Louis the Pious
Ludwig I (called Ludwig the Pious , French Louis le Pieux ; * June / August 778 in Chasseneuil near Poitiers ; † June 20, 840 in Ingelheim am Rhein ) was King of the Franconian Empire (in Aquitaine since 781, in the entire empire since 814) and Kaiser (813-840). He was the son and successor of Charlemagne and initially successfully continued his reform policy. In disputes with his own sons twice temporarily deposed (830, 833/34), Ludwig the Pious did not succeed in creating a viable Franconian empire - three years after his death, the Franconian Empire was divided up in the Treaty of Verdun (843).
Birth and naming
While Charlemagne was on his Spanish campaign, his wife Hildegard , whom he had left behind in the Chasseneuil Palatinate near Poitiers , gave birth to 778 twins in June / August. After Karl's return they were baptized with the names Ludwig and Lothar. The Carolingian king names Karl, Karlmann and Pippin had already been given to children who were born before Karl, and so it was decided to fall back on the names of the two most important Merovingian kings Clovis I and Chlothar I. Lothar died in 779.
Sub-kingdom in Aquitaine
On Easter Sunday, April 15, 781, Louis was anointed by Pope Hadrian I in Rome as sub-king of Aquitaine , his older brother Pippin as sub-king of Italy. Despite their young age of four or three years, the two brothers were sent to their respective sub-kingdoms for further education. When he left, Ludwig saw his mother Hildegard, who died in 783, for the last time. From then on, a court master and other helpers, whom Karl gave to his son Ludwig, took care of the boy's upbringing. With the establishment of the sub-kingdom of Aquitaine, Charles primarily pursued defensive purposes, for example Ludwig had to put down a Basque uprising in 812/13 . In 801/803 he succeeded with William of Aquitaine and his son Berà in conquering Barcelona, which was occupied by the Moors . The cultivation of the land and the expansion of the church structure were other important tasks for Ludwig in Aquitaine. At a synod in 813, the king had Michael ’s Day set instead of a festival for the Germanic god Wotan . The Archangel Michael became the patron saint of the slowly forming Holy Roman Empire and later Germany.
Moving up in the succession
If it had stayed with Charles's plan of division of the empire ( Divisio Regnorum ) of 806, Ludwig could have hoped for a later extension of his sub-kingdom to Septimania , Provence and Burgundy. However, Ludwig's older brothers Pippin and Karl the Younger died surprisingly in 810 and 811, respectively. Ludwig was the only legitimate son and heir left. But apparently Karl and parts of his court initially had reservations about a future sole rule of Ludwig. In 812 the son of the late Pippin, Bernhard , was appointed sub-king in Italy. Finally, on September 11, 813, Ludwig the Pious was crowned co-emperor by his father in Aachen during a specially convened imperial assembly. Ludwig's biographer Thegan is the only one to report that Ludwig put the crown on himself , which could possibly be explained by Karl's frailty. Today's research, however, has more faith in the Reichsannals , according to which Charlemagne personally put the crown on his son Ludwig's head.
The coronation of Ludwig as co-emperor corresponded to Eastern Roman-Byzantine custom. Only through the inclusion of the Roman legal institute “Mitkaisertum” was it possible to transfer the title of emperor to Ludwig without letting him participate in the rule of the entire empire. So Ludwig returned to Aquitaine after the survey and continued to perform his duties as sub-king. After the death of his father Karl on January 28, 814, he immediately moved to Aachen and took over the rule of the entire empire. Since he was already emperor, there was no need for another act of levy in 814, of which the sources report nothing. Although Louis the Pious was anointed and crowned again by Pope Stephan IV in Reims in 816 (probably on October 5th) , this act had no constitutive meaning, but was intended to emphasize the sacredness of Ludwig's rule.
Early years as an emperor
Ludwig's takeover was effortless, but not seamless. Ludwig brought his own staff with him from Aquitaine and thus re-occupied most of the court. He expelled his unmarried, but not living properly, sisters from court. His illegitimate half-brothers Hugo , Drogo and Theodoric first he kept in his immediate environment, but forced them to rebellion of his nephew Bernard of Italy 818 in the service of the Church: Drogo was 823 bishop of Metz , Hugo 822/23 abbot of Saint-Quentin and Theodoric, who apparently died early, may have become abbot of Moyenmoutier , but this is not certain.
In the tradition of his father, the first years of the rule of Louis the Pious were marked by a great will to reform: Numerous capitularies were published, missi dominici ( royal messengers ) exposed some terrifying abuses in the empire (abuse of office, perversion of rights, etc., which Ludwig then did turned off) and church law was reformed at various synods . In 816, for example, a major Aachen synod made the Benedictine rules binding for all monks and nuns living in the Franconian Empire. In addition, with the Institutio canonicorum Aquisgranensis (“Aachen Canonical Regulations”), a single norm in liturgy and lifestyle was declared binding for all non- monastic clerical and women's communities . The monastic reform movement also led to conflicts in which Ludwig intervened, for example in the Fulda monastery , where in 817, at the request of the convention presented in the Supplex Libellus , Abbot Ratgar was deposed and the convention “carried out the reform” for a year under the provisional direction of two monks to the West ”, ie probably from the circle of the Reformed Abbot Benedict von Aniane .
Another major reform concerned procedural law: some forms of divine judgment were abolished, but witness evidence was introduced. The influence of church advisers was strong, such as Abbot Benedikt von Aniane, whom Ludwig had brought with him from Aquitaine and for whom he had the Inda Monastery (also: Inden, the later imperial abbey of Kornelimünster ) built near Aachen , or Markwards , the Abbot of Prüm . In addition, his former milk brother , Archbishop Ebo von Reims , should be mentioned in particular , who later played a leading role in the disempowerment of Ludwig in 833.
The plan of division of the empire from 817
Perhaps pushed by an accident, which the emperor miraculously survived almost unharmed, he arranged for his successor as early as 817, in the third year of his rule. In the Ordinatio imperii , he did not simply divide the empire among his three sons - as would have been the Frankish custom and as Charlemagne had provided for it in his Divisio Regnorum of 806 - but found a special rule for the empire. Lothar , the eldest son from his first marriage to Irmingard in 794 , was crowned co-emperor by Ludwig the Pious in Aachen. He was entitled to the succession in the empire, and he should receive a kind of "foreign policy" sovereignty over the entire empire. The later sons Pippin and Ludwig were subordinate to him and could only decide on a "domestic political" level in their partial kingdoms. Pippin got Aquitaine and Ludwig got the eastern part of the Frankish Empire. Because of this fundamentally new concept of the Ordinatio imperii , in which the West was close to consciously forming itself as a political unit, Theodor Schieffer called the year 817 “the absolute climax of the Carolingian age and Franconian history”.
The 812 installed King Bernhard of Italy , a nephew of Louis the Pious, resisted the provisions of the Ordinatio imperii , as he had to see his rule over Italy endangered. The uprising was put down, Bernhard, who was initially sentenced to death by the princes, was pardoned by Ludwig to be blinded . Bernhard died of the consequences of the procedure - for Ludwig this meant "a tangible moral burden".
The road to crisis: the 820s
Benedikt von Aniane , Ludwig's most important advisor, died in 821; the church reform movement has since flagged. Because of his harsh actions against family members, especially the late Bernhard, Ludwig the Pious carried out an act of public penance at the Diet of Attigny in 822. In doing so he fulfilled a wish of leading clergymen, who in turn admitted neglect of duty; nevertheless, his church penance meant a loss of prestige. If the itinerary of Ludwig the Pious remained completely focused on Aachen up to this point in time, increased travel activity could be observed in the following years, e.g. B. to the Falzes in Frankfurt and Ingelheim . Ludwig's son Lothar was officially co-regent from 825 to 829. In 826 Ludwig had the disempowered Danish king Harald Klak and his entourage as a guest at the imperial assembly in Ingelheim. He was baptized in St. Alban near Mainz; Ansgar began his missionary work in Scandinavia in the following years.
New problems arose with Ludwig's second marriage in 819 to Judith , the daughter of the Swabian Count Welf I. Presumably at her instigation, Ludwig changed the succession plan he himself had drawn up in 817 when he and Swabia for Karl , the son of his second marriage born in 823 wanted to create a new part of the kingdom. At the same time, displeasure arose at court about Judith's strong influence on the emperor. In 829, at her insistence, Ludwig certainly sent his first-born son and co-emperor Lothar to Italy and expelled Abbot Wala von Corbie from the court.
In 824 he granted the Jews in the Franconian Empire various privileges, including that of the domestic slave trade . In fact, the displaced people were exported to the Caliphate of Córdoba , which the Archbishop of Lyon Agobard protested in vain.
The two-time disempowerment in 830/33
When Louis the Pious, during Lent 830 of all times, called for a campaign against the Bretons that was not acutely necessary , which was intended to divert attention from the domestic political difficulties, an open uprising broke out in April 830. Mühlbacher , Th. Schieffer and Boshof interpret this as a "loyal revolution" or "loyal palace rebellion", i. That is, leading greats at the king's court stand out of loyalty to Ludwig - knowing that they are protecting him from bad advisers and saving the unity of the empire. His son Lothar was brought back from Italy and made co-regent again, Louis the Pious was held in light detention and the Empress Judith, who was accused of adultery with Bernhard of Septimania , was banished to a monastery near Poitiers .
Lothar's regime quickly disappointed, however, because the “loyal rebels” seemed primarily to be pursuing their own power interests. Thus, at the imperial assembly of Nijmegen in October 830, there was again a change in favor of Ludwig. Ludwig the Pious was reinstated in his rule, the heads of the conspiracy were arrested or banished in the following years, Judith was brought back to Aachen, while Lothar was sent back to Italy in 831. His rebellious brothers Ludwig the German and Pippin were forced to submit to submission by their father Ludwig the Pious in 832.
This started a new act of family quarrel , because now all three sons of Ludwig from his first marriage, who feared a reduction in their parts of the empire in favor of their half-brother Charles the Bald. Again Ludwig went to the field against his sons. At the end of June 833, the parties faced each other on the Rotfeld near Colmar , until all loyal friends and soldiers had fallen away from Ludwig through pressure and promises, and on June 30th Ludwig was forced to surrender and de facto abdicate. The Colmarer Rotfeld was soon referred to as a field of lies because of the oaths broken by Ludwig's sons and faithful . Ludwig was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard near (now in) Soissons , where he had to submit to a humiliating public penance; he was given a "register of sins", had to put down his weapons and put on a penitential robe. This time the Empress Judith was banished to Tortona in Italy, her son Karl the Bald was transferred to the monastery of Prüm in strict custody .
Again there was a change, this time probably triggered largely by the unworthy treatment of the old emperor. When Ludwig's sons Pippin, coming from the west, and Ludwig the German, coming from the east, advanced against their brother Lothar at the beginning of 834, he found no more support and could only leave for Italy. On March 1, 834, Louis the Pious was solemnly adorned with arms and a crown in the abbey church of Saint-Denis and recognized as emperor again. Lothar's power was limited to Italy, but the Empress Judith was brought back to Aachen from there.
The last few years
A new plan of division of the empire in 837 in favor of Charles the Bald , the son of Louis from his second marriage, which provided for his rule over Friesland and the area between the Meuse and Seine , led to new unrest, which only ended with the Treaty of Verdun in 843 with the final division of the Franconian Empire were. The sudden death of Ludwig's son Pippin in 838 paved the way for a reasonably balanced tripartite division of the empire among the three remaining sons Lothar, Ludwig the German and Karl the Bald.
Before it came to that, however, Ludwig the Pious had turned his son Ludwig the German against him by only allowing him to rule Bavaria. The son's resistance made a punitive expedition necessary, upon whose return Ludwig the Pious died on June 20, 840 on an island on the Rhine near Ingelheim. The cause was probably gastric or esophageal cancer in connection with bronchitis. According to the report of his biographer Astronomus , Vita Hludowici, chap. 64, Ludwig's last words were “Huz, huz” , Franconian for “Out, out!”. So he spoke with his head turned to one side, for evidently he had thought he saw an evil spirit there; then he gazed serenely at the sky and passed away smiling.
Ludwig had originally wanted to be buried in the Inden Monastery, which he founded, later the Kornelimünster . In the west building of today's Provost Parish Church Kornelimünster there is still the prepared grave site of Ludwig the Pious. However, Ludwig's half-brother Drogo, as Bishop of Metz, arranged for Ludwig the Pious to be buried in the St. Arnulf Abbey in Metz , where his mother Hildegard and other Carolingians were also buried. Redesigned in the 11th and 16th centuries, Ludwig's tomb was destroyed during the French Revolution in 1793 and his bones were scattered. A few fragments of Ludwig's valuable late antique sarcophagus, which represented the procession of the people of Israel, persecuted by the Egyptians, through the Red Sea, are still preserved in the Musée de la ville in Metz.
Position on pagan culture
In modern times, Ludwig the Pious was sometimes accused of being responsible for the downfall of Germanic traditions. Such assertions are without any source basis. There is only one sentence in the Ludwig biographer Thegan, Gesta Hludowici, chap. 19, which says: " The pagan songs [or: poems ] that he [Ludwig] had learned in his youth, he despised and did not want to read, hear or teach them ." It is not even certain whether Thegan Germanic heroic songs What Charlemagne meant, according to Einhard's Vita Karoli Magni , chap. 29, had had collected - the “pagan poems” could just as easily relate to ancient Latin poems as z. B. Virgil's Roman national epic Aeneid , which was certainly dealt with in his lessons in Ludwig's youth; on the possible reference of the passage to Latin poems cf. also Tremp. Above all, Thegan only speaks of Ludwig's personal disdain for this carmina (“songs” or “poems”, whatever they were) in the passage quoted ; However, nowhere, not even in other sources, is there any mention of any instructions from Ludwig to destroy them.
Just as little guaranteed is a collection and securing of Germanic traditions carried out by Ludwig (as with his father Karl), since Ludwig the Pious undisputedly saw one of his most important tasks in the "Christianization" of the Franconian Empire. In his missionary policy he even went beyond its borders: In 831 Ludwig founded the Archdiocese of Hamburg , from which all of Scandinavia was to be missionary; Ebo von Reims and Ansgar, Bishop of Bremen-Hamburg , were the initiators of the Nordic mission on his behalf.
The nickname "the pious"
Ludwig's nickname "the Pious" only caught on in the course of the 10th century. Although Ludwig was referred to as pius (the pious) or piissimus (the very pious) during his lifetime , this was not yet meant as an individual nickname. Iustitia (justice) and pietas (in this context a whole complex of terms in the sense of piety, loyalty to duty, leniency) were considered the two classic ruler's virtues. The ambiguity of the term pius can also be seen in the fact that Ludwig has two epithets in French: "Louis le Pieux" (Louis the Pious) and "Louis le Débonnaire" (Louis the good-natured).
Ludwig, who was treated here, was not named on coins, but his son, known today as Ludwig the German, was "HLVDOVVICVS PIVS", as was the last East Franconian Carolingian Ludwig the child (900–911): So the epithet pius was not yet firmly established awarded a previous Ludwig. It was only from around 960 onwards that there was increasing evidence that gave Ludwig in this article the uniquely individual nickname "the pious". In addition, it was not until the 19th century that a negative interpretation of Ludwig's nickname emerged - for example in the sense of a far-flung bigot - but this view has been corrected by modern history.
Balance sheet from today's perspective
It was not easy for Ludwig the Pious to step out of the shadow of his great father. Since after Karl's conquests no more great expansive successes were possible, it was predetermined for Ludwig from the beginning that he would have to concentrate on the less spectacular internal consolidation of the empire. In the past, Ludwig the Pious was criticized for his allegedly excessive dependence on advisors, but today Boshof puts this accusation into perspective: In Ludwig's time there was no longer any alternative to rule based on personal ties; a violent regime would certainly not have worked. There can also be no question of intellectual and cultural stagnation under Ludwig the Pious.
It was Ludwig's tragedy that the plan described above, which he had modified until the end, was unsuccessful: Lothar and at times also a "Reichsunit party" made up of leading nobles went too far with his plans for partition, his later sons who did not meet each other wanted to bow to the supremacy of the firstborn Lothar, but not far enough. In addition, there was the rivalry between the sons from the first marriage and the son Karl from the second marriage as well as structural problems in aristocratic society in general. Today's research no longer blames Ludwig the Pious alone for the fact that the division of the Carolingian Empire began with his rule.
Before his first marriage, Ludwig had two children from a relationship around the year 793:
- Alpheidis (Elpheid, Alpais) (* probably 794, † 23 July of an unknown year, probably after 29 May 852), as widow abbess of Saint-Pierre-le-Bas in Reims , ∞ around 806 Count Beggo († 28 October 816) ( Matfriede )
- Arnulf (* probably 794, † after March / April 841), Count of Sens
- Lothar I (795–855), emperor
- Pippin I (797–838), King of Aquitaine
- Rotrud, * probably 800
- Hildegard, * probably 802/804, † after October 841, probably on August 23, 860, Abbess of Notre-Dame (probably Notre-Dame de Laon )
- Ludwig "the German" (806–876), King of the East Franconian Empire
- Gisela (820-874), married around 836 Eberhard , Margrave of Friuli ( Unruochinger ) († December 16, 864); both were buried in Cysoing Abbey
- Charles II "the Bald" (823–877), King of the West Franconian Empire, Emperor
The most important sources about Ludwig the Pious are two biographies: the Gesta Hludowici ("The Deeds of Ludwig") of Thegan , written in 835/36, and the Vita Hludowici ("The Life of Ludwig") of the so-called Astronomus , written in 840/41, both last edited by Tremp:
- Ernst Tremp (ed.): Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi 64: Thegan, Die Taten Kaiser Ludwigs (Gesta Hludowici imperatoris). Astronomus, Das Leben Kaiser Ludwigs (Vita Hludowici imperatoris). Hanover 1995 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
Important legal and constitutional historical sources are Ludwig's capitularies and rulers' deeds. The long missing scientific edition of the 418 documents of Ludwig the Pious was created by Theo Kölzer (University of Bonn) and published in 2016 by the Monumenta Germaniae Historica. There are also over 50 document formulas (so-called formulas imperiales ) of Ludwig the Pious. The capitularies of Ludwig the Pious, the last scientific edition of which dates from the 19th century and is out of date, are currently being re-edited at the University of Cologne under the direction of Karl Ubl . The monastic reform legislation is edited by Josef Semmler: Corpus Consuetudinum Monasticarum , Bd. 1, Siegburg 1963. Finally, the cleric Ermoldus Nigellus 826/28 composed the 2649 verse long panegyric epic about Louis the Pious "In honorem Hludowici christianissimi Caesaris augusti".
The relevant regesta work on Ludwig the Pious is the "Böhmer-Mühlbacher":
- Böhmer - Mühlbacher: Regesta Imperii I. The regests of the empire under the Carolingians 751–918 . After Johann Friedrich Böhmer reworked by Engelbert Mühlbacher . After Mühlbacher's death completed by Johann Lechner . Georg Olms, Hildesheim 1966. Therein pp. 239-412 No. 519e-1014c. ( Digitized version )
- Egon Boshof : Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, ISBN 3-89678-020-4 (currently out of print, but available as book-on-demand from the WBG ) Review (authoritative work)
- Egon Boshof: Emperor Ludwig the Pious. Overwhelmed heir to the great Karl? In: Zeitschrift des Aachener Geschichtsverein , Vol. 103 (2001), pp. 7–28.
- Philippe Depreux : Prosopography de l'entourage de Louis le Pieux (781-840) . Sigmaringen 1997, ISBN 3-7995-7265-1
- Ivan Gobry: Louis premier. Fils de Charlemagne . Paris 2002, ISBN 2-85704-736-3
- Peter Godman, Roger Collins (eds.): Charlemagne's heir. New perspectives on the reign of Louis the Pious (814-840). Oxford 1990, ISBN 0-19-821994-6 .
- Mayke de Jong: The Penitential State. Authority and Atonement in the Age of Louis the Pious, 814-840 . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009, ISBN 978-0-521-88152-4 .
- Theo Kölzer : Emperor Ludwig the Pious (814–840) as reflected in his documents. (North Rhine-Westphalian Academy of Sciences, Humanities, Lectures G 401). Paderborn 2005, ISBN 3-506-72969-1
- Engelbert Mühlbacher : German history under the Carolingians . 1896, reprint Phaidon, Essen 1999, 2 volumes, here volume 2, pp. 7–149.
- Rudolf Schieffer : Ludwig 'the pious'. On the creation of a Carolingian ruler's legacy. In: Frühmittelalterliche Studien , Volume 16 (1982), pp. 58-73,
- Rudolf Schieffer: The Carolingians. 4th, revised and expanded edition, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-17-019099-7 , pp. 112-138.
- Theodor Schieffer: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 15, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-428-00196-6 , pp. 311-318 ( version ). In:
- Bernhard von Simson : Yearbooks of the Franconian Empire under Ludwig the Pious. 2 volumes: Vol. 1 (814–830), Vol. 2 (831–840), Leipzig 1874–76, reprinted by Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1969.
- Ernst Tremp : Studies on the Gesta Hludowici imperatoris of the Trier choir bishop Thegan (Monumenta Germaniae Historica Schriften 32). Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hanover 1988.
- Ernst Tremp: The tradition of the Vita Hludovici imperatoris of the Astronomus (Monumenta Germaniae Historica studies and texts 1). Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hanover 1991.
- French translation of Ermoldus Nigellus, 1824, PDF
- The capitularies of Louis the Pious , in: Capitularia. Edition of the Franconian rulers ' edicts, arr. by Karl Ubl and colleagues, Cologne 2014 ff.
- Studies on the history of reception, dissertation Aachen 2004 ( PDF , with bibliography of all relevant papers as of 2004; 2.42 MB)
- - ( Memento of the original from June 25, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Egon Boshof: Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, p. 89 with note 29
- Wolfgang Wendling: The elevation of Ludwig d. Fr. to the co-emperor in the year 813 and its significance for the constitutional history of the Frankish Empire. In: Frühmittelalterliche Studien Vol. 19 (1985), pp. 201-238.
- Egon Boshof: Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, p. 137 f.
- Philippe Depreux: Prosopographie de l'entourage de Louis le Pieux (781-840). Sigmaringen 1997, pp. 163-167 (Drogo), 264-268 (Hugo), 382 f. (Theodoric)
- Egon Boshof: Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, pp. 120-125. See Walter Kettemann: Subsidia Anianensia. Studies of tradition and textual history on the history of Witiza-Benedict, his Aniane monastery and the so-called "Anian Reform". Duisburg / Essen 2008, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 464-20080509-172902-8 ; Dieter Geuenich: Critical comments on the so-called "Anian Reform". In: Dieter R. Bauer et al. (Ed.): Mönchtum - Kirche - Herrschaft 750–1000. Sigmaringen 1998, pp. 99-112; Josef Semmler: Benedictus II: una regula - una consuetudo. In: Willem Lourdaux, Daniel Verhelst (eds.): Benedictine Culture 700-1050. Louvain 1983, pp. 1-49; Josef Semmler: The resolutions of the Aachen Council in 816. In: Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte , Vol. 74 (1963), pp. 15–82; Josef Semmler: The imperial idea and church legislation in Ludwig the Pious. In: Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte , Vol. 71 (1960), pp. 37–65.
- Gereon Becht-Jördens: Sturmi or Bonifatius. A conflict in the age of the Anian reform about identity and monastic self-image as reflected in the altar rituals of Hrabanus Maurus for the Salvator Basilica in Fulda. With appendices to the tradition and critical edition of the tituli as well as to text sources on the architecture and building history of the Salvator Basilica. In: Marc-Aeilko Aris, Susanna Bullido del Barrio (ed.): Hrabanus Maurus in Fulda. With a Hrabanus Maurus bibliography (1979–2009) (Fuldaer Studien 13), Frankfurt am Main 2010; Gereon Becht-Jördens: The Vita Aegil of Brun Candidus as a source for questions from the history of Fulda in the age of the Anian reform. In: Hessisches Jahrbuch für Landesgeschichte , Vol. 42 (1992), pp. 19–48.
- Egon Boshof: Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, pp. 115-118
- Theodor Schieffer: The crisis of the Carolingian empire. In: Josef Engel, Hans Martin Klinkenberg (ed.): From the Middle Ages and Modern Times, Festschrift for Gerhard Kallen. Bonn 1957, pp. 1–15, here: p. 8.
- Rudolf Schieffer : The time of the Carolingian empire 714-887. (Gebhardt - Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte, 10th completely revised edition), Stuttgart 2005, p. 113.
- Charles Verlinden : Was Medieval Slavery a Significant Demographic Factor? In: Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte 66. Heft 2 (1979), pp. 153–173, here p. 161.
- Mühlbacher, 1896/1999, Vol. 2, p. 78 ff .; Schieffer, 1957, p. 11 ff .; Egon Boshof: Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, p. 182 ff.
- Egon Boshof: Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, p. 185.
- Egon Boshof: Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, p. 247.
- Josef Adolf Schmoll called Eisenwerth: The tomb of Emperor Ludwig the Pious in Metz. In: Aachener Kunstblätter 44 (1973), pp. 75–96
- Ernst Tremp (ed.): Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi 64: Thegan, Die Taten Kaiser Ludwigs (Gesta Hludowici imperatoris). Astronomus, Das Leben Kaiser Ludwigs (Vita Hludowici imperatoris). Hanover 1995, p. 201 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- Cf. Egon Boshof: Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, p. 256.
- Egon Boshof: Emperor Ludwig the Pious. Overwhelmed heir to the great Karl? In: Zeitschrift des Aachener Geschichtsverein Vol. 103 (2001), pp. 7–28, here: p. 27.
- Wolfgang Seegrün: The papacy and Scandinavia. Neumünster 1967, p. 24 ff.
- For the entire section cf. Rudolf Schieffer: Ludwig 'the pious'. On the creation of a Carolingian ruler's legacy. In: Frühmittelalterliche Studien, Vol. 16 (1982), pp. 58-73.
- Egon Boshof: Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, p. 266.
- Egon Boshof: Ludwig the Pious. Darmstadt 1996, pp. 258-266.
- For the entire section cf. Egon Boshof: Emperor Ludwig the Pious. Overwhelmed heir to the great Karl? In: Zeitschrift des Aachener Geschichtsverein Vol. 103 (2001), pp. 7–28, esp. Pp. 25–27.
- Friedrich Kurz (Ed.): Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi 6: Annales regni Francorum inde from a. 741 usque ad a. 829, qui dicuntur Annales Laurissenses maiores et Einhardi. Hanover 1895 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- Georg Waitz (ed.): Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi 5: Annales Bertiniani. Hanover 1883 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- Friedrich Kurz (Ed.): Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi 7: Annales Fuldenses sive Annales regni Francorum orientalis. Hanover 1891 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- MGH new release
- Formulae Imperiales , in: MGH Formulas (Legum Sectio V), ed. by Karl Zeumer. Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hannover 1882, pp. 285–328. See Sarah Patt: Studies on the 'Formulas imperiales'. Document conception and use of forms in the office of Kaiser Ludwig the Pious (814–840) Wiesbaden 2016.
- Hludowici Pii Capitularia 814-827 , in: MGH Capitularia Regum Francorum 1, ed. by Alfred Boretius . Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hannover 1883, pp. 261–315 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , digitized version )
- Project Capitularia. Edition of the Franconian rulers' decrees , funded by the North Rhine-Westphalian Academy of Sciences and Arts
- Poetae Latini medii aevi 2: Poetae Latini aevi Carolini (II). Published by Ernst Dümmler . Berlin 1884, pp. 5–79 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , version )
- Cf. Monika Suchan: Review of: de Jong, Mayke: The Penitential State. Authority and Atonement in the Age of Louis the Pious, 814-840. Cambridge 2009 . In: H-Soz-u-Kult , March 10, 2010.
King of the Franks / Partial Kingdom of Aquitaine
King of the Franks
Lothar I , King in Lotharii Regnum (Middle Kingdom)
Ludwig the German , King of East Franconia
Karl the Bald , King of West Franconia
|SURNAME||Louis the Pious|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Ludwig I.|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||King of the Frankish Empire and Holy Roman Emperor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||778|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Chasseneuil near Poitiers|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 20, 840|
|Place of death||Ingelheim am Rhein|