belonged to other religious communities (not listed above), 9.6 percent were without confession and another 3.1 percent did not provide any information about their religion.
In the history of republican Austria, two Salzburg governors have played important roles: in the First Republic Franz Rehrl , in the Second Republic Josef Klaus , who from 1964 to 1970 in the Cabinets Klaus I (grand coalition) and Klaus II (first sole government of the Second Republic) acted as Federal Chancellor. Klaus was the last ÖVP Federal Chancellor for the next 30 years.
In the Second Republic, which began in 1945, politics in the Salzburger Land was primarily determined by the ÖVP , which provided all Salzburg governors for almost 60 years, from 1945 to 2004. With the elections to the Salzburg state parliament on March 7, 2004, the SPÖ under Gabi Burgstaller became the parliamentary group with the largest number of votes in this traditional heartland of the ÖVP . This position was regained by the ÖVP in the state elections in Salzburg in 2013 after the Salzburg speculation scandal.
The incumbent state government has consisted of five members of the ÖVP government, a representative of the Greens and a representative of NEOS since 2018.
Work of René Marcic
Since the 1960s, contributions from Salzburg to important political debates in Austria have gained additional weight through the work and aftermath of the publicist and legal philosopher René Marcic . At his instigation, the University of Salzburg was rebuilt and the first Austrian chair for political science was created there. Furthermore, the daily newspaper “ Salzburger Nachrichten ” , which he directs, developed into one of the very few Austrian media that continues to pursue high-quality political discussions today.
The Euregio Salzburg - Berchtesgadener Land - Traunstein has existed since 1995 , an amalgamation at the local level to improve the diverse intergovernmental cooperation in implementing European ideas.
Citizens can fill out applications online via the e-government portal of the State of Salzburg and send them electronically to the responsible authority. This form of application simplifies the administrative process and the procedure can be completed more quickly. The form solutions cover u. a. the areas of “building and living”, “agriculture and forestry” and “culture” come from the Austrian IT company aforms2web .
Salzburger Landeszeitung and state correspondence
The Salzburger Landeszeitung has existed since 1774 (formerly: Salzburger Zeitung ) and is now the official gazette published by the State Media Center every fortnight. In addition, press releases are continuously published under the title Salzburger Landeskorrespondenz , which can be accessed online in the press archive.
The State of Salzburg and the Republic of Lithuania have had a partnership since 1970 .
In 1999 a partnership agreement was signed with the Autonomous Province of Trento ( Republic of Italy ). It is the Italian part of the historical Austrian crown land of Tyrol until 1918, mostly known as Trentino in Austria , the former Welschtirol .
Economy, transport and infrastructure
In comparison with the average gross domestic product of the European Union expressed in purchasing power standards, the state of Salzburg achieved an index value of 152 in 2014 (EU-28: 100, Austria: 129). In 2016, Salzburg was the richest federal state in Austria, ahead of Vienna, with a gross domestic product per capita of 48,700 euros.
Tourism is one of the most important branches of the economy in the province of Salzburg. Due to its alpine location, the country lives from summer and winter tourism. After Tyrol, the state of Salzburg is the Austrian state with the most overnight stays (between 2001 and 2011 between around 21.5 and 24.5 million annually). The tourism marketing of the country is coordinated by the SalzburgerLand Tourismus GmbH . The partners of this company under commercial law are the tourism associations of the state of Salzburg with 51 percent shares. The State of Salzburg holds further shares with 40 percent and 3 percent each by the Chamber of Commerce, the Chamber of Agriculture and the Chamber of Labor.
Due to its special geographical location, Salzburg is interlinked in terms of traffic and economy with the Bavarian districts of Berchtesgadener Land and Traunstein . The shortest road connection to the towns and communities of the Pinzgau is via the so-called Kleine Deutsche Eck (Salzburg – Bad Reichenhall – Lofer). In economic terms, Freilassing (the district of Salzburghofen was once a suburb of Salzburg) and Bad Reichenhall are linked to Salzburg.
“ Salzburg AG ” , which belongs to around three quarters of the city and the state of Salzburg, acts as the largest infrastructural supplier in the state . This provides electricity, water, natural gas and district heating and operates various types of public transport. The company also offers telecommunications services (telephone, Internet, cable TV).
The different landscapes harbor many different customs, some of which are only (still) maintained in a single place. Nationwide, Santa Claus comes with the Krampus in the run-up to Christmas . A more recent development in larger cities or market towns are organized Krampus runs, in which the Krampus characters are more based on fantasy costumes from the film industry. One of the few areas in which the Krampus Passes still move from house to house on December 5th and 6th is the Gastein Valley, according to the motto “true to the good old custom” .
Every year Glöckler and Perchten come in the rough nights after Christmas , which have the purpose of chasing away the evil spirits of winter ( driving out winter ) and thus making room for the new year. Among other things, the Pongauer Perchtenlauf is known (see Perchten ).
Lively summer customs, especially in Lungau, are the prangstangen and the Samson parades . The 5-day Rupertikirtag in the city of Salzburg is one of the most famous folk festivals in Austria and is attended by more than 100,000 people every year.
Cultural associations and events
Associations and groups for the purpose of promoting cultural interests and holding cultural events are concentrated in the state capital, but are represented throughout the state. The umbrella association Salzburg Cultural Sites acts as an organizational association and representative of common interests . The state's official advisory bodies are the Salzburg State Cultural Advisory Board and the Salzburg Cultural Service.
There are major cultural events and event cycles primarily in the city of Salzburg. The important regular cultural events in the state include - besides traditional events of local importance - the Rauris Literature Days ( since 1971), the International Jazz Festival Saalfelden (since 1979) and the Paul Hofhaimer Days ( old and new music , since 1987) in Radstadt .
The State of Salzburg has set up numerous cultural subsidies with a particular focus on supporting contemporary art. In the field of literature, these are the Rauris Literature Prize , the Georg Trakl Prize for poetry and annual scholarships for literature . There are also annual scholarships in the fields of music, film and visual arts, as well as the Great Art Prize for Music , the Salzburg Music Prize and various regional prizes for architecture, ceramics, painting and graphics.
- Josef Brettenthaler: Salzburg synchronicity. Winter publishing house, Salzburg 2005. ISBN 3-85380-055-6 .
- Dehio Salzburg, edited by Bernd Euler: Salzburg Stadt und Land. Verlag A. Schroll, Vienna 1986, ISBN 3-7031-0599-2 .
- Heinz Dopsch , Hans Spatzenegger (Hrsg.): History of Salzburg. University Press A. Pustet, Salzburg 1984, ISBN 3-7025-0197-5 .
- Adolf Haslinger, Peter Mittermayr: Salzburger Kulturlexikon. Residenzverlag, Salzburg 2001, ISBN 3-7017-1129-1 .
- Lorenz Hübner: Description of the Prince-Archbishop's capital and residence city of Salzburg and its areas. Salzburg 1792.
- Richard Voithofer: Political Elites in Salzburg: A Biographical Handbook 1918 to the Present , Series of publications by the Research Institute for Political-Historical Studies of the Dr.-Wilfried-Haslauer-Bibliothek, Salzburg. Vol. 32, Vienna-Cologne-Weimar 2007
- Friederike Zaisberger : History of Salzburg. Verlag für Geschichte und Politik, Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-7028-0354-8 .
- Franz Valentin Zillner: History of the City of Salzburg. Special volumes of the messages of the Salzburg regional studies, Salzburg 1885 (reprint).
- 150 Years of the Salzburg Governors (1861–2011) , series of publications by the Salzburg State Archives . Vol. 17, Salzburg 2011.
- salzburg.gv.at - Official website of the State of Salzburg
- salzburg.eu - Salzburg's digital business card
- salzburg.at - platform for the European region Salzburg
- Statistics Austria - Population at the beginning of 2002–2020 by municipalities (area status 01/01/2020)
- Population on January 1st, 2020 by detailed nationality and state. Statistics Austria, July 6, 2020, accessed on October 19, 2020 .
- Population with a migration background by federal state (annual average 2019). Statistics Austria, March 18, 2020, accessed on October 19, 2020 .
- Regional GDP and main aggregates by economic sector and federal state (NUTS 2), table: nominal gross regional product 2000-2018 by federal state, absolute and per inhabitant. Statistics Austria, December 10, 2019, accessed on October 18, 2020 .
- Labor market data 09/2020 , Public Employment Service Austria
- "The Land Salzburg is ... an independent Land of the Federal State of Austria." Land Salzburg: Provincial Constitutional Law. Retrieved March 2, 2020 . State Constitutional Law ( Memento of December 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- January 1, 2020 Statistics Austria - Population at the beginning of 2002–2020 by municipalities (territorial status 1.1.2020)
- As a city with its own statute, Salzburg is both a municipality and a district at the same time.
- Wilhelm J. Wagner: Picture Atlas of Austrian Contemporary History 1918–1938 . Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2007, ISBN 978-3-205-77230-9 , pp. 93 ( digitized version [accessed September 4, 2015]).
- Over 20 religious communities in Salzburg . SALZBURG24. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
- Population according to religious denomination and federal states 1951 to 2001 (pdf) . Statistics Austria. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
- Information on the Euroregio . EuRegio Salzburg - Berchtesgadener Land - Traunstein. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Fritz Koller, Hermann Rumschöttel : Bavaria and Salzburg in the 19th and 20th centuries, from the Salzachkreis to the EUregio , Samson 2006, ISBN 3-921635-98-5
- State of Salzburg: E-Government. Retrieved March 2, 2020 . Archive page ( Memento from June 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- State of Salzburg: Salzburger Landeszeitung. Retrieved March 2, 2020 .
- State of Salzburg: Salzburger Landeskorrespondenz. Retrieved March 2, 2020 .
- State of Salzburg: State partnerships. Retrieved March 2, 2020 . Partnerships ( Memento from February 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices by NUTS 3 regions. Eurostat , February 26, 2016, accessed on December 3, 2016 .
- Basic data for the federal states. Retrieved November 1, 2018 .
- Tourism statistics from Statistics Austria from March 1, 2012, accessed on August 2, 2012
- Corporate website of SalzburgerLand Tourismus GmbH, accessed on March 11, 2019