Archdiocese of Salzburg
|Archdiocese of Salzburg|
|Diocesan bishop||Franz Lackner OFM|
|Auxiliary bishop||Hansjörg Hofer|
|Emeritus diocesan bishop||Alois Kothgasser SDS|
|Auxiliary Bishop Emeritus||Andreas Laun OSFS|
|Vicar General||Roland Rasser|
|Dean's offices||17 (2014 / AP 2015 )|
|Parishes||210 (2014 / AP 2015 )|
|Residents||715.280 (2014 / AP 2015 )|
|Catholics||479,781 (2014 / AP 2015 )|
|Diocesan priest||207 (2014 / AP 2015 )|
|Religious priest||81 (2014 / AP 2015 )|
|Catholics per priest||1,666|
|Permanent deacons||42 (2014 / AP 2015 )|
|Friars||149 (2014 / AP 2015 )|
|Religious sisters||346 (2014 / AP 2015 )|
The Archdiocese of Salzburg ( Latin : Archidioecesis Salisburgensis ) is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Austria . It comprises the city and the state of Salzburg as well as the north-east of Tyrol and is today the oldest archdiocese in the German-speaking area after the Archdiocese of Cologne . The diocese was established in 739 as the diocese of Salzburg , became an archbishopric in 798 and in the years after 1328 it became the prince-archbishopric of Salzburg , which was secularized in 1803 , separating pastoral care and political territory. As a metropolitan diocese , the ecclesiastical province of Salzburg , which is subordinate to the Salzburg archbishops, includes western and southern Austria (dioceses Feldkirch, Graz-Seckau, Gurk and Innsbruck).
The diocese is divided into 17 deaneries: Altenmarkt, Bergheim, Hallein, Köstendorf, Saalfelden, the city of Salzburg, St. Georgen, St. Johann im Pongau, Stuhlfelden, Tamsweg, Taxenbach, Thalgau are in the federal state of Salzburg; in the state of Tyrol are Brixen im Thale, Kufstein, Reith im Alpbachtal, St. Johann in Tirol and Zell am Ziller.
→ see also the political history of the Prince Archdiocese of Salzburg
The Vita Sancti Severini reports that around 450 there was a Christian community with two churches and a monastery in Roman Iuvavum . After the Roman military withdrew in 488, the city was abandoned and possibly destroyed during the Great Migration Period .
In 696 St. Rupert came and founded the St. Peter monastery and the convent on the Nonnberg . He probably had a large church built in honor of St. Peter around 700 and established a community of world priests ( canons ) there, from which the cathedral chapter later developed.
Boniface brought the papal confirmation for the newly founded diocese in 739 and established the diocesan borders. The Irish monk and bishop Virgil had a three-aisled cathedral built in Salzburg and Rupert's relics buried there on September 24, 744 , which at that time meant a canonization .
From Pope Leo III. it was raised to an archbishopric on April 20, 798 at the request of the Frankish king Charlemagne , to which the Bavarian suffragan dioceses Freising , Neuburg , Passau , Regensburg and Säben were subordinate. This ecclesiastical province temporarily comprised the entire old Bavarian tribal area, i.e. the majority of today's Austria and Bavaria (except Franconia and Swabia), today's South Tyrol and Trentino, large parts of Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Slovakia. Salzburg was once the second largest diocese in the world. Arno was the first archbishop. The creation of the ecclesiastical province is related to the efforts to establish a Bavarian state church.
In the period that followed, mainly Carantania was Christianized from Salzburg . Numerous monasteries were founded there as bases. In 796, Salzburg was assigned the area around Lake Balaton ( Hungary ) (→ see also Balaton Principality ) to the Danube and Drava for mission. On February 5, 816, Emperor Ludwig the Pious in Aachen granted the archbishopric immunity with protection of the king . At the time of Louis the Pious, most churches were endowed with this right. The immunity with king protection freed the church from the public jurisdiction of the counts. In the course of the 9th century, ecclesiastical immunity also freed them from the judiciary of serious crimes. The church lord was thus equal to the legal position of a county. With the foundation of the Archdiocese of Gran in 1001, today's Burgenland became the border of the ecclesiastical province.
In the investiture controversy , the Salzburg archbishops sided with the Pope. Under Gebhard , the city of Salzburg was ravaged several times by supporters of the emperor. For protection, Gebhard had the Hohensalzburg Fortress built in 1077 .
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa imposed in 1166 on Archbishop Konrad II. The imperial ban . In the following year the cathedral burned down in a city fire and the cathedral treasure was destroyed. Imperial troops were then accused of setting fire to the city. Conrad III. - the first Salzburg cardinal - was able to start rebuilding after the peace treaty in 1177 and built a magnificent three-aisled Romanesque cathedral.
Archbishop Eberhard II , a staunch partisan of the Staufer , managed to build up a closed archiepiscopal territory from 1200 to 1246 from counties, courts and bailiffs. From 1275 the last phase of the separation of the state of Salzburg from the motherland of Baiern began. In 1328 the bishopric of Salzburg received its own regional order. Since the Salzburg archbishops were also princes within the Holy Roman Empire until 1803, they carried the title of Prince Archbishop .
The Salzburg Cathedral was the first Salzburg church to be rebuilt in the Baroque style and consecrated in 1628. Numerous other baroque buildings built in the following decades have a decisive influence on the appearance of Salzburg today.
Joseph II established the diocese of Leoben around 1785 and enlarged the dioceses of Seckau and Gurk at the expense of the Salzburg archdiocese. In the years between 1675 and 1690, Archbishop Max Gandolf von Kuenburg had over 150 people executed for alleged witchcraft in the magic boy trials.
After the secularization of 1803, the Salzburg archbishops were no longer sovereigns. As the Duchy of Salzburg , which was also granted the electoral dignity , it fell to Grand Duke Ferdinand III together with the Berchtesgaden, Passau and Eichstätt monasteries . of Tuscany . In 1805 it came with Berchtesgaden to Austria, 1809/10 to Bavaria. Most of Salzburg finally came to Austria in 1816. Berchtesgaden and the Rupertiwinkel remained with the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1818 the Chiemsee diocese was abolished and the archdiocese was given its current size. Only long after the fall of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and the proclamation of the republic did Archbishop Rohracher give up the title of Prince Archbishop for himself and his successors in 1951.
Special rights of the Salzburg archbishops
The Archbishop of Salzburg holds the title
As early as 1027, the Salzburg archbishops in their ecclesiastical province were able to make decisions in place of the Pope in urgent cases, including impeding and dissolving the ban on church . From 1072 to the Concordat of 1934 they had the right to appoint the bishops in the dioceses of Chiemsee, Seckau, Gurk and Lavant themselves, i.e. H. appoint without papal consent. At the First Vatican Council in 1869 Pope Pius IX welcomed . the Salzburg Archbishop Maximilian Joseph von Tarnóczy with the winged words "Look, here comes half the Pope who can make bishops himself".
According to an inscription on the monument to Andreas Jakob von Dietrichstein in Salzburg Cathedral , he was the first Salzburg archbishop to be formally given the title " Primate Germaniae " from the Roman-German Emperor.
The Archbishops of Salzburg, like the Archbishops of Gniezno / Gnesen , Gran / Esztergom-Budapest , Cologne and Prague , hold the honorary title of " born legate " ( Latin legatus natus ). As an outward sign of this position, they are allowed to wear legate purple in their archdiocese - a solemn dress that is much older than the purple robe of the cardinals. The Archbishops of Salzburg have been the only archbishops who have been allowed to wear legate purple at the Roman Curia since 1854 .
Unlike the cathedral chapters in the other Austrian dioceses, the Salzburg cathedral chapter enjoys the right to choose the future archbishop from a trio proposed by the Pope (Art. IV § 1 p. 3 of the Concordat between the Holy See and the Republic of Austria from 5 June 1933).
The cathedral chapter on Saints Rupert and Virgil at the Metropolitan Church in Salzburg currently consists of the following clergy:
- Hansjörg Hofer , auxiliary bishop, cathedral provost
- Raimund Sagmeister, OStR, rector of the catechetical office and professor at the University of Education
- Johann Reissmeier , prelate, official of the metropolitan and diocesan court, provisional parish in Siezenheim , cathedral custodian
- Roland Rasser, Vicar General, City Dean of the City of Salzburg, Cathedral Pastor of the City of Salzburg
- Gottfried Laireiter, episcopal vicar for the orders, pastor in Neumarkt a. W.
- Roland Kerschbaum , diocesan curator, pastor in Elsbethen
- Josef Zauner, regional dean for the Flachgau and Tennengau, dean in Thalgau
- Tobias Giglmayr, Regens of the seminary of the Archdiocese of Salzburg
Honorary cathedral capitals are:
- Peter Hofer
- Alois Weidlinger
- Martin Wimmer
Emeritus cathedral capitulars are:
- Johannes Neuhardt , Apostolic Protonotary
- Matthäus Appesbacher, Apostolic Protonotary
- Egon Katinsky, prelate
- Sebastian Manzl, prelate
- Balthasar Sieberer, prelate
- Franz Padinger, Consistorial Councilor
- Andreas Laun OSFS , em. Auxiliary bishop
- Martin Walchhofer, prelate, diocesan director of the Pontifical Mission Societies, episcopal vicar for the universal church, pastor in Salzburg-Gnigl
- Hans-Walter Vavrovsky, prelate
The Archdiocese of Salzburg consists of 17 deaneries:
The Archdiocese of Salzburg is subordinate to the suffragan diocese:
- History of Christianity in Austria
- List of the Archbishops of Salzburg
- State of Salzburg
- City of Salzburg
- Cardinal König Art Prize (awarded every two years by the Archdiocese)
- Gottfried Wilhelm Becker: Funny hikes through Baiern, Tyrol and Salzburg . With historical reviews. For the youth and their friends, Leipzig: Hinrichs 1842.
- Korbinian Birnbacher OSB: The archbishops of Salzburg and monasticism at the time of the investiture controversy (1060 -1164) , (= studies and communications on the history of the Benedictine order and its branches: Erg. Vol. 41), EOS-Verl. St. Ottilien 2001.
- Joseph Dürlinger: Historical-statistical handbook of the Archdiocese of Salzburg in its current limits . First volume: Ruraldecanate des Flachlandes, Salzburg: Duyle'sche Hofbuchdruckerei 1862.
- Joseph Dürlinger: From Pinzgau . 1. Historical overviews, 2. Place and church registers. With chronological table, Salzburg: Self-published by the author in 1866.
- Rudolf Leeb et al. a .: History of Christianity in Austria . From antiquity to the present. Ueberreuter, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-8000-3914-1 (standard work with 60 pages of literature).
- Franz Ortner: From the history of the Archdiocese of Salzburg . In: Yearbook of the Catholic Church in Austria 1998 . Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-9500963-0-2
- Franz Ortner: Salzburg Church History . From the beginning to the present. Univ.-Verlag Anton Pustet, Salzburg 1988, ISBN 3-7025-0252-1
- Franz Ortner: Reformation, Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation in the Archbishopric of Salzburg . Univ.-Verlag Anton Pustet, Salzburg 1981, ISBN 3-7025-0185-1
- Ernst Tomek: Church history of Austria . Tyrolia, Innsbruck - Vienna - Munich 1935–59.
- Josef Vodka: Church in Austria. Guide through their history . Herder, Vienna 1959.
- Cölestin Wolfsgruber : Church history Austria-Hungary . Kirsch, Vienna 1909.
- Archive link ( Memento of the original from January 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Kleindel: Austria, Numbers - Data - Facts , special edition A&M 2004, ISBN 3-902397-49-7