|Republic of Slovenia|
regional: Italian , Hungarian
|State and form of government||parliamentary republic|
|Head of state||
|Head of government||
|population||2,081,912 (January 11, 2021)|
|Population density||102 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||+ 0.7% (estimate for 2019)|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.917 ( 22nd ) (2019)|
|independence||June 25, 1991
(from Yugoslavia )
|National anthem||Zdravljica (seventh stanza)|
UTC + 1 CET
UTC + 2 CEST (March to October)
|ISO 3166||SI , SVN, 705|
Slovenia ( Slovenian Slovenija , officially the Republic of Slovenia , Slovenian Republika Slovenija ) is a democratic state in Europe with around 2 million inhabitants, which borders Italy , Austria , Hungary and Croatia . The capital and largest city of the country is the centrally located Ljubljana (German Laibach ). Other important cities are Maribor , Celje , Kranj , Koper and Velenje . Slovenia joined the EU and NATO in 2004, and the euro area in 2007 . The country is a democratically constituted parliamentary republic .
The area of present-day Slovenia was settled by the Slavs at the beginning of the 6th century , who founded the Principality of Carantania . In 788 the Franks conquered the area and the dioceses of Aquileia and Salzburg evangelized it. In the 11th century the country was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire and raised to the Duchy of Carniola in 1364 . In the following centuries the territory came under the Habsburg monarchy . After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the former crown land became part of the newly founded Kingdom of Yugoslavia . After the end of the Second World War , Slovenia existed as a republic in socialist Yugoslavia . After the declaration of independence on June 25, 1991 and the 10-day war , Slovenia became an independent nation-state and on May 22, 1992 an independent member of the UN .
Slovenia is now the wealthiest country in the former Yugoslavia. According to the Bertelsmann Stiftung's 2020 assessment, it has achieved above-average success in its economic transformation and political development. The United Nations Development Program ranks Slovenia among the countries with a very high level of human development.
The eleven municipalities of Slovenia
The most important rivers in Slovenia from west to east are the Soča (Italian lower course: Isonzo), the Save (Slovene Sava), the Drava (Slovene Drava) and the Mur (Slovene Mura). Soča and Save originate in the Julian Alps , Drava and Mur come from Austria . In addition, the Kolpa , which rises in Croatia, forms the border with Croatia for about 100 km to the southeast . All of the rivers mentioned are essentially not navigable, but at least in parts they were used by raftsmen in the past (e.g. Drau near Maribor).
The Soča drains to the Adriatic . Sava and Drava are tributaries of the Danube (mouths in Serbia and Croatia ). The Mur is a tributary of the Drava (mouth on the border between Hungary and Croatia). The Kolpa flows into the Sava in the Croatian Sisak.
Despite its small size, Slovenia has very different landscapes . More than half of the state's area is covered with forest.
In the northwest run the high mountain ranges of the Julian Alps, Karawanken and Steiner Alps , which geologically belong to the southern limestone Alps . In the Triglav National Park is the eponymous summit of Triglav (2864 meters), the highest elevation in the country, which is also symbolically depicted on the country's coat of arms.
The north-east of the country is characterized by low mountain ranges and hilly areas : Bacher Mountains ( Pohorje in Slovenia , up to 1500 meters high foothills of the Central Alps ), Matzel Mountains (Haloze, up to 880 meters) and Windische Bühel (350 meters), the northeast of the Mur in the plain and hills of the Übermur area (Slovene Prekmurje ), while in the Drau-Mur estuary the 50 by 20 kilometer so-called Mur Island ( Međimurje ) is already largely on Croatian territory. Both flat landscapes merge into the Pannonian Plain on the other side of the Hungarian border . The center of the country and the south (part of the Istrian peninsula ) occupy extensive, typical karst areas.
In the extreme southwest of the country lies the 46.6 kilometer long Adriatic coast ( Slovenian Riviera ), which geographically marks the lowest point in the country (0 m above sea level). Since the break-up of Yugoslavia, there has been a dispute with Croatia about the exact course of the border in the Bay of Piran (see International conflicts of the successor states of Yugoslavia ). In the course of Croatia's accession to the EU , it was agreed to settle this conflict before an international arbitration commission.
The longest international border separates Slovenia from Croatia (670 km). It runs largely in rivers ( Kupa , Sotla , Čabranka ) and often in impassable mountain regions. The Slovenian-Austrian border in the north runs for 330 km mostly in the mountains (e.g. Karawanken ). In the east, the border with Hungary is 102 km long. In the west Slovenia borders on Italy for 232 km. Above Trieste , the border initially runs parallel to the Adriatic coast on the mountains.
The border with Croatia had been the administrative dividing line between the two republics since the founding of the second Yugoslavia and became the international border in 1991 with the declaration of independence of the two countries. There were disputes about the exact course of the border, which had not yet played a major role in the common state .
The climatic region of Slovenia forms the core area of the Illyrian transitional climate between the Alps and the Dinarides, the Mediterranean and Pannonia. In the south-west of the country there is already a distinctly Mediterranean climate with warm summers and mild, humid winters (wine-growing region), but winter and spring often bring cold downward winds on the coast, the dreaded bora , with snow at high altitudes. In the interior of the country , the climate is more continental , the northwest of the typical southern Alpine climate (southern foehn, winter rain, with comparatively little snow). The east is already clearly Pannonian , with hot summers and cold winters.
Nature and Conservation
Slovenia is one of the EU countries with the greatest biodiversity : Every fiftieth known mainland animal and plant species worldwide occurs in Slovenia. According to its own account, the country is making great efforts to preserve this diversity of fauna, flora and habitats. The Ministry of the Environment points out that intact nature is a value for tourism , which is why the tourist offer is geared towards people who are looking for peace, who want to enjoy the landscape and are interested in the flora and fauna. The country has placed around 13% of its national territory under protection (Germany 3.6% (2021)).
In 1981 Slovenia designated the Triglav National Park ( WDPA 2517), named after the country's highest mountain, as its first and only large protected area . With an area of 83,982 hectares, the park covers 4.1% of the country's area. It is also a Natura 2000 bird protection and FFH area, recognized as a UNESCO biosphere reserve (since 2003) and has had the European diploma of the Council of Europe since 2004 .
By designating the Natura 2000 areas, Slovenia has placed 35.52 percent of the national territory under protection. For comparison: In the entire European Union , an average of 18.16 percent were designated as Natura 2000 areas, in Germany it is 15.47 percent of the national area and in Austria 14.96 percent (as of December 2013). In the Slovenian Natura 2000 areas, 312 animal and plant species (including 109 bird species) and 60 habitat types are protected.
In the 1990s there were more than 50 supraregional non-governmental organizations (NGOs) active in the field of environmental and nature conservation in Slovenia .
As of July 1, 2016, Slovenia had 2,064,241 inhabitants. Life expectancy in 2015 was 80.5 years (men: 77.3; women: 83.3).
Population of the most important cities (as of January 1, 2015):
- Ljubljana (German: Laibach ): 287.218
- Maribor ( Marburg an der Drau ): 112.325
- Kranj ( Krainburg ): 55.857
- Koper (Italian Capodistria ): 50.902
- Celje ( Cilli ): 48,773
- Novo mesto ( Neustadtl / Rudolfswerth ): 36,371
- Velenje ( Wöllan ): 32.751
- Nova Gorica ( New Gorizia ): 31,787
- Krško ( Gurkfeld ): 25,835
- Ptuj ( Pettau ): 23.153
- Murska Sobota ( Olsnitz, Muraszombat ): 18.973
- Slovenj Gradec ( Windischgrätz ): 16.785
- Postojna ( Adelsberg ): 15,982
According to the 2002 census, 83.06% of the population in Slovenia were Slovenes ; At that time there were still 1.98% Serbs , 1.81% Croats , and 1.1% Bosniaks in Slovenia . Many of them had already come to Slovenia as internal migrants during the time of Yugoslavia . Ethnic classification was not possible in 8.9% of the population because no information was provided.
Two small autochthonous groups of Italians in western Primorska (0.11%) and Magyars in the eastern Prekmurje region (0.32%) are recognized as minorities . In addition, there is a now very small, German-speaking remnant group living in Gottschee and Lower Styria, which is not officially recognized as an ethnic minority. In the 2002 census, 499 people (0.03%) declared themselves Germans and 181 (0.01%) Austrians ; However, 1628 people (0.1%) gave German as their mother tongue.
In 2017, 11.8% of the population were born in what is now a foreign country.
Historical population development
The official language is Slovenian (Slovenščina) according to Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia (Ustava Republike Slovenije) from 1991; in addition, “ethnically mixed areas” of “autochthonous” minorities are defined in which Italian and Hungarian (Art. 64) enjoy special protection. Romani is not a protected minority language: Article 65 of the constitution calls for specific protection for the Roma ethnic group, but it has not yet been legally implemented. Currently, 19 municipalities in Slovenia provide a Roma commissioner to the municipal council. The languages of other minorities - including the formerly important German or in the Bela Krajina traditionally popular Croatian and Serbian - are not protected. Gottschee , a Bavarian dialect , which was once widespread in the Gottschee ( Kočevje ) region , is threatened with extinction.
In addition to English, German and Italian are foreign languages taught at an early age, so that numerous Slovenes speak one or more foreign languages. When the country joined the EU, Slovenian also became the official language of the EU.
A total of 50 religious associations are registered in Slovenia, of which 46 only make up around five percent of the total population. With around 60 to 80 percent of its citizens (57.8 percent according to the last census in 2002, 71.6 percent in 1991), the Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious community if baptism is used as the formal criterion. According to data collected by the “Research Center for Public Opinion and Mass Communication” of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Ljubljana , around 70 percent of Slovenian citizens consider themselves “belonging” to the Roman Catholic faith. However, the Catholics are considered to be a heterogeneous group; many of them are far from being strictly orthodox. Statistics show that only 1/4 to 1/3 of “formal” Catholics fully accept the beliefs of the Catholic Church. The expert Niko Toš analyzes that only about a fifth of the Slovenian respondents practice a church religion, a further fifth self-made private religions and that three fifths are not religious. A comparison of seven Eastern and Central European countries shows Slovenia, along with the Czech Republic and Hungary, at the lower end of the religiosity scale. In addition to the Roman Catholic Church, there are also other “traditional” religious communities: Muslim communities (around 2.5 percent of the Slovenian population, the majority from Bosnia and Kosovo ), the Serbian and Macedonian Orthodox Church (approx Percent), the Slovenian Evangelical (Lutheran) Church (1 percent) and a very small Jewish community with fewer than a hundred members. The remaining registered communities can be viewed as new religious movements, including those that are regularly classified in the government reports of major European countries as destructive cults and / or sects . There are also numerous new religious movements that have not been officially registered but operate as legal bodies or as interest groups without any formal organization.
Middle Ages to the beginning of the 20th century
It is believed that the Slavic ancestors of the Slovenes moved to what is now Slovenia in the 6th century and settled there. The Slavic principality of Carantania was established in the 7th century . In the course of the next two centuries, Carantania came under Bavarian and then Frankish domination. The victory of the king and later emperor Otto I in the battle on the Lechfeld (near Augsburg) in the middle of the 10th century enabled the Holy Roman Empire to expand to the east. The Hungarians, who had previously reached into what is now Slovenia, Austria, southern Germany and Italy, largely retreated into the Pannonian Plain and established the Kingdom of Hungary here under the Arpades . The settlement areas of the western and southern Slavs were separated from each other by the Hungarian settlement and the expansion of the Bavarian-German-speaking population along the Alps and Danube to the east. Irrespective of the linguistic and cultural expansion of certain population groups, attractive and dominant structures of rule spread. Carantania was annexed by the Duchy of Baiern and thus incorporated into the East Franconian Empire . Since 976 it formed the Duchy of Carinthia of the Holy Roman Empire.
The margraviate of Carniola came to the (Austrian) Habsburgs via the Styrian dukes, Babenberger ( Friedrich II. ) And Ottokar von Böhmen . In the course of the rise of the Habsburgs in the middle of the 13th century, large areas of present-day Slovenia came under their rule. An exception was the county of Sanegg in Cilli , which was able to assert itself against the Habsburg hegemony through a clever marriage policy until the dynasty died out in 1456 . Thereafter, what was to become Slovenian territory until the end of the First World War - with a brief interruption during the Napoleonic Wars - was under Habsburg rule.
As in Austria, women who paid taxes could vote in local elections from 1849 onwards under the same conditions as men. However, they could not vote in person, but had to give a close male relative a power of attorney to vote for them. Universal male suffrage was introduced at the national level in 1907.
After the First World War
The national consciousness that flared up in the 19th century and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary towards the end of the First World War led to the formation of a National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs on October 6, 1918 . When Italian troops advanced into the Slovenian coastal region and fought for Carinthia in the north ( Carinthian defensive battle ), the National Council asked the Kingdom of Serbia for military help. From this cooperation, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes ( SHS state for short ) emerged on December 1, 1918 .
The Treaty of Saint-Germain in 1919 granted the SHS state Lower Styria with the capital Marburg (Slovene: Maribor ) as well as parts of the Carinthian Unterland (mostly Slovene-speaking) (namely the area around Unterdrauburg (since then: Dravograd in Slovene ), the Miessal and Seeland ( Jezersko )). If a referendum in an already militarily occupied mixed-language area of Carinthia (Zone A) had a positive outcome for the SHS state, a vote should also have been taken in an area called "Zone B", which even included the Carinthian state capital Klagenfurt, to remain with Austria . Through the Treaty of Trianon in 1920 with Hungary, the Übermur area in the north (Slovene: Prekmurje ) went to the Kingdom of SHS. In the Rapallo border treaty (November 1920), on the other hand, Italy received the occupied Slovenian coastal region.
In 1929 - nine months after a coup by King Alexander Karaićorđević - the country was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . This strengthened the previously increasing dominance of the Serbs in the kingdom; In addition, the Slovenes suffered from the loss of their coastal region. Increasingly disrupted domestically, the kingdom retained its neutrality.
Second World War
On March 25, 1941, Prince Paul , who had been in charge of government in the SHS state until then (the underage Peter II had been head of state since 1934 , Prince Paul was his uncle), was forced by the Axis powers to enter into pacts. However, the military leadership staged a coup just two days later and installed the 17-year-old King Peter II as ruler. The Axis Powers viewed these events on their south-eastern flank as a source of danger and occupied all of Yugoslavia in the Balkan campaign in April 1941. Slovenia was then divided among Italy, Hungary and Germany. Just a few days after the occupation of Slovenia, the Liberation Front ( Osvobodilna Fronta ) was founded as a communist resistance organization. Numerous partisan associations were formed among the loyal to the king and, after the beginning of the German war against the Soviet Union, also among the communist opposition members (under the leadership of Tito ).
At the beginning of the Second World War , around 80,000 Slovenes were deported from the areas occupied by Germany, mainly to Germany, but also to Romania and Bulgaria, to do forced labor there. In addition, children of Slovenian partisans , who were forcibly separated from their families as a retaliatory measure, were mainly sent to Franconia during the war .
At the end of the Second World War, almost the entire German-speaking minority fled or was expelled, interned or murdered. Slovenian and Croatian associations that were on the side of the Axis powers and that were still active after the 8th and 9th centuries. May 1945 the fighting against the Yugoslav People's Liberation Army continued, fled to Carinthia and went under the protection of the English occupation troops. However, they delivered the Slovenian and Croatian prisoners of war and civilians to the Tito partisans , who murdered them on death marches and in the Bleiburg massacre in Carinthia, in the area around Marburg and in the Hornwald ravines .
After the war, the Democratic Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was founded on November 29, 1945 ; from 1963 it was called the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). As the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, Slovenia was part of the SFRY. On August 10, 1945, women were given the right to vote in the Socialist Republic of Slovenia . This became part of Yugoslavia , which guaranteed the right to vote for women in the constitution of January 31, 1946 . The full legal, economic and social equality of the sexes and thus the active and passive right to vote for women were guaranteed for the first time in the constitution of 1946.
The Free Territory of Trieste, which has theoretically been under UN administration since 1947, with a large part of Istria , was provisionally divided between Italy and Yugoslavia in the London Memorandum in 1954 , but this provisional division was only sealed in the Osimo Treaty on November 10, 1975 . In the course of this division, Slovenia came into the possession of Koper (Capodistria) and Portorož (Portorose) with almost 50 kilometers of the Adriatic coast, but the demarcation between the former Yugoslav republics of Croatia and Slovenia in this area is still not precisely regulated.
The growing dissatisfaction with the Belgrade leadership during the 1980s resulted in Slovenia's declaration of independence on June 25, 1991. After the Slovenian territorial defense, the withdrawal of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) ended the 10-day war , which resulted in the adoption of a democratic constitution according to the European Role model on December 23, 1991 and made possible the establishment of a republic of its own. The new state was recognized by all (then twelve) members of the EC within a month . The women's suffrage was confirmed.
The ethnically relatively homogeneous population and the few acts of war with little destruction enabled a rapid stabilization and democratic development of the state. This was honored with the start of the accession negotiations to the EU in November 1998. The negotiations were successfully concluded and in a referendum on March 23, 2003, the Slovenian population approved the country's accession to the European Union (89.6 percent) and NATO (66.1 percent) with clear majorities. On May 1, 2004 Slovenia joined the European Union - together with nine other countries - (" eastward expansion "). On this day, the Slovenian government ratified the Schengen Agreement , which on December 21, 2007 led to the abolition of border controls at the borders with Austria, Hungary and Italy. The euro has been the currency in Slovenia since January 1, 2007, and the tolar has been replaced.
From autumn 2015 Slovenia was a transit point for half a million refugees and migrants ; most of them on their way to Germany and Northern Europe . In the course of this, the government under Miro Cerar passed stricter asylum laws, erected a border fence on the border with Croatia and limited the number of asylum applications to 50 people per month.
The head of state of the Republic of Slovenia is the president , who has a predominantly representative function and is elected directly by the population every five years. As part of the executive power, he is supported by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, both of which are elected by the State Assembly.
The Slovenian Parliament consists of two chambers: the State Assembly (Državni zbor) and the State Council (Državni svet). The State Assembly is made up of 90 members, some of whom are elected by direct election or proportional suffrage. The autonomous minorities of the Italians and Hungarians have a guaranteed ethnic group mandate. These ethnic group representatives have an absolute right of veto on issues that exclusively concern the respective rights of the minority . 40 MPs from social, economic and regional interest groups are sent to the State Council. Parliamentary elections take place every four years.
The exact course of the border between Slovenia and Croatia has still not been clarified. On June 6, 2010, a referendum decided to settle these disputes with the help of an international commission headed by the EU .
Slovenia has been a member of the OECD since July 21, 2010 .
|Name of the index||Index value||Worldwide rank||Interpretation aid||year|
|Fragile States Index||25.8 out of 120||163 of 178||Stability of the country: sustainable
0 = very sustainable / 120 = very alarming
|Democracy index||7.54 out of 10||35 of 167||Incomplete democracy
0 = authoritarian regime / 10 = complete democracy
|Freedom in the World||95 of 100||---||Freedom status: free
0 = not free / 100 = free
|Freedom of the press ranking||23.1 out of 100||36 of 180||Satisfactory situation for freedom of the press
0 = good situation / 100 = very serious situation
|Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)||60 out of 100||35 of 180||0 = very corrupt / 100 = very clean||2020|
The Slovenian armed forces have land , air and sea units , but they are not organized as independent armed forces.
There are around 7,500 active Slovenian soldiers. The defense budget in 2014 was 486 million US dollars, which corresponds to 1.0% of the gross domestic product (GDP) at the time.
The public broadcaster Radiotelevizija Slovenija has its headquarters in Ljubljana and regional studios in Maribor and Koper . Content for the Hungarian-speaking and Italian-speaking minority in Slovenia is also produced there. RTV produces three national television and three national radio programs.
The Slovenska tiskovna agencija (STA), the state news agency Slovenia. According to SZ, the agency is "bled to death" under the Janša government. The 100 percent state agency has not received any money since the beginning of 2021. Janša publicly called for a criminal investigation into the director and his dismissal.
As a private media provider, the SDS party is trying to establish the right-wing extremist media conglomerate Nova 24 TV . The media network and several regional newspapers are under the influence of Prime Minister Janša and his party. Nova 24 TV is financially secured by business people close to the Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán ( Fidesz ).
The most important quality newspaper in Slovenia is Delo (Die Arbeit). It has been published since 1959 and is one of a total of eight daily newspapers in Slovenia. Delo had a circulation of around 78,500 copies in 2014.
Freedom of the press
It is noteworthy that Slovenia was ranked 9th on the Press Freedom Index in 2005, but slipped to 46th five years later.
RSF complains of frequent libel suits and insults against the media by important politicians. Especially since the right-wing conservative Janez Janša became prime minister again in spring 2020, the climate against critical journalism has intensified. Critical journalists would be massively attacked in social networks and government-related media. According to the RSF, Janša is also trying to actively influence the Slovenian media: Jansa is cutting funding and influencing the composition of supervisory bodies in the public media. His government is also putting pressure on the Slovenian state news agency Slovenska tiskovna agencija (STA), whose reporting Janša described as a “national disgrace”. Government-related private media such as Nova 24 TV are funded by his government, according to the RSF. According to SZ, the Prime Minister is building a "conservative empire" around the station. Business people from the environment of the Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán are often involved in them; Orbán and Janša are linked by the same political agenda, according to observers.
Slovenia is divided into 212 municipalities (Slovenian občine, Sg. Občina ), including eleven municipalities. There is no further administrative level between the municipal level and the state as a whole. On June 22, 2008, 57% of voters voted in a referendum for a government proposal to divide the country into 13 provinces. However, the turnout was only 11%. Since the special session of parliament planned for August was canceled, this question was no longer voted on.
The eleven municipalities are:
NUTS 2 regions
- Vzhodna Slovenija (Eastern Slovenia)
- Zahodna Slovenija (Western Slovenia )
These regions were divided according to regional development aspects. While western Slovenia includes the economically strong areas around Ljubljana, Kranj and Koper, the less developed parts of the country are in eastern Slovenia.
Slovenia is also divided into twelve statistical regions, which are also of no administrative importance:
- Gorenjska regija
- Goriška regija
- Jugovzhodna Slovenija regija
- Koroška regija
- Primorsko-notranjska regija (until 2014: Notranjsko-kraška regija )
- Obalno-kraška regija
- Osrednjeslovenska regija
- Podravska regija
- Pomurska regija
- Savinjska regija
- Posavska regija (until 2014: Spodnjeposavska regija )
- Zasavska regija
There is also a division into five historical landscapes, which correspond to the administrative structure of Austria-Hungary and are not only common as area names, but are still part of the regional identity today. In Slovene Styria in particular, there is a strong identification with Slovene Styria in contrast to the capital Ljubljana.
Historical landscapes of Slovenia
Primorska ( Slovenian coast )
- Slovenska Istra (Slovenian Istria )
- Kranjska (part of the former crown land Carniola )
- Koroška (part of the former Crown Land of Carinthia ( Slovenian-Carinthia ))
- (Spodnja) Štajerska (part of the former Crown Land of Styria ( Lower Styria ))
- Prekmurje ( Übermur area )
In 2012, the entire asphalt road network covered around 38,985 km. Slovenia has a good infrastructure with a modern motorway network . The centers are the capital Ljubljana and Maribor . The tourism and ski areas in the Julian Alps and on the short Adriatic coast are also well integrated .
A new toll system has been in effect in Slovenia since July 1, 2009. There is a short-term vignette (seven days) for 15 euros, a monthly vignette for 30 euros and an annual vignette for 110 euros. Motorcyclists pay 7.50 euros for seven days, 30 euros for half a year or 55 euros for a whole year.
The two longest motorways in Slovenia are the A1 , which runs in a north-east-south-west direction from Maribor to Ljubljana and on to Koper, and the A2 , which also runs in a north-west-south-east direction from the Karawanken tunnel via Ljubljana to the Croatian border towards Zagreb . These two highways were completed in 2009 and connect the centers of the country.
With the port of Koper (Italian: Capodistria ) Slovenia has overseas trade connections all over the world and is a transit country for goods to Central Europe.
The Slovenian state railways Slovenske železnice operate an extensive route network with a length of 1229 km - 504 km of which are electrified with 3000 volts direct current - that connects many Slovenian cities , including the important connection to the Koper seaport. The two most important rail connections run along the Sava from Villach in Austria via Ljubljana to Zagreb in Croatia and from Vienna via Graz, Maribor, Ljubljana to Rijeka / Koper / Trieste ( railway line Spielfeld-Straß-Trieste ). Another important rail link through Slovenia connects Italy with Hungary. After independence, the previously closed Zalalövő – Murska Sobota railway was rebuilt as a direct connection to Hungary.
The route of the Wocheinerbahn , which used to be an important link between Vienna and Trieste, but is now mainly used for local traffic, is particularly scenic .
See also: List of railway lines in Slovenia
In 2004 the former Yugoslav republic became a member of the EU together with nine other states . As the first of these ten states could on 1 January 2007 euro as a currency change, the relation 239.64 Tolar was for 1 Euro. The transition period during which both the euro and the tolar were legal tender lasted two weeks (January 1 to 14, 2007).
The country has a mixed economy that is relatively balanced between agriculture , industry , services and tourism . Notable employers include the oil and energy company Petrol , the household goods manufacturer Gorenje , the pharmaceutical company Krka , the motorhome manufacturer Adria Mobil and the Revoz car factory in Novo mesto , a subsidiary of Renault . The per capita income of the Slovenes is in the middle of Europe. In comparison with the GDP of the EU , expressed in purchasing power standards , Slovenia achieved an index value of 83 (EU-28: 100) in 2016, which is around 67% of the German value.
The 2013 GDP per capita was $ 23,289. Slovenia was still ahead of Portugal, and clearly ahead of all other Central and Eastern European EU countries such as the Czech Republic, Poland or Estonia. The foreign debt in 2014 amounted to approx. 9.8 billion euros. The economic growth was in 2015 at 2.9% for 2016 is expected to be just under 2% growth. The average growth from 1997 to 2014 was 2.53%. The country's GDP in 2015 was 38.543 billion euros, the gross domestic product per capita 18,680 euros. In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Slovenia ranks 48th out of 137 countries (as of 2017-2018). In 2017, the country ranks 97th out of 180 countries in the index for economic freedom .
The inflation rate was relatively high until 2003 (2001: 8.4%, 2002: 7.5%) and only fell to around 2% in 2005. Due to the financial crisis from 2007 , Slovenia has to struggle with increased unemployment, which was 11.1% (May 2016), as well as a low inflation rate , with 0.2% (Jul 2016). In May 2018, unemployment had fallen to 5.6%.
All GDP values are given in euros.
|7.78 billion||10.52 billion||18.90 billion||29.23 billion||31.56 billion||35.15 billion||37.95 billion||36.17 billion||36.25 billion||36.90 billion||36.08 billion|
GDP per capita
(as a percentage of GDP)
|36.24 billion||37.62 billion||38.84 billion||40.42 billion||43.28 billion|
GDP per capita
(as a percentage of GDP)
The independence of Slovenia heralded a phase of " market shakeout " in the country's agriculture . The number of farms was rapidly decreasing: a development that only slowed down in the early 2000s. In 2005 the total agricultural area was 648,113 ha and the total number of farms 77,000, of which 85% had less than ten hectares of agricultural area. The total value of agricultural output was 959 million euros in 2005, which at the time was a little less than 2% of the country's GDP . The Slovenian government is concerned about the age structure of farmers: only 18.8% of them are younger than 45 years, while 56.9% are older than 55 years.
Livestock is an important branch of Slovenian agriculture. It contributes more than 50 percent to production output (2005: 511 million euros). The proportion of meadow and pasture land and fodder-growing areas is correspondingly large, with 60 percent and 20 percent of the agricultural area in Slovenia, respectively. Despite a slight decline since the mid-1990s, the number of cattle and pigs accounts for the largest part of cattle breeding (452,517 cattle and 547,432 pigs respectively in 2005). The number of goats and sheep (together) as well as horses has roughly doubled since 1997, but remains well behind with 154,832 and 19,249 heads.
The food and beverage industry in Slovenia had to deal with two major crises in the last 20 years: On the one hand, the breakdown of sales markets in the former Yugoslavia since the early 1990s and, from 2004, the strong competition from major European corporations after the country joined the EU. Accession to the EU was advantageous for the less-favored agricultural areas (within the meaning of Council Directive 75/268 / EEC of April 28, 1975 on agriculture in mountain areas and in certain less-favored areas.) For these difficult-to-access and often low-yielding areas , of which Slovenia owns 440,349 hectares, the EU provides support measures to prevent the abandonment of agriculture in these areas. Forestry is certified as having significant economic growth potential. 59.8 percent of the area of Slovenia is covered with forest, which is only surpassed by Sweden and Finland in a European comparison . Spruce (32 percent) and beech (31 percent) dominate the forests that have grown predominantly as mixed forests. Despite the large extent of Slovenia's forests, forestry only accounts for 0.2 percent of the country's GDP. The fact that the forests are very fragmented in terms of their ownership structure stands in the way of greater economic use. 72 percent of the total area is privately owned by approximately 489,000 owners, which results in an average size of less than three hectares per owner. This fragmentation makes it difficult to make optimal use of the Slovenian forests for forestry purposes.
Viticulture takes up a relatively high proportion of the agricultural area. Around 40,000 private and professional winemakers are often in the fifth or sixth generation of viticulture. Improved know-how and the selection of the grapes led to an increase in quality in the broad mass of the wines on offer. The quantities from the Habsburg and pre-communist times were reached again.
Around 40 percent of the working population work in industry. The automotive industry has the largest share of Slovenia's exports, at over 20 percent. In addition to this, the electrical and electronics industry (around 10 percent), metal processing and mechanical engineering (10 percent) and the chemical and pharmaceutical industry (9%) are of the greatest importance. A growing branch of industry is given by the automotive industry (and automotive supply industry in the broadest sense), among other things because of the Renault plant. The industry contributes a total of 27 percent to GDP . Pipistrel , an aircraft manufacturer for microlight aircraft , is also based in Slovenia .
Since its independence in 1991 Slovenia has been able to expand its service sector considerably; it now provides 53 percent of jobs in the country. Slovenia already has a well-developed transport system for Central Europe. In addition to the cultural and economic centers in Ljubljana, the capital with its own international airport , and Maribor, there is tourism with the appropriate infrastructure , especially in the Julian Alps , in the Postojna Caves and on the coast of the Adriatic Sea . The Lipica Stud enjoys a high international reputation with its renowned Lipizzaner breed. For some years now, health tourism has also been gaining in importance in the north-east of the spa region . In the first half of 2017, more than 1.9 million tourists came to Slovenia.
View over the old town of Piran
The state budget in 2016 comprised expenditures equivalent to US $ 20.51 billion , which was offset by income equivalent to US $ 19.32 billion. This results in a budget deficit of 2.7 percent of the gross domestic product . The national debt in 2016 was $ 34.7 billion, or 78.9 percent of GDP. The state 's government bonds are rated A + by the rating agency Standard & Poor’s (as of November 2018).
The share of government expenditure (in% of GDP) in the following areas:
- Primož Trubar (1508–1586)
- Jurij Dalmatin (1508–1589)
- France Prešeren (1800–1849)
- Fran Levstik (1831-1887)
- Simon Jenko (1835-1869)
- Anton Aškerc (1856-1912)
- Fran Saleški Finžgar (1871–1962)
- Franc Ksaver Meško (1874–1964)
- Ivan Cankar (1876-1918)
- France Bevk (1890-1970)
- Juš Kozak (1892–1964)
- Louis Adamic (1899-1951)
- Vladimir Bartol (1903-1967)
- Edvard Kocbek (1904–1981)
- Anton Ingolič (1907-1992)
- Miško Kranjec (1908–1983)
- Ciril Kosmač (1910–1980)
- Boris Pahor (* 1913)
- Alojz Rebula (1924-2018)
- Lojze Kovačič (1928-2004)
- Žarko Petan (1929-2014)
- Taras Kermauner (1930-2008)
- Kajetan Kovič (1931-2014)
- Andrej Kokot (1936–2012)
- Tomaž Šalamun (1941–2014)
- Drago Jančar (* 1948)
- Slavoj Žižek (* 1949)
- Marko Sosič (1958-2021)
- Aleš Debeljak (1961-2016)
- Taja Kramberger (* 1970)
- Nataša Kramberger (* 1983)
Musicians / musical groups
The Slovenian school system consists of primary and secondary levels . There are the state universities of Ljubljana , Maribor and Primorska , as well as numerous private universities, educational and research institutes.
In addition, handball has been experiencing a new upswing since the 2004 men 's European handball championship in its own country and the European championship title that was achieved in the process. In club handball, too, the Slovenian teams are drawing attention to themselves on a European level with remarkable results. In the 2003/04 season, the series champion RK Celje was even able to bring the most important European club title to Slovenia by winning the EHF Champions League . RK Krim achieved this feat in the women's competition in 2001 and 2003.
The winter sports has in Slovenia similar status in Austria or Switzerland. The FIS World Cup final for ski jumpers takes place regularly in Planica on the Letalnica bratov Gorišek ski jump there. This flying hill is the second largest in the world. World class jumpers of recent times are the Four Hills Tournament winners Primož Peterka and Peter Prevc as well as the ski flying world champion Robert Kranjec . In alpine sports , Tina Maze , Mateja Svet , Bojan Križaj , Jure Košir , Špela Pretnar and Urška Hrovat should be mentioned. The Alpine Ski World Cup stops annually in Maribor at the races for the Golden Fox and in Kranjska Gora at the Vitranc Cup . The Slovenian ski company Elan became known in particular with the victories of Ingemar Stenmarks .
Lake Bled has hosted international rowing regattas (world and European championships) on several occasions.
|date||German name||Slovenian name||Remarks|
|January 1st||New Year||Novo leto||holiday|
|January 2nd||Public holiday until 2012 and since 2017|
|February 8||Prešeren Day, Slovenian cultural holiday||Prešernov dan, slovenski kulturni praznik||Anniversary of the death of the national poet France Prešeren|
|March April||Easter Sunday, Easter Monday; Easter||Velikonočna nedelja in ponedeljek; Velika noč||religious holidays|
|April 27||Day of Resistance in World War II||Dan upora proti okupatorju||National holiday|
|May 1st and 2nd||Labor Day||Praznik dela||state holidays|
|May June||Pentecost Sunday ; Pentecost||Binkoštna nedelja; Binkošti||religious holiday|
|25th June||Statehood Day||Dan državnosti||Proclamation of state sovereignty in 1991|
|15th of August||Assumption Day||Marijino vnebovzetje||religious holiday|
|October 31||Reformation day||Dan reformacije||The Slovenes owe their written language to the Reformation and even the first mention of the term “Slovenes”.|
|1st of November||Day of Remembrance for the Deceased||Dan spomina na mrtve||National holiday|
|25 December||Christmas day||Božič||religious holiday|
|December 26th||Independence and Unity Day||Dan samostojnosti in enotnosti||Announcement of the outcome of the independence referendum in parliament in 1990|
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