NUTS ( French Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques ) describes a hierarchical system for the unambiguous identification and classification of the spatial reference units of official statistics in the member states of the European Union .
It is closely based on the administrative structure of the individual countries. As a rule, a NUTS level corresponds to an administrative level or a spatial aggregation of administrative units. There is a similar system in the EFTA and CEC countries.
This system was developed in 1980 by the European Statistical Office in Luxembourg in order to be able to statistically compare regional units within Europe also internationally. NUTS regions are the basis for the quantitative assessment of regions by the EU. As part of regional policy, funds are allocated to specific NUTS regions (primarily NUTS 3 regions).
Layout and function
The administrative units differ:
- in their national hierarchy level (e.g. federal states, regions, districts, etc.)
- in their size (area, inhabitants)
- in their names (e.g. Brussel / Bruxelles) (also duplicate names)
- in their expansion through changes in territorial status (e.g. mergers and divisions)
A hierarchical and unambiguous identification is therefore necessary.
Geostatistical data (e.g. population density , gross domestic product ) are always based on a reference area. In order to approximately guarantee comparability, only reference areas of the same hierarchy level can be considered. NUTS achieves this by defining four regional hierarchical levels and two local / communal hierarchical levels:
- (Nation states)
- “ Major socio-economic regions (grouping basic regions) ”… larger regions / parts of the country
- “ Basic regions (for the application of regional policies) ” ... medium-sized regions, metropolises
- “ Small regions (for specific diagnoses) ”… smaller regions, some of them already big cities
The former levels NUTS 4 and NUTS 5 were renamed LAU 1 and LAU 2 ( Local Administrative Units ) with the ordinance that came into force in July 2003 . They represent an additional statistical supplement to the NUTS system - to a certain extent non-binding. Since 2017 there has only been one LAU level.
- Municipalities, municipalities
Administrative units as a basis
“Administrative Unit” means a geographical area with an administrative authority empowered to take administrative and strategic decisions within the legal and institutional framework of the Member State.
The NUTS level to which an administrative unit is assigned is determined on the basis of population boundaries (these are guide values that can also be exceeded or fallen below in individual cases):
|level||Lower limit||Upper limit|
For states that are overall smaller than the respective limit values, levels 1 to 3 are systematically assigned to the state as a whole.
Each EU member state, candidate country and the EFTA states are clearly identified using a two-digit combination of letters (e.g. DE for Germany). With the exception of Greece (EL instead of GR), this coding corresponds to the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 standard for the globally unique coding of nation states and regions. This is also the NUTS 0 code.
To identify territories at hierarchical levels NUTS 1 to NUTS 3, one to three digits are appended to the country code, depending on the level. Sub-regions of a larger unit “inherit” the first digit of the NUTS code of this larger region and receive an additional digit. The associated room units (usually alphabetically according to the region name) are numbered consecutively with the digits 1 to 9, and letters are added if necessary. The "0" is not assigned and instead serves as a placeholder.
A single NUTS code can therefore provide information about the hierarchy level and membership in larger room units. The region can be clearly identified using a reference work.
Example for the NUTS code DED2B (= Kamenz ):
- It is a NUTS 3 region, as there is a two-digit country code DE and another three digits.
- The NUTS 3 region DED2B belongs to the NUTS 2 region DED2 , the NUTS 1 region DED and the NUTS 0 region DE .
- The NUTS 3 region Kamenz belongs to the NUTS 2 region Dresden , the NUTS 1 region Saxony and the NUTS 0 region Germany .
The system is regularly adapted to the current territorial status of the territories. The currently applicable NUTS codes have been valid since January 1, 2016; Eurostat has already published the changes expected to apply from January 1, 2021. If the territorial status changes or the spatial allocation to larger territorial units changes, new NUTS codes are assigned.
NUTS breakdowns by state
- NUTS 1: 16 countries
- NUTS 2: 38 regions. It refers to:
- 19 administrative districts in the states of Baden-Württemberg (4), Bavaria (7), Hesse (3) and North Rhine-Westphalia (5)
- 10 former government districts: in Rhineland-Palatinate three government districts, which were dissolved in 2000, in Lower Saxony four government districts, which were dissolved in 2005 and are now referred to as statistical regions , and in Saxony 3 government districts, later administrative districts , which were dissolved in 2012
- 9 states that are not further subdivided at this level: the "city states" Berlin , Hamburg and Bremen , as well as the "area states" Brandenburg , Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , Schleswig-Holstein , Saxony-Anhalt , Saarland and Thuringia (they are therefore also NUTS -1 regions and NUTS 2 regions.)
- NUTS 3: 401 districts / counties and county-level cities and in Baden-Wuerttemberg city districts
- LAU: 11,130 municipalities (formerly: LAU 1: associations of municipalities such as joint municipalities , administrative communities or administrative associations , but also unified municipalities , LAU 2: municipalities and areas free of municipalities )
- As of November 30, 2018
- NUTS 1: 3 groups from federal states
- NUTS 2: 9 federal states
- NUTS 3: 35 groups of districts
- LAU: 2,098 parishes
- Status: January 1, 2019
- NUTS 1: Switzerland as a whole
- NUTS 2: the 7 major regions to which several cantons have been combined without assigning individual canton parts to different regions, as would actually be the case in geographical terms. Example: the canton of Solothurn is completely assigned to the Espace Mittelland, although a substantial part is not located in the Mittelland at all, but in northwestern Switzerland.
- NUTS 3: the 26 cantons
- For countries with German official language, the official German name is given; in other multilingual countries only one language variant (without non-Latin spelling; more common translations into German are given in brackets)
- The second column shows the sorting according to members (EU) - associates (EFTA) - candidate countries (CC).
- Numbers in round brackets indicate the number of subgroups, for example the NUTS 2 level in Belgium consists of ten provinces + Brussels capital (10 + 1 = 11).
|NUTS 1||Number||NUTS 2||Number||NUTS 3||Number||code|
|Belgium||EU||Regions||3||Provinces (10) + Brussels Capital||11||Districts (43) + German-speaking community (1)||44||NUTS: BE|
|Bulgaria||EU||Rajoni (regions, Rajons)||2||Rajoni za planirane (planning regions, planning regions)||6th||Oblasti (districts)||28||NUTS: BG|
|Denmark||EU||-||1||Regioner (regions)||5||Landsdeler (parts of the country)||11||NUTS: DK|
|Germany||EU||countries||16||Administrative districts (. Al.)||38||Circles (among others)||402||NUTS: DE|
|Estonia||EU||-||1||-||1||Groups of Maakond (groups of districts / districts)||5||NUTS: EE|
|Finland||EU||Manner-Suomi (mainland) + Ahvenanmaa (Aland)||2||Suuralueet||5||Maakunnat||19th||NUTS: FI|
|France||EU||ZEATs ∗ (8) + DOM (1)||9||Régions (regions) + DOMs||27||Departments + DOMs||101||NUTS: FR|
|Greece||EU||Geografiki Omada ∗ (Provinces)||4th||Periféries (regions)||13||Nomi (prefectures)||52||NUTS: EL|
|Ireland||EU||-||1||Regions ∗ (statistical regions )||2||Regional authority region s||8th||NUTS: IE|
|Italy||EU||Gruppi di regioni ∗||5||Regioni (regions)||21st||Province (provinces) + Città metropolitane (metropolitan cities)||110||NUTS: IT|
|Croatia||EU||-||1||Regije ∗ ([Statistical] regions)||2||Županije (counties)||21st||NUTS: HR|
|Latvia||EU||-||1||-||1||Statistiskie reģioni ∗ (Statistical Regions)||6th||NUTS: LV|
|Lithuania||EU||-||1||Regionai||2||Apskritys ∗ (statistical regions)||10||NUTS: LT|
|Malta||EU||-||1||-||1||Reġjuni / Gżejjer (islands)||2||NUTS: MT|
|Netherlands||EU||Landsdelen ∗ (parts of the country)||4th||Provincies (Provinces)||12||COROP regio 's ∗ (COROP regions, areas)||40||NUTS: NL|
|Austria||EU||Groups of states *||3||Federal states||9||Groups of political districts||35||NUTS: AT|
|Poland||EU||Regiony ∗ (regions)||6th||Vojewództwa (Voivodeships)||16||Podregiony (sub-regions)||72||NUTS: PL|
|Portugal||EU||Continente (mainland) (1) + Regioes autonomas (autonomous regions) (2)||3||Comissaoes de Coordenaçao regional (CCR) + Regioes autonomas (Autonomous Regions)||7th||Grupos de Concelhos (groups of municipal associations)||25th||NUTS: PT|
|Romania||EU||Macroregiuni (macroregions)||4th||Regiuni (Regiunile de dezvoltare , planning regions )||8th||Județe (districts, districts) (41) + Bucuresti||42||NUTS: RO|
|Sweden||EU||Grupper av riksområden ∗||3||Riksområde (Imperial Territories )||8th||Län (provinces)||21st||NUTS: SE|
|Slovenia||EU||-||1||Kohezijske regije ∗ (Cohesion Regions)||2||Statistične regije ( ∗ ) (statistical regions )||12||NUTS: SI|
|Slovakia||EU||-||1||Oblast (German inconsistent)||4th||Kraje (German inconsistent)||8th||NUTS: SK|
|Spain||EU||Agrupación de comunidades autónomas *||7th||Comunidades autónomas (17) + Ciudades autónomas (Autonomous Communities and Cities) (2)||19th||Provincias + Islas (provinces / islands) (57) + Ceuta + Melilla||59||NUTS: IT|
|Czech Republic||EU||1||Oblasti (German inconsistent)||8th||Kraje (German inconsistent)||14th||NUTS: CZ|
|Hungary||EU||Statisztikai nagyrégiók ∗ ([Statistical] main regions)||3||Tervezési-statisztikai régiók ([planning and statistical] regions)||7th||Megyék (19) + Budapest (counties)||20th||NUTS: HU|
|United Kingdom||EU||Government Office Regions ( 11) + Country (1)||12||Counties ( counties, partly grouped ) + Inner and Outer London + Groups of unitary authorities ∗||41||Upper tier authorities or Groups of lower tier authorities||173||NUTS: UK|
|Iceland||EFTA||-||1||-||1||Hagskýrslu-svæði (regions)||2||NUTS: IS|
|Norway||EFTA||-||1||Landsdeler (parts of the country)||7th||Fylker (provinces)||19th||NUTS: NO|
|Switzerland||EFTA||-||1||Major regions||7th||Cantons||26th||NUTS: CH|
|Albania||CC||-||1||- (only statistical: regions )||3||Qarqe||12||NUTS: AL|
|North Macedonia||CC||-||1||-||1||Statistički regioni ∗ (statistical regions )||8th||NUTS: MK|
|Serbia||CC||- (only statistical)||2||- (only statistical: regions)||5||Okruzi (administrative districts)||29||NUTS: RS|
|Turkey||CC||Bölgeler (regions, geographical areas)||12||Alt bölgeler (sub-regions, areas)||26th||İller (Provinces)||81||NUTS: TR|
Sources: EUROSTAT: EU countries, EU candidates and EFTA countries (non-EU)
- ∗ Summary for comparative statistical purposes
- NUTS 2: In Rhineland-Palatinate, Lower Saxony, Saxony: former government districts , as well as the states of Berlin, Hamburg, Bremen; Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Schleswig-Holstein, Saxony-Anhalt, Saarland, Thuringia each complete; 3: Counties / districts and urban districts
- indication Groups of Maakond so literally at Eurostat, a vernacular name is not common; it can be found at the Statistikaamet Maakonnad Gruppideks . In: Identifitseerimine: NUTS regioonide metaandmed . ( Memento of November 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) stat.ee (link no longer available; accessed August 30, 2012); GIS Statistikaametis: NUTS regioonid . ( Memento of December 22, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) June 18, 2014, does not provide any information in this regard; Retrieved December 18, 2014.
- In Germany and Austria are also historical reasons, the terms "county" and "county" respectively opposite busy - in Germany is administrative region above the county settled in Austria, the historic district of the monarchy period over the political district ; the Swiss district roughly corresponds to the Austrian one.
- Swedish 1: Fasta Finland + Åland ; 2: Storområden ; 3: Landskap
- Zones d'études et d'aménagement du territoire (ZEAT , spatial planning region); and Départements d'outre-mer et région (DOM) , summarized for the areas of the - today more precisely designated - group Département d'outre-mer et région d'outre-mer (DOM-ROM , overseas areas with the rank of a region and of a department)
- The current Greek NUTS / LAU breakdown (official status 2010 ) only partially takes into account the administrative structural reform from 2010 ( Kallikratis program ); Official note on 1: Groups of development regions
- The organs of the statistical regions are called regional assemblies ( regional assemblies ); see NUTS 2 statistical regions of the Republic of Ireland , English language Wikipedia
- Regioni in the sense of NUTS: 19 regions as well as the provinces of Bolzano and Trento
- Including Zagreb , a city in the rank of Župa
- Malta and Għawdex u Kemmuna ( Gozo and Comino )
- areas of the regional administration program Coördinatie Commissie Regionaal Onderzoeks Programma
- Azores , Madeira
- The statistical regions, as the name suggests, were created on the occasion of EU accession. However, they probably also represent the future administrative structure, until now Slovenia has no additional administrative unit between the state and the municipality; the cohesion region also follow the usage of the EU cohesion policy ; Slovenia is the only country with a purely EU-oriented structure above the municipal level.
- Oblast: In the Czech Republic initially Regiony (soudržnosti) (cohesion regions), following the usage of the EU cohesion policy ; see. Regiony soudržnosti . Because of the use of region for Kraj , the German transmission is also inconsistent today, hence also a group of regions and other such as area .
- Kraje: for example districts, areas, landscapes, landscape associations, state districts, regions, districts, districts ; the latter alternately also for the okresy (LAU-1); Region taken from English;
- Under Islas one understands in this context the Balearic Islands ( Illes Balears / Islas Baleares ) and Canaries ( [Islas] Canarias ); the Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta and the Ciudad Autónoma de Melilla are the two autonomous cities of Spain.
- Česká republika , also Území ([state] area) for the plain
- NUTS 1 also known as Országrészek ( parts of the country ) .; Megyék historically also counties or counties
- The Land of Scotland
- The upper tier authorities are the school districts (local education authority) ; lower tier authorities ( unitary authorities or districts ) are billing authorities for council tax ; the Unitary Authorities , in Scotland Council Areas , are the British local government areas.
- 2: French grande région , Italian grande regione , Rhaeto-Romanic regiun gronda ; 3: French canton , Italian cantone , Romansh chantun
- Local administrative unit - LAU
- ISO 3166 - coding for room units
- UN / LOCODE , a system for location keys of the United Nations
- Official municipality key , the system of the statistical offices in Germany and Austria
- Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes
- Regions in the European Union. Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics - NUTS 2006 / EU-27 . (PDF) Eurostat, 2007 edition, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg 2007, ISBN 978-92-79-04756-5 , - on the basics and with the changes from 2003 to 2007
- List of NUTS codes level 1 to 3 from 2016 with changes from 2013 , simap.ted.europa.eu
- Diána Haase: Common Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) . In: Fact Sheets on the European Union , europarl.europa.eu, April 2014.
- NUTS - Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics , Eurostat (German)
- Historical development of the NUTS breakdowns , Eurostat (German)
- Administrative units / statistical units . GISCO Geodata (public GIS data)
- nutscode.de - search engine for the NUTS codes in Germany
- (OJ L 154 of 21 June 2003, p. 1).
- Common classification of territorial units for statistics , SCADPlus (→ en ) (overview of Regulation (EC) No. 1059/2003 and related legal acts)
- NUTS - Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics: Overview and Administrative Units (LAU) . both ec.europa.eu/eurostat, accessed on December 17, 2014.
- In the sense of NUTS, all states of level 0 are considered to be “nation states” (e.g. also Belgium ), regardless of the question of whether the eligible population of this state (their demos ) forms a nation .
- levels of , COM / 2005/0473 final.
- Eurostat: Background. In: NUTS - Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics. Accessed July 29, 2020 (English, German, French).
- Eurostat: Historical facts. In: NUTS - Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics. Accessed July 29, 2020 (English, German, French).
- Current list (November 2018): Correspondence tables - national breakdowns (EU-28) . ec.europa.eu/eurostat.
- Obsolete list (still with two LAU levels, January 2015): Correspondence tables - national classifications (not EU) . ec.europa.eu/eurostat.