Slovenia

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Republika Slovenija
Republic of Slovenia
Flag of Slovenia
Coat of arms of Slovenia
flag coat of arms
Official language Slovenian
regional: Italian , Hungarian
Capital Ljubljana
Form of government Parliamentary Republic
Government system Parliamentary democracy
Head of state President
Borut Pahor
Head of government Prime Minister
Janez Janša
surface 20,273 km²
population 2,064,241 (July 1, 2016)
Population density 102 inhabitants per km²
Population development   −0.29% (2016)
gross domestic product
  • Total (nominal)
  • Total ( PPP )
  • GDP / inh. (nominal)
  • GDP / inh. (KKP)
2017
  • $ 48.08 billion ( 84th )
  • $ 71.08 billion ( 96th )
  • $ 23,654 ( 38th )
  • $ 34,408 ( 41st )
Human Development Index   0.890 ( 25th ) (2016)
currency Euro (EUR)
independence June 25, 1991
(from Yugoslavia )
National anthem Zdravljica (seventh stanza)
Time zone UTC + 1 CET
UTC + 2 CEST (March to October)
License Plate SLO
ISO 3166 SI , SVN, 705
Internet TLD .si
Telephone code +386
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Slovenia ( Slovenian Slovenija , officially the Republic of Slovenia , Slovenian Republika Slovenija ) is a democratic state in Europe with around 2 million inhabitants, which borders Italy , Austria , Hungary and Croatia . The capital and largest city ​​of the country is the centrally located Ljubljana (German Laibach ). Other important cities are Maribor , Celje , Kranj , Koper and Velenje . Slovenia joined the EU and NATO in 2004 and the euro area in 2007 . The country is a democratically constituted parliamentary republic .

The area of ​​present-day Slovenia was settled by the Slavs at the beginning of the 6th century , who founded the Principality of Carantania . In 788 the Franks conquered the area and the dioceses of Aquileia and Salzburg evangelized it. In the 11th century the country was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire and in 1364 elevated to the Duchy of Carniola . In the following centuries the territory came under the Habsburg monarchy . After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the former crown land became part of the newly founded Kingdom of Yugoslavia . After the end of the Second World War , Slovenia existed as a republic in socialist Yugoslavia . After the declaration of independence on June 25, 1991 and the 10-day war , Slovenia became an independent nation-state and on May 22, 1992 an independent member of the UN .

Slovenia is now the wealthiest country in the former Yugoslavia. It has achieved above-average successes in terms of both political and economic transformation. In 2019, Slovenia was ranked 24th out of 189 countries in the world in the Human Development Index .

geography

The eleven municipalities of Slovenia

Rivers

The most important rivers in Slovenia are the Soča (Italian lower course: Isonzo), the Save (Slovene Sava), the Drava (Slovene Drava) and the Mur (Slovene Mura) from west to east . Soča and Save originate in the Julian Alps , Drava and Mur come from Austria . In addition, the Kolpa , which rises in Croatia, forms the border with Croatia for about 100 km to the southeast . All of the rivers mentioned are essentially not navigable, but at least in parts they were used by raftsmen in the past (e.g. Drau near Maribor).

The Soča drains to the Adriatic . Sava and Drava are tributaries of the Danube (mouths in Serbia and Croatia ). The Mur is a tributary of the Drava (mouth on the border between Hungary and Croatia). The Kolpa flows into the Sava in the Croatian Sisak.

Regions

Despite its small size, Slovenia has very different landscapes . More than half of the state's area is covered with forest.

In the north-west run the high mountain ranges of the Julian Alps, Karawanken and Steiner Alps , which geologically belong to the southern limestone Alps . In the Triglav National Park is the eponymous summit of Triglav (2864 meters), the highest point in the country, which is also symbolically depicted on the country's coat of arms.

The north-east of the country is characterized by low mountain ranges and hill country : the Bacher Mountains ( Pohorje in Slovenia , up to 1500 meters high foothills of the Central Alps ), Matzel Mountains (Haloze, up to 880 meters) and Windische Bühel (350 meters), the northeast of the Mur in the plain and hills of the Übermur area (Slovene Prekmurje ), while in the Drau-Mur estuary the 50 by 20 kilometer so-called Mur Island ( Međimurje ) is already largely on Croatian territory. Both flat landscapes merge into the Pannonian Plain on the other side of the Hungarian border . The center of the country and the south (part of the Istrian peninsula ) occupy extensive, typical karst areas.

In the extreme southwest of the country lies the 46.6 kilometer long Adriatic coast ( Slovenian Riviera ), which geographically marks the lowest point in the country (0 m above sea level). Since the break-up of Yugoslavia, there has been a dispute with Croatia about the exact course of the border in the Bay of Piran (see International Conflicts of the Successor States of Yugoslavia ). In the course of Croatia's accession to the EU , it was agreed to settle this conflict before an international arbitration commission.

Limits

The longest international border separates Slovenia from Croatia (670 km). This runs largely in rivers ( Kupa , Sotla , Čabranka ) and often in impassable mountain regions. The Slovenian-Austrian border in the north runs over 330 km, mostly in the mountains (e.g. Karawanken ). In the east, the border with Hungary is 102 km long. In the west Slovenia borders on Italy for 232 km. Above Trieste , the border initially runs parallel to the Adriatic coast on the mountains.

The border with Croatia had been the administrative dividing line between the two republics since the founding of the second Yugoslavia and became the international border in 1991 with the declaration of independence of the two countries. There were disputes about the exact course of the border, which had not yet played a major role in the common state .

In the course of the refugee crisis in Europe in 2015 , Slovenia erected a fence on part of its border with Croatia.

climate

The climatic region of Slovenia forms the core of the Illyrian transitional climate between the Alps and the Dinarides, the Mediterranean and Pannonia. In the southwest of the country there is already a distinctly Mediterranean climate with warm summers and mild, humid winters (wine-growing region), but winter and spring often bring cold downdraft winds on the coast, the dreaded bora , with snow at high altitudes. In the interior of the country , the climate is more continental , the northwest is characterized by the typical southern Alpine climate (southern foehn, winter rain, with comparatively little snow). The east is already clearly Pannonian , with hot summers and cold winters.

Nature and conservation

The Soča River is considered to be the most beautiful river in Slovenia.

Slovenia is one of the EU countries with the greatest biodiversity : every fiftieth known mainland animal and plant species worldwide occurs in Slovenia. According to its own account, the country is making great efforts to preserve this diversity of fauna, flora and habitats. The Ministry of the Environment points out that intact nature is a value for tourism , which is why the tourist offer is geared towards people who are looking for peace, who want to enjoy the landscape and are interested in flora and fauna.

Slovenia has a national park which , with its area of ​​83,982 hectares, covers 4.1% of the country's area. It is also a Natura 2000 bird protection and FFH area, recognized as a UNESCO biosphere reserve (since 2003) and has been awarded the European diploma of the Council of Europe since 2004 .

There are also 3 regional parks, 52 nature reserves, 44 protected landscape parks, 1217 natural monuments , 26 Natura 2000 bird sanctuaries and 260 Natura 2000 FFH areas.

By designating the Natura 2000 areas, Slovenia has placed 35.52 percent of the national territory under protection. For comparison: In the entire European Union , an average of 18.16 percent were designated as Natura 2000 areas, in Germany it is 15.47 percent of the national territory and in Austria 14.96 percent (as of December 2013). In the Slovenian Natura 2000 areas, 312 animal and plant species (including 109 bird species) and 60 habitat types are protected.

Slovenia has a significant share of the European Green Belt and is located in the Blue Heart of Europe .

In the 1990s there were more than 50 supraregional non-governmental organizations (NGOs) active in the environmental and nature conservation sector in Slovenia .

population

Demographics

On July 1, 2016, Slovenia had 2,064,241 inhabitants. Life expectancy in 2015 was 80.5 years (men: 77.3; women: 83.3).

Nova Gorica and Solkan

Population of the most important cities (as of January 1, 2015):

ethnicities

According to the 2002 census, 83.06% of the population in Slovenia were Slovenes ; At that time there were still 1.98% Serbs , 1.81% Croats , and 1.1% Bosniaks in Slovenia . Many of them had already come to Slovenia as internal migrants during the time of Yugoslavia . In 8.9% of the population, no ethnic assignment was possible because no information was provided.

Two small autochthonous groups of Italians in western Primorska (0.11%) and Magyars in the eastern Prekmurje region (0.32%) are recognized as minorities . In addition, a now very small, German-speaking group still lives in Gottschee and Lower Styria, which is not officially recognized as an ethnic minority. In the 2002 census, 499 people (0.03%) declared themselves Germans and 181 (0.01%) Austrians ; However, 1628 people (0.1%) gave German as their mother tongue.

In 2017, 11.8% of the population were born in what is now a foreign country.

Historical population development

Population pyramid Slovenia
year population
1950 1,473,000
1960 1,587,000
1970 1,670,000
1980 1,836,000
1990 2,006,000
2000 1,988,000
2010 2,045,000
2017 2,080,000

Source: UN

languages

The official language is Slovenian (Slovenščina) according to Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia (Ustava Republike Slovenije) from 1991; in addition, “ethnically mixed areas” of “autochthonous” minorities are defined, in which Italian and Hungarian (Art. 64) enjoy special protection. Romani is not a protected minority language: Article 65 of the constitution calls for specific protection for the Roma ethnic group, but it has yet to be legally implemented. 19 municipalities in Slovenia currently have a Roma commissioner on the municipal council. The languages of other minorities - including the formerly important German or in the Bela Krajina traditionally popular Croatian and Serbian - are not protected. Gottschee , a Bavarian dialect , which was once widespread in the Gottschee ( Kočevje ) region , is threatened with extinction.

In addition to English, German and Italian are foreign languages ​​taught at an early age, so that many Slovenes have mastered one or more foreign languages. When the country joined the EU, Slovenian also became the official language of the EU.

religion

The most important church in Slovenia is the pilgrimage church Marije Pomagaj in Brezje .

Religions in Slovenia according to Eurobarometer 2018

  • Roman Catholic (73.4%)
  • Christian Orthodox (3.7%)
  • protestant (0.3%)
  • other Christians (0.4%)
  • muslim (3.7%)
  • other religions (0.2%)
  • Non-believers / agnostics (3.6%)
  • Atheists (14.7%)
  • A total of 50 religious associations are registered in Slovenia, of which 46 only make up around five percent of the total population. With around 60 to 80 percent of its citizens (57.8 percent according to the last census in 2002, 71.6 percent in 1991), the Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious community if baptism is used as the formal criterion. According to data collected by the “Research Center for Public Opinion and Mass Communication” of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Ljubljana , around 70 percent of Slovenian citizens consider themselves “belonging” to the Roman Catholic faith. However, the Catholics are considered a heterogeneous group; many of them are far from being strictly orthodox. Statistics show that only 1/4 to 1/3 of “formal” Catholics fully accept the beliefs of the Catholic Church. The expert Niko Toš analyzes that only about one fifth of the Slovenian respondents practice a church religion, another fifth practice self-made private religions and that three fifths are not religious. A comparison of seven Eastern and Central European countries shows Slovenia, along with the Czech Republic and Hungary, at the lower end of the religiosity scale. In addition to the Roman Catholic Church, there are also other “traditional” religious communities: Muslim communities (around 2.5 percent of the Slovenian population, the majority from Bosnia and Kosovo ), the Serbian and Macedonian Orthodox Church (approx Percent), the Slovenian Evangelical (Lutheran) Church (1 percent) and a very small Jewish community with fewer than a hundred members. The remaining registered communities can be viewed as new religious movements, including those that are regularly classified in the government reports of major European countries as destructive cults and / or sects . There are also numerous new religious movements that have not been officially registered but operate as legal bodies or as interest groups without any formal organization.

    history

    Middle Ages to the beginning of the 20th century

    Appointment of the Duke in Carantania
    Coat of arms of the Duchy of Carniola (1364–1918)

    It is believed that the Slavic ancestors of the Slovenes moved to what is now Slovenia in the 6th century and settled there. The Slavic principality of Carantania was established in the 7th century . In the course of the next two centuries, Carantania came under Bavarian and then Frankish domination. The victory of the king and later emperor Otto I in the battle on the Lechfeld (near Augsburg) in the middle of the 10th century enabled the Holy Roman Empire to expand to the east. The Hungarians, who had previously reached into what is now Slovenia, Austria, southern Germany and Italy, largely withdrew into the Pannonian Plain and built the Kingdom of Hungary here under the Arpades . The settlement areas of the western and southern Slavs were separated from each other by the Hungarian settlement and the expansion of the Bavarian-German-speaking population along the Alps and Danube to the east. Regardless of the linguistic and cultural expansion of certain population groups, attractive and dominant structures of rule spread. Carantania was annexed by the Duchy of Baiern and thus incorporated into the East Franconian Empire . From 976 it formed the Duchy of Carinthia of the Holy Roman Empire.

    The margraviate of Carniola came to the (Austrian) Habsburgs via the Styrian dukes, Babenberger ( Friedrich II. ) And Ottokar von Böhmen . In the course of the rise of the Habsburgs in the middle of the 13th century, large areas of present-day Slovenia became Habsburg. An exception was the county of Sanegg in Cilli , which was able to assert itself against the Habsburg hegemony through a clever marriage policy until the dynasty died out in 1456 . Thereafter, what was to become Slovenian territory until the end of the First World War - with a brief interruption during the Napoleonic Wars - was under Habsburg rule.

    As in Austria, women who paid taxes could vote in local elections from 1849 onwards under the same conditions as men. However, they could not vote in person, but had to give a close male relative a power of attorney to vote for them. Universal male suffrage was introduced at the national level in 1907.

    After the First World War

    Proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs in Ljubljana in 1918

    The national consciousness that flared up in the 19th century and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary towards the end of the First World War led to the formation of a National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs on October 6, 1918 . When Italian troops advanced into the Slovenian coastal region and fought for Carinthia in the north ( Carinthian defensive battle ), the National Council asked the Kingdom of Serbia for military help. From this cooperation, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes ( SHS state for short ) emerged on December 1, 1918 .

    The Treaty of Saint-Germain in 1919 granted the SHS state Lower Styria with the capital Marburg (Slovene: Maribor ) as well as parts of the Carinthian lowlands that are mostly Slovene (namely the area around Unterdrauburg (since then Slovene: Dravograd ), the Miessal and Seeland ( Jezersko )). If a referendum in an already militarily occupied mixed-language area of ​​Carinthia (Zone A) had a positive outcome for the SHS state, a vote should also have been taken in an area called "Zone B", which even included the Carinthian state capital Klagenfurt, to remain with Austria . Through the Treaty of Trianon in 1920 with Hungary, the Übermur area in the north (Slovene: Prekmurje ) went to the Kingdom of SHS. In the Rapallo border treaty (November 1920), on the other hand, Italy received the occupied Slovenian coastal region.

    In 1929 - nine months after a coup d'état by King Alexander Karađorđević - the country was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . This increased the previously increasing dominance of the Serbs in the kingdom; the Slovenes also suffered from the loss of their coastal region. Increasingly disrupted domestically, the kingdom retained its neutrality.

    Second World War

    Adolf Hitler in
    Maribor in 1941

    On March 25, 1941, Prince Paul , who had been in charge of government in the SHS state until then (the underage Peter II had been head of state since 1934 , Prince Paul was his uncle), was forced by the Axis powers to join forces. However, the military leadership staged a coup just two days later and installed the 17-year-old King Peter II as ruler. The Axis Powers viewed these events on their south-eastern flank as a source of danger and occupied all of Yugoslavia in the Balkan campaign in April 1941. Slovenia was then divided among Italy, Hungary and Germany. Just a few days after the occupation of Slovenia, the Liberation Front ( Osvobodilna Fronta ) was founded as a communist resistance organization. Numerous partisan associations formed under the loyal to the king and, after the start of the German war against the Soviet Union, also under the communist opposition (under the leadership of Tito ).

    At the beginning of the Second World War , around 80,000 Slovenes were deported from the areas occupied by Germany, mainly to Germany, but also to Romania and Bulgaria, to do forced labor there. In addition, children of Slovenian partisans , who were forcibly separated from their families as a retaliatory measure, were mainly sent to Franconia during the war .

    At the end of the Second World War, almost the entire German-speaking minority fled or was expelled, interned or murdered. Slovenian and Croatian associations that were on the side of the Axis powers and that were still active after the 8th and 9th centuries. May 1945 the fighting against the Yugoslav People's Liberation Army continued, fled to Carinthia and went under the protection of the English occupation troops. However, they handed over the Slovenian and Croatian prisoners of war and civilians to the Tito partisans , who they murdered on death marches and in the Bleiburg massacre in Carinthia, in the area around Marburg and in the Hornwald ravines .

    Socialist republic

    Flag of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia (1945-1991)

    After the war, the Democratic Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was founded on November 29, 1945 ; from 1963 it was called the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). As the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, Slovenia was part of the SFRY. On August 10, 1945, women in the Socialist Republic of Slovenia were given the right to vote. This became part of Yugoslavia , which guaranteed the right to vote for women in the constitution of January 31, 1946 . The full legal, economic and social equality of the sexes and thus the active and passive right to vote for women were guaranteed for the first time in the 1946 constitution.

    The Free Territory of Trieste, which has theoretically been under UN administration since 1947, and a large part of Istria , was provisionally divided between Italy and Yugoslavia in the London Memorandum in 1954 , but this provisional division was only sealed in the Treaty of Osimo on November 10, 1975 . In the course of this division, Slovenia came into the possession of Koper (Capodistria) and Portorož (Portorose) with almost 50 kilometers of Adriatic coast, but the demarcation between the former Yugoslav republics of Croatia and Slovenia in this area is still not precisely regulated.

    independence

    Slovenian units fight Yugoslav tanks at the border crossing at Rožna Dolina in 1991

    The growing dissatisfaction with the Belgrade leadership during the 1980s resulted in Slovenia's declaration of independence on June 25, 1991. After the Slovenian territorial defense, the withdrawal of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) ended the 10-day war , which resulted in the adoption of a democratic constitution according to the European Role model on December 23, 1991 and the establishment of a separate republic made possible. The new state was recognized by all (then twelve) members of the EC within a month . The women's suffrage was confirmed.

    Slovenian and EU flag in the State Assembly

    The ethnically relatively homogeneous population and the few acts of war with little destruction enabled a rapid stabilization and democratic development of the state. This was honored with the beginning of the accession negotiations to the EU in November 1998. The negotiations were successfully concluded and in a referendum on March 23, 2003, the Slovenian population approved the country's accession to the European Union (89.6 percent) and NATO (66.1 percent) with clear majorities. On May 1, 2004 Slovenia joined the European Union - along with nine other countries - (" eastward expansion "). On this day the Slovenian government also ratified the Schengen Agreement , which on December 21, 2007 led to the abolition of border controls at the borders with Austria, Hungary and Italy. The euro has been the currency in Slovenia since January 1, 2007, and the tolar has been replaced.

    From autumn 2015 Slovenia was a transit point for half a million refugees and migrants ; most of them on their way to Germany and Northern Europe . In the course of this, the government under Miro Cerar passed stricter asylum laws, erected a border fence on the border with Croatia and limited the number of asylum applications to 50 people per month.

    politics

    Presidential Palace in Ljubljana
    Acting Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Janša Acting President of Slovenia Borut Pahor
    Acting Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Janša
    Acting President of Slovenia Borut Pahor

    The head of state of the Republic of Slovenia is the president , who has a predominantly representative function and is elected directly by the population every five years. As part of the executive power, he is supported by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, both of which are elected by the State Assembly.

    The Slovenian Parliament consists of two chambers: the State Assembly (Državni zbor) and the State Council (Državni svet). The State Assembly consists of 90 members, some of whom are elected by direct election or by proportional suffrage. The autonomous minorities of the Italians and Hungarians have a guaranteed ethnic group mandate. These ethnic group representatives have an absolute right of veto on issues that exclusively concern the respective rights of the minority . Forty MPs from social, economic and regional interest groups are sent to the State Council. Parliamentary elections take place every four years.

    In the course of NATO's eastward expansion , Slovenia became a member of NATO on March 29, 2004 . It has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004 .

    The exact course of the border between Slovenia and Croatia has still not been clarified. On June 6, 2010, a referendum decided to settle these disputes with the help of an international commission led by the EU .

    Slovenia has been a member of the OECD since July 21, 2010 .

    In the 2019 Democracy Index of The Economist magazine, Slovenia ranks 36th out of 167 countries and achieved a value of 7.50 out of a possible ten points, which means it is considered an “incomplete democracy”.

    military

    Slovenian Guard

    The Slovenian Armed Forces have land , air and sea ​​units , but these are not organized as independent armed forces.
    There are around 7,500 active Slovenian soldiers. The defense budget in 2014 was 486 million US dollars, which corresponds to 1.0% of the gross domestic product (GDP) at the time.

    structure

    Administrative division

    Slovenia is divided into 212 municipalities (Slovene občine, Sg. Občina ), including eleven municipalities. There is no further administrative level between the municipal level and the state as a whole. On June 22, 2008, 57% of voters voted in a referendum for a government proposal to divide the country into 13 provinces. However, the turnout was only 11%. Since the special session of parliament planned for August was canceled, this question was no longer voted on.

    Slovenia, administrative divisions - de - colored.svgItalien Mittelmeer Österreich Ungarn Kroatien Mittelmeer
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    NUTS 2 regions

    According to the EU-wide system of NUTS breakdown , Slovenia is divided into two cohesion regions ( Kohezijske regije ) at NUTS 2 level , but they have no administrative significance:

    • Vzhodna Slovenija (Eastern Slovenia)
    • Zahodna Slovenija (Western Slovenia )

    These regions were classified according to regional development aspects. While western Slovenia includes the economically strong areas around Ljubljana, Kranj and Koper, eastern Slovenia is home to the less developed parts of the country.

    Statistical regions

    Slovenia is also divided into twelve statistical regions, which are also of no administrative importance:

    Statistical regions

    1. Gorenjska regija
    2. Goriška regija
    3. Jugovzhodna Slovenija regija
    4. Koroška regija
    5. Primorsko-notranjska regija (until 2014: Notranjsko-kraška regija )
    6. Obalno-kraška regija
    7. Osrednjeslovenska regija
    8. Podravska regija
    9. Pomurska regija
    10. Savinjska regija
    11. Posavska regija (until 2014: Spodnjeposavska regija )
    12. Zasavska regija
    Goriška Gorenjska Obalno-kraška Primorsko-notranjska Zasavska Koroška Osrednjeslovenska Jugovzhodna Slovenija Posavska Savinjska Podravska Pomurska Italien Mittelmeer Österreich Ungarn Kroatien MittelmeerSlovenia, Regions with Nmbrs colored (2015) .svg
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    Landscapes

    There is also a division into five historical landscapes, which correspond to the administrative structure of Austria-Hungary and are not only common as area names, but are still part of the regional identity today. In the Slovenian Styria, in particular, there is a strong identification with a Slovenian Styria in contrast to the capital Ljubljana.

    Historical landscapes of Slovenia

    1. Primorska ( Slovenian coast )
      Slovenska Istra (Slovenian Istria )
    2. Kranjska (part of the former crown land Carniola )
      2a Gorenjska ( Upper Carniola )
      2b Notranjska (Inner Carniola)
      2c Dolenjska (Lower Carniola) and Bela krajina ( White Carniola )
    3. Koroška (part of the former Crown Land of Carinthia ( Slovenian Carinthia ))
    4. (Spodnja) Štajerska (part of the former Crown Land of Styria ( Lower Styria ))
    5. Prekmurje ( Übermur area )
    Borders of the Historical Habsburgian Lands in the Republic of Slovenia.svg

    traffic

    Street

    Infrastructure of Slovenia

    The entire asphalt road network covered around 38,985 km in 2012. Slovenia has a good infrastructure with a modern motorway network . The centers are the capital Ljubljana and Maribor . The tourism and ski areas in the Julian Alps and on the short Adriatic coast are also well integrated .

    A new toll system has been in effect in Slovenia since July 1, 2009. There is a short-term vignette (seven days) for 15 euros, a monthly vignette for 30 euros and an annual vignette for 110 euros. Motorcyclists pay 7.50 euros for seven days, 30 euros for half a year or 55 euros for a whole year.

    The two longest motorways in Slovenia are the A1 , which leads in a north-east-south-west direction from Maribor to Ljubljana and on to Koper, and the A2 , which also leads in a north-west-south-east direction from the Karawanken tunnel via Ljubljana to the Croatian border towards Zagreb . These two highways were completed in 2009 and connect the centers of the country.

    Air traffic

    The largest international airport is called Letališče Jožeta Pučnika Ljubljana and is located near Brnik near the capital Ljubljana. There are also two smaller airports, Maribor and Portorož .

    seaport

    Port of Koper

    With the port of Koper ( Capodistria in Italian ) Slovenia has overseas trade connections all over the world and is a transit country for goods to Central Europe.

    railroad

    Railway network of Slovenia

    The Slovenian state railways Slovenske železnice operate an extensive route network with a length of 1229 km - 504 km of which are electrified with 3000 volts direct current - that connects many Slovenian cities , including the important connection to the Koper seaport. The two most important rail connections run along the Sava from Villach in Austria via Ljubljana to Zagreb in Croatia and from Vienna via Graz, Maribor, Ljubljana to Rijeka / Koper / Trieste ( railway line Spielfeld-Straß-Trieste ). Another important rail link through Slovenia connects Italy with Hungary. After independence, the previously disused Zalalövő – Murska Sobota railway was rebuilt as a direct connection to Hungary.

    The route of the Wocheinerbahn , which used to be an important link between Vienna and Trieste, but is now mainly used for local traffic, is particularly scenic .

    economy

    overview

    Slovenia is part of the European single market . Together with 18 other EU member states (blue) it forms a monetary union, the euro zone .

    In 2004 the former Yugoslav republic became a member of the EU together with nine other states . As the first of these ten countries, it was able to convert to the euro as its currency on January 1, 2007 , the ratio being 239.64 tolar for 1 euro. The transition period during which both the euro and the tolar were legal tender lasted two weeks (January 1 to 14, 2007).

    The country has a mixed economy that is relatively balanced between agriculture , industry , services and tourism . Notable employers include the oil and energy company Petrol , the household goods manufacturer Gorenje , the pharmaceutical company Krka , the motorhome manufacturer Adria Mobil and the Revoz car plant in Novo mesto , a subsidiary of Renault . The Slovenian per capita income is in the middle of Europe. Compared with the EU's GDP , expressed in purchasing power standards , Slovenia achieved an index value of 83 (EU-28: 100) in 2016, which is around 67% of the German value.

    The 2013 GDP per capita was $ 23,289. Slovenia was ahead of Portugal, and clearly ahead of all other Central and Eastern European EU countries such as the Czech Republic, Poland and Estonia. The external debt in 2014 amounted to approx. 9.8 billion euros. The economic growth was in 2015 at 2.9% for 2016 is expected to be just under 2% growth. The average growth in the years 1997 to 2014 was 2.53%. The country's GDP in 2015 was 38.543 billion euros, and the gross domestic product per capita was 18,680 euros. In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Slovenia ranks 48th out of 137 countries (2017-2018). In 2017, the country ranks 97th out of 180 countries in the index for economic freedom .

    The inflation rate was relatively high until 2003 (2001: 8.4%, 2002: 7.5%) and only fell to around 2% in 2005. Due to the financial crisis from 2007 onwards , Slovenia has to struggle with increased unemployment, which was 11.1% (May 2016), as well as a low inflation rate , with 0.2% (Jul 2016). In May 2018, unemployment fell to 5.6%.

    Key figures

    All GDP values ​​are given in euros.

    year 1993 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
    GDP
    (in euros)
    7.78 billion 10.52 billion 18.90 billion 29.23 billion 31.56 billion 35.15 billion 37.95 billion 36.17 billion 36.25 billion 36.90 billion 36.08 billion 36.24 billion 37.62 billion 38.84 billion 40.42 billion 43.28 billion
    GDP per capita
    (in euros)
    3,908 5,289 9,509 14,630 15,751 17,486 18,879 17,795 17,710 17,997 17,551 17.601 18,250 18,826 19,581 20,949
    GDP growth
    (real)
    2.8% 4.1% 4.2% 4.0% 5.7% 6.9% 3.3% −7.8% 1.2% 0.6% −2.7% −1.1% 3.0% 2.3% 3.1% 5.0%
    Inflation
    (in percent)
    31.9% 13.7% 8.9% 2.5% 2.5% 3.7% 5.7% 0.8% 1.8% 1.8% 2.6% 1.8% 0.2% −0.5% −0.1% 1.4%
    Unemployment
    (in percent)
    8.6% 7.0% 6.7% 6.5% 6.0% 4.9% 4.4% 5.9% 7.3% 8.2% 8.9% 10.1% 9.7% 9.0% 8.0% 6.8%
    Public debt
    (as a percentage of GDP)
    ... 17% 29% 26% 26% 23% 22% 34% 38% 46% 54% 70% 80% 83% 78% 75%

    Agriculture

    The independence of Slovenia heralded a phase of " market shakeout " in the country's agriculture . The number of farms was falling rapidly: a development that only slowed down in the early 2000s. In 2005 the total agricultural area was 648,113 ha and the total number of farms 77,000, of which 85% had less than ten hectares of agricultural area. The total value of agricultural output was 959 million euros in 2005, which at the time was a little less than 2% of the country's GDP . The Slovenian government is concerned about the age structure of farmers: only 18.8% of them are younger than 45, while 56.9% are older than 55.

    Shepherd's hut in the pastureland near Bohinj

    Animal husbandry is an important branch of Slovenian agriculture. It contributes more than 50 percent to production output (2005: 511 million euros). The proportion of meadow and pasture land and fodder-growing areas is correspondingly large with 60 percent and 20 percent of the agricultural area in Slovenia, respectively. Despite a slight decline since the mid-1990s, cattle and pigs make up the majority of cattle breeding (452,517 cattle and 547,432 pigs in 2005). The number of goats and sheep (together) as well as horses has roughly doubled since 1997, but remains well behind with 154,832 and 19,249 heads.

    Vineyards in the Goriška Brda area

    The food and beverage industry in Slovenia had to cope with two major crises in the last 20 years: On the one hand, the breakdown of sales markets in the former Yugoslavia since the early 1990s and, from 2004, the strong competition from major European corporations after the country joined the EU. Accession to the EU was advantageous for the less-favored agricultural areas (within the meaning of Council Directive 75/268 / EEC of April 28, 1975 on agriculture in mountain areas and in certain less-favored areas.) For these difficult-to-access and often low-yielding areas , of which Slovenia owns 440,349 hectares, the EU provides support measures to prevent the abandonment of agriculture in these regions. Forestry is certified as having significant economic growth potential. 59.8 percent of the area of ​​Slovenia is covered with forest, which in a European comparison is only exceeded by Sweden and Finland . Spruce (32 percent) and beech (31 percent) dominate the forests that have grown predominantly as mixed forests. Despite the large extent of the Slovenian forests, forestry accounts for only 0.2 percent of the country's GDP. The fact that forests are very fragmented in terms of their ownership structure stands in the way of greater economic use. 72 percent of the total area is privately owned by approx. 489,000 owners, which results in an average size of less than three hectares per owner. This fragmentation makes it difficult to use the Slovenian forests in an optimal way.

    Viticulture takes up a relatively high proportion of the agricultural area. Around 40,000 private and professional winemakers are often in the fifth or sixth generation of viticulture. Improved know-how and the selection of the grapes led to an increase in quality in the broad mass of the wines on offer. The quantities from the Habsburg and pre-communist times were reached again.

    Industry

    The Renault Twingo is produced in Novo Mesto .

    Around 40 percent of the working population work in industry. The automotive industry has the largest share of Slovenia's exports, at over 20 percent. In addition to this, the electrical and electronics industry (around 10 percent), metal processing and mechanical engineering (10 percent) and the chemical and pharmaceutical industry (9%) are of the greatest importance. A growing branch of industry is given by the automotive industry (and the automotive supplier industry in the broadest sense), among other things because of the Renault plant. The industry contributes a total of 27 percent of GDP at. Pipistrel , an aircraft manufacturer for microlight aircraft , is also based in Slovenia .

    Services

    Since its independence in 1991, Slovenia has been able to expand its service sector considerably; it now provides 53 percent of jobs in the country. Slovenia already has a well-developed transport system for Central Europe. In addition to the cultural and economic centers in Ljubljana, the capital with its own international airport , and Maribor, there is tourism with the appropriate infrastructure , especially in the Julian Alps , in the Postojna caves and on the coast of the Adriatic Sea . For some years now, health tourism has also been gaining in importance in the north-east of the country of thermal baths . In the first half of 2017, more than 1.9 million tourists came to Slovenia.

    Lake Bled from the Mountain.jpg
    Lake Bled
    Postojna (22206343750) .jpg
    Postojna Caves
    Panoramics of Piran 2015.jpg
    View over the old town of Piran

    With the seaport Koper ( Italian Capodistria ) Slovenia has overseas trade connections all over the world and is a transit country for goods to Central Europe .

    State budget

    The state budget included expenditures in 2016 of the equivalent of 20.51 billion US dollars , which were income equivalent to 19.32 billion US dollar against. This results in a budget deficit of 2.7 percent of the gross domestic product . The national debt amounted to 34.7 billion in 2016 US dollars or 78.9 percent of GDP. The state 's government bonds are rated A + by the rating agency Standard & Poor’s (as of November 2018).

    The share of government expenditure (in% of GDP) in the following areas:

    Culture

    Slovenian architects

    writer

    Prešern-Goldenstein.jpg
    France Prešeren
    Slavoj Zizek Fot M Kubik May15 2009 02.jpg
    Slavoj Žižek


    Artist

    Musicians / musical groups

    Artist groups

    education

    The Slovenian school system consists of primary and secondary levels . There are the state universities of Ljubljana , Maribor and Primorska , as well as numerous private universities, educational and research institutes.

    Sports

    Tina Maze at the 2010 Olympic Winter Games (Super-G award ceremony)

    In addition to football , basketball plays a prominent role in team sports in Slovenia.

    In addition, handball has been experiencing a new upswing since the men's 2004 European handball championship in its own country and the European championship title it achieved. In club handball, too, the Slovenian teams are drawing attention to themselves on a European level with remarkable results. In the 2003/04 season the series champion RK Celje was even able to bring the most important European club title to Slovenia by winning the EHF Champions League . RK Krim achieved this feat in the women's competition in 2001 and 2003.

    The winter sports has in Slovenia similar status in Austria or Switzerland. In Planica , the FIS World Cup final for ski jumpers takes place regularly on the Letalnica bratov Gorišek ski jump there. This flying hill is the second largest in the world. World-class jumpers of recent times are the Four Hills Tournament winners Primož Peterka and Peter Prevc as well as the ski flying world champion Robert Kranjec . In alpine sports , Tina Maze , Mateja Svet , Bojan Križaj , Jure Košir , Špela Pretnar and Urška Hrovat should be mentioned. The Alpine Ski World Cup stops annually in Maribor at the races for the Golden Fox and in Kranjska Gora at the Vitranc Cup . The Slovenian ski company Elan became known in particular with Ingemar Stenmark's victories .

    In the field of motorsport , the Slovenian Grand Prix of the Speedway World Championship regularly takes place in Krsko .

    public holidays

    date German name Slovenian name Remarks
    0January 1st New Year Novo leto holiday
    0January 2nd Public holiday until 2012 and since 2017
    0February 8 Prešeren Day, Slovenian cultural holiday Prešernov dan, slovenski kulturni praznik Anniversary of the death of the national poet France Prešeren
    March April Easter Sunday, Easter Monday; Easter Velikonočna nedelja in ponedeljek; Velika noč religious holidays
    April 27 Day of Resistance in World War II Dan upora proti okupatorju National holiday
    0May 1st and 2nd Labor Day Praznik dela state holidays
    May June Pentecost Sunday ; Pentecost Binkoštna nedelja; Binkošti religious holiday
    25th June Statehood Day Dan državnosti Proclamation of state sovereignty in 1991
    15th of August Assumption Day Marijino vnebovzetje religious holiday
    October 31 Reformation day Dan reformacije The Slovenes owe their written language to the Reformation and even the first mention of the term “Slovenes”.
    0November 1st Day of Remembrance for the Deceased Dan spomina na mrtve National holiday
    25 December Christmas day Božič religious holiday
    December 26th Independence and Unity Day Dan samostojnosti in enotnosti Announcement of the outcome of the independence referendum in parliament in 1990

    See also

    Portal: Slovenia  - Overview of Wikipedia content on Slovenia

    literature

    • MERIAN Slovenia. Jahreszeiten Verlag GmbH, Hamburg.
    • Peter Štih, Vasko Simoniti, Peter Vodopivec: Slovenian history. Society - politics - culture. Leykam, Graz 2008, ISBN 978-3-7011-0101-6 .
    • Joachim Hösler: Slovenia. From the beginning to the present. Pustet, Regensburg 2006, ISBN 3-7917-2004-X .
    • Marco Kranjc: Culture shock Slovenia . Reise-Know-How Rump, Bielefeld 2009, ISBN 978-3-8317-1746-0 .
    • Petra Rehder: Slovenia. Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 978-3-406-39879-7 .
    • Steven W. Sowards: Modern History of the Balkans. The Balkans in the age of nationalism. Translations, comments and additions by Georg Liebetrau. BoD , Norderstedt 2004, ISBN 3-8334-0977-0 .
    • Dieter Blumenwitz : Occupation and Revolution in Slovenia (1941–1946). An international legal study, Böhlau, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-205-77250-4 .
    • Tamara Griesser-Pečar: The torn people. Slovenia 1941-1946. Occupation, collaboration, civil war, revolution. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Graz 2003, ISBN 978-3-205-77062-6 .
    • Joachim Hösler: From Carniola to Slovenia. The beginnings of the national differentiation processes in Carniola and Lower Styria from the Enlightenment to the Revolution 1768 to 1848. (= Southeast European Works , Volume 126), Oldenbourg, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-486-57885-0 (also habilitation thesis at the Philipps -Universität Marburg 2004, 414 pages).
    • Fabian Prilasnig: The Slovenian Viticulture - Sitten and Customs, Grin, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-640-17164-4 .

    Web links

    Wiktionary: Slovenia  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations
    Commons : Slovenia  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
    Wikivoyage: Slovenia  travel guide
    Wikimedia Atlas: Slovenia  - geographical and historical maps

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    Coordinates: 46 °  N , 15 °  E