Avant, avant, Lion le melhor.
|region||Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes ( prefecture )|
|Department||Métropole de Lyon|
- Aire urbaine
|47.87 km 2
6,019 km 2
- Aire urbaine
|516,092 (January 1, 2017)
|Population density||10,781 inhabitants / km 2|
Lyon: Old town and peninsula as seen from Fourvière hill with the La Part-Dieu business district in the background.
ljɔ̃ ] (GermanoutdatedLeyden,Latin Lugdunum) is the capital ofthe Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes regionand theMétropole de Lyonin south-easternFrance. Lyon is also the seat of the prefecture ofthe Rhône department, but has not been part of the department since 2015.[
With 515,695 inhabitants in the core city (as of January 2016), Lyon is the third largest core city in the country after Paris and Marseille . The entire metropolitan region of Lyon with 2,310,850 inhabitants (as of January 2016) is the second largest in France after Paris and before Marseille.
Lyon is the bishopric of the Archdiocese of Lyon of the Roman Catholic Church in France . Cathedral Church is the cathedral of Lyon in the old town. The Notre-Dame de Fourvière basilica was built on the Fourvière hill between 1872 and 1884. In 2016, Lyon became the 61st city to be awarded the honorary title of “ Reformation City of Europe ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .
Lyon’s gastronomy enjoys a worldwide reputation. The diversity of traditional cuisine is based on the rare combination of proximity to the Alps and navigable access to the Mediterranean . To the north of the city is the Beaujolais wine-growing region , and to the south of the city are the Côtes du Rhône . Historically, the city is closely linked to the canuts, the silk weavers , whose craft was the driving force behind the industrial revolution . Lyon is also known as the “City of Light”, to which the Fête des Lumières is celebrated every year on December 8th .
The city is located at the confluence of the Rhône and the Saône between the Jura in the northeast, the Alps in the east and the Massif Central in the southwest. The settlement area of the actual city merges seamlessly into the area of neighboring cities and municipalities, so that a dense metropolitan region has developed here. The largest “suburb” of Lyons is the industrial city of Villeurbanne in the east with 147,712 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2017).
While the old city center between the rivers and the city quarters east of the Rhône are laid out in the broad alluvial plain, the residential areas west of the Saône are on the elevated hill area above the Saône loop.
Neighboring municipalities of Lyons are Collonges-au-Mont-d'Or and Caluire-et-Cuire in the north, Villeurbanne and Bron in the east, Vénissieux in the southeast, Saint-Fons and Pierre-Bénite in the south, Oullins , La Mulatière and Sainte-Foy -lès-Lyon in the south-west, Francheville , Tassin-la-Demi-Lune and Écully in the west, and Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or , Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d'Or and Saint-Cyr-au-Mont -d'Or in the northwest.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Lyon
coat of arms
|Blazon : "In red, a silver lion under a blue shield head with three bar-white golden lilies ."|
Ancient and Middle Ages
The previously Celtic settlement was founded in 43 BC. Founded by the Romans under the Celtic name Lugdunum ("Fortress of Lug ") as the administrative center of Gaul . The city played this role for over three centuries before its importance declined with the fall of the Roman Empire . The name of the city changed linguistically over the centuries and consequently has nothing to do with the lion ( French lion ).
In 177, the martyr Blandina , who was later chosen to be the city patroness of Lyon, was burned here . In the 2nd century Irenaeus of Lyon , who was bishop from 177 to 202 and is considered one of the most important church fathers and one of the first systematic theologians of Christianity, also lived in Lugdunum. The future Roman Emperor Caracalla was born on April 4, 188 in what is now Lyon, then the administrative seat of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis , of which his father was the governor. He was given the name Septimius Bassianus. In late antiquity there was a university here , at which Sidonius Apollinaris , among others, also studied. Lyon received the seat of a diocese in the 2nd century and became an archbishopric in the 3rd century. In 461 the city fell to the Burgundians and remained their royal residence until the Franconian conquest in 534. The city was devastated in 725 by the Arabs who invaded the Franconian Empire from Spain.
It was not until the 11th century that Lyon regained greater national importance, when the Catholic Church gave the city its headquarters over Gaul (Primat des Gaules) , which it still has today. The Archbishop of Lyon, now Philippe Barbarin , is traditionally elevated to cardinal and is still the primate of the Catholic Church in France. Two important church assemblies took place in the 13th century, the first (1245) and the second council of Lyon (1274). One of the participants, the Doctor of the Church Bonaventure , is buried in the Église Saint-Bonaventure .
Like the entire Kingdom of Arelat , the city fell to the Holy Roman Empire in 1032 and was then referred to as Leiden or, to better distinguish it from Leiden in the Netherlands, Welsh Leiden . During the Renaissance , Lyon experienced a renewed development surge due to the silk trade. In 1310 the city was occupied by French troops; the plague raged in Lyon in 1348.
In 1529 there was an uprising of the poor in Lyon. As a consequence, the citizens of the city founded a poor foundation. In 1536, silk weaving began in Lyon , which became a lucrative source of income for the city and grew industrially in the following decades. Around 1550 the city was the center of the Lyonesian poetry school . During the French Revolution , Lyon was the main center of resistance to the National Convention in southern France. The city was not only a refuge for the Girondins , who had split off from the other Jacobins , but also for royalists. After the Jacobin city administration had been driven out here, the national convention decided to take military action against the renegade city. On October 9, 1793, after 66 days of siege, Lyon was captured by the troops of the National Convention. Chaired by convent members Collot d'Herbois and Fouché , a bloody criminal court followed in the following six months, which killed city residents in 1962. Finally, the National Convention even ordered that the houses of all “opponents of the revolution” should be torn down. Lyon should become a " Ville sans Nom " ("City without a Name"). The buildings on the large and central Place Bellecour were particularly affected by this measure ; it was rebuilt under Napoleon Bonaparte .
In the 19th century, Lyon developed into a major industrial city, but continued to be a center of the silk industry. In the years 1831 and 1834 the city experienced two great revolts of the silk weavers ( French Canuts ), which were suppressed by the French military and each claimed hundreds of lives. In October / November 1840 the city suffered from flooding. On February 24, 1848, a tumult broke out in Lyon when news of the revolution reached Paris. On June 15, 1849, a popular uprising broke out in Lyon in connection with the Paris tumult; the revolt was put down by the troops under General Magnan . Also in 1870 there were bloody uprisings of the commune. The bricklayers and stonemasons who developed Lyon into an industrial metropolis in the following time came mostly from the Limousin , they were organized in the Syndicat des Maçons de Lyon et du Rhône . Large industrial exhibitions were held here in 1872 and 1894. While visiting the latter, President Carnot was assassinated on June 24, 1894.
At the time of the German occupation in World War II , Lyon was a center of the Resistance . On September 3, 1944, Lyon was liberated by the 1st Division of the Forces françaises libres and the Forces françaises de l'intérieur .
Under the long-time mayor Louis Pradel (1957–1976) there was a thorough modernization of the urban infrastructure, but also a loss of historical substance. Pradel's plan to build an expressway through the Vieux Lyon district, one of the largest preserved Renaissance quarters in Europe, led to civil protests and the introduction of the concept of ensemble protection into French monument protection law by Culture Minister André Malraux .
While the number of inhabitants in the core city has stagnated or decreased slightly in recent decades, the number of inhabitants in the metropolitan region rose from 1,334,388 in 1962 to 2,310,850 in 2016.
Economy and Infrastructure
According to a study from 2014, Lyon has a gross domestic product of 97 billion US dollars in purchasing power parity. In the ranking of the economically strongest metropolitan regions worldwide, the city took 140th place. The GDP per capita is $ 43,316 (PPP).
Lyon is one of the oldest centers of French faience production. Faience has been made here since 1512, initially probably by Italian immigrants. The products of the late 16th century are reminiscent of contemporary majolica from Urbino .
The best-known company from Lyon is probably the major bank Crédit Lyonnais , whose headquarters are in a prominent high-rise called Tour Part-Dieu in the east of the city. The building is called the crayon (pencil) because of its shape .
Lyon is also an important location for the pharmaceutical company Sanofi , whose predecessor Rhône-Poulenc was headquartered in Lyon. The European headquarters of Bayer CropScience is located in the city . With Norbert Dentressangle , one of the largest logistics providers in France is based in Lyon.
There are also refineries and other industries.
In a study by the consulting firm Mercer on the quality of life in 231 cities around the world, Lyon ranked 40th, one place behind Paris. (Status: 2018)
Lyon is France's second largest railway junction with the Perrache and Part-Dieu stations and the Sibelin marshalling yard . In 1981, Lyon was the first city to be connected to Paris by the TGV . Since then, the city, 466 kilometers away, can be reached from Paris in two hours. The important LGV-Méditerranée line from Paris to Marseille runs via the architecturally significant Lyon-Saint-Exupéry TGV station . Lyon has a loading bay for motorail trains .
The busy north-south connection Autoroute du Soleil crosses Lyon on the west side of the old town in a tunnel.
Up until the 1950s there was an extensive network of tram lines in Lyon, some of which stretched far beyond the urban area and some to the neighboring departments. It was dominated by the municipal transport company Omnibus et tramways de Lyon (OTL), which gradually took over routes from competing companies that were no longer able to work independently. The boom after concessions for public transport services began in the late 1880s.
The Lyon Métro now comprises four lines, one of which is driverless (line D) and one with cogwheel operation (line C). In addition, there are two of the former five cable car lines ( Funiculaire ) on the Fourvière hill with the Saint-Jean – Saint-Just and Saint-Paul – Fourvière cog railway . They are nicknamed Ficelle (string) because of the rope . As an extension of the existing bus and trolleybus network, six tram lines were put into operation from 2000 . For some time now there has been a system of rental bicycles ( Vélo'v ) as a supplement to traditional public transport , which can be seen as a model for the Vélib system introduced in Paris in 2007 . The stations are spread all over the city and rental is free for the first half hour.
For shipping on the Rhone, the large freight port of Port de Lyon Edouard Herriot with multimodal transshipment facilities is located south of the city on the eastern bank of the river . The headquarters of the Compagnie nationale du Rhône infrastructure company , which has expanded the course of the Rhône from Lyon to Marseille for shipping and energy generation, is located near the port .
Education and Research
Numerous elite universities, so-called grandes écoles , have their headquarters here:
- the political science Institut d'Études Politiques (Sciences-Po) de Lyon .
- the librarianship École nationale supérieure des sciences de l'information et des bibliothèques .
- the art school École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts de Lyon (Lyon ENSBA)
- the business school Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Lyon (Lyon ESC), which is now Ecole de Management ( EMLYON Business School ) is
- the School of Teachers École normal supérieure de Lyon
- the École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées
- the Institut polytechnique des sciences avancées
- the Institut Sup'Biotech de Paris , Campus Lyon
- a university with a focus on architecture, the École nationale supérieure d'Architecture de Lyon
- the engineering institute national des sciences appliquées de Lyon
- the scientific college École supérieure de chimie, physique, électronique de Lyon (CPE Lyon)
- the École nationale supérieure des arts et techniques du théâtre drama school
- Belong to the network of the University of Lyon
- There is also the private Université Catholique de Lyon .
The following universities also exist:
- the IDRAC École de Commerce (IDRAC Lyon)
- the École de commerce européenne de Lyon (ECE Lyon)
- the École Centrale de Lyon
- the private École catholique d'arts et métiers (ECAM Lyon)
- the veterinary École nationale vétérinaire de Lyon (ENVL)
- the École nationale des travaux publics de l'État (ENTPE)
Culture and sights
On the Fourvière hill in the west of the city there is a theater from Roman times, which is still used today for performances, especially in the summer months, as well as an odeon . To the west of the ancient buildings is the Cimetière de Loyasse monumental cemetery . North-east of the Fourvière hill, on the Croix-Rousse hill, one comes across the remains of the Roman amphitheater . A notable building in Lyon is the Tour métallique de Fourvière (metal tower of Fourvière), which is not open to the public . The Part-Dieu tour is a modern landmark .
Museums and performing arts
There are around 30 museums in Lyon, such as the Musée des Confluences and the Musée des Beaux-Arts , the city library with 15 departments, a national orchestra (Orchester national de Lyon), a national conservatory and numerous important choirs.
A Lyon street name is probably unique in the world: the street of the first film . The street is in the 8th arrondissement and is located where the Lumière brothers shot what is believed to be the world's first film in 1895. Today you can visit a museum on the history of film in this street in the former home of the Lumière family. In the immediate vicinity, a modern cinema was built for the Lumière Institute (light institute) on the site of the brothers' former chemical plant.
In addition to numerous theaters and cinemas , Lyon also offers an opera house (Opéra national de Lyon), which is of national importance and whose architecture is considered a masterpiece by the architect Jean Nouvel . Lyon is also known for its puppet theater , which revolves around the character of the French Kaspers ( Guignol ) , which is influenced by the city's history .
Another cultural specialty is the Maison de la Danse (dance house) . This offers a program fully geared towards dance in all its forms, from classical ballet to modern tango to experimental dance theater. Every two years the Maison de la Danse organizes a biennale with a different theme, which transforms the entire city into a gigantic dance stage for two weeks in September.
Les Subsistances are located on the left bank of the Saône, north of the city center . The cultural complex, housed in an old convent, is dedicated to the current forms of expression of artistic creation, such as dance, theater, new forms of circus, video and computer performances.
The Lyon-based artist group CitéCréation , which is now active around the world, enhanced the Les États-Unies district (8th arrondissement ) in particular with large frescoes , trompe-l'œils and other wall paintings. The murals in Lyon now consist of over 100 works of art on walls and buildings with motifs from the history and life of the city. The murals Fresque des Lyonnais from 1994/95 depict 24 historical and six contemporary people from Lyon on an area of 800 square meters. These include Irenaeus of Lyon , Antoine de Saint-Exupéry and Tony Garnier as well as Abbé Pierre , Paul among his contemporaries Bocuse and Bertrand Tavernier . City tours are organized following the traces of the murals.
The Biennale d'art contemporain de Lyon alternates with the Biennale de la danse de Lyon . On the initiative of the Lyon lighting designer Roland Jéol , the world's first lighting master plan was implemented in Lyon in 1989. Since then, Jéol has had hundreds of buildings and other objects illuminated in Lyon . Following the example of Lyon, there are now more than 200 cities in France with plans lumières Jéol was also commissioned to systematically illuminate other European cities, for example Zurich and Ghent . The Archipel Center De Culture Urbaine shows, right next to the Musée des Beaux-Arts, changing exhibitions on contemporary architecture and a permanently attached city model on a scale of 1/1000.
Lyon is famous for its gastronomy. The Lyon cuisine (also Lyonesian cuisine) is simple but fine cuisine and is based on the famous regional products ( Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée , abbreviated: AOC) such as poultry from Bourg-en-Bresse ( Bresse chicken ), trout from the clear rivers from the Alps, from the many lakes pike , char , whitefish , eel and crayfish , the famous carp from the Dombes , fruits from the Monts Lyonnais and the Rhone Valley, vegetables from the flatlands of the Ain department , the artichokes from Vaulx-en-Velin , Cheese from the Dauphiné and the Ardèche , wine from the Beaujolais , the Côtes du Rhône , the Bugey and Burgundy .
Many world-famous cheeses also come from the Lyon region , including Tomme de Savoie (a mild, soft cheese) and Beaufort (Gruyère from Savoy), the mountain cheeses Chevrotin des Alpes, Reblochon and Dauphinois, the Vacherin de Chambéry (a creamy cheese, which is eaten with a spoon), the blue cheeses Bleu de Bresse and Bleu de Gex and the goat cheese Chevretons du Beaujolais. There are no fewer than 17 mineral springs in the region , including Evian mineral water . The Chartreuse , a herbal liqueur made by Carthusian monks from the Great Charterhouse near Grenoble, comes from the region.
Great chefs such as Paul Bocuse , Pierre Orsi, Alain Chapel , Georges Blanc , Jean-Paul Lacombe, Guy Lassausaie or Christian Têtedoie and also the co-founder of restaurant criticism , Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin , have contributed to the good reputation of Lyon’s gastronomy. They are part of the gastronomic tradition of the Mères Lyonnaises (Mothers of Lyon). These were initially in the service of large families of the bourgeoisie and became self-employed in the second half of the 19th century. Her customers included journeyman craftsmen who traveled through France. Paul Bocuse began his career at the Mère Brazier kitchen stove, Georges Blanc is a direct descendant of Mère Blanc - other famous Mères Lyonnaises are: La Mère Vittet, la Mère Guy, la Mère Fillioux (teacher of Mère Brazier), la Mère Poupon, la Mère Brigousse, la Mère Léa and la Grande Marcelle.
Famous dishes served in the typical bouchons, small restaurants with traditional cuisine, are: Saladier lyonnais (a salad made from sheep's feet, herring fillets, poultry liver and hard-boiled eggs), the gratin dauphinois, the French fries , the Lyon quiche , fried frog legs , Poularde demi-deuil (chicken with truffles under the skin), poularde with crayfish and morels, coq au vin (rooster braised in wine), tripes à la lyonnaise ( tripe and loosened beef's feet in tomato and white wine sauce), quenelles (fish dumplings, mostly made from pike) with Nantua sauce , andouillette à la lyonnaise (sausage made from pork offal and veal), rosette de Lyon (an air-dried, salami-like sausage), rays, rabbits with chestnuts, cardons à la moelle (leeks with bone marrow), cervelas Lyonnais ( brioche filled with a mixture of sausage, truffle and pistachio nuts), croquette de valence ( crepe filled with ham, game fowl and mushrooms), walnut tart, kara Mellised apples and Bugnes de Lyon (mini fritters with lemon flavor). The world's most famous meat sausage from Lyon is the Lyoner , there it is simply called Cervelas .
Lyon is home to the Olympique Lyon football club , whose men's team was the first team to win seven national championships in a row from 2002 to 2008. In 2008, for the first time in the club's history, they won the double (championship and Coupe de France ) with a 1-0 win n. V. against Paris Saint-Germain . The old home stadium is the Stade Gerland , officially called Stade Municipal de Gerland and located in the 7th arrondissement on Avenue Jean Jaurès . The club has been playing in the Stade des Lumières in neighboring Décines-Charpieu since 2016 .
Also Olympiques women footballers have won in a row from 2007 to date six French titles and are also equipped with two European Cup wins (2011 and 2012) internationally even more successful than the men of the club. This department emerged from the women's team at FC Lyon , which won the national championship four times in the 1990s.
Politics and administration
Lyon is the seat of the Métropole de Lyon , the second largest metropolitan area in France with 1,452,952 inhabitants (as of 2007). This local association comprises 58 municipalities.
Mayor and City Councilor
Lyons city council is run by a mayor . The incumbent since 2018 has been Gérard Collomb from the Parti socialiste , who held the post between 2001 and 2017 and has since been French interior minister. In 2020, Grégory Doucet was elected mayor from the left-wing Union de la gauche list.
The Lyons City Council consists of 72 elected members.
Lyon has been divided into nine urban arrondissements since the surrounding municipalities were incorporated in 1852 . The organization of the city council is comparable to that of Paris and Marseille . The arrondissement number corresponds to the last digit of the Postal code .
- 1st arrondissement : Pentes de la Croix-Rousse , Les Terreaux , Saint-Vincent
- 2nd arrondissement : Cordeliers, Bellecour , Ainay, La Confluence
- 3rd arrondissement : La Part-Dieu, Villette , Montchat, La Guillotière
- 4th arrondissement : La Croix-Rousse , Serin
- 5th arrondissement : Saint-Jean-Saint-Paul - Saint-Georges, Saint-Just , Fourvière , Le Point-du-Jour, Ménival, Champvert, La Sarra, Saint-Irénée
- 6th arrondissement : Les Brotteaux, Bellecombe, Tête d'Or
- 7th arrondissement : La Guillotière, Gerland, La Mouche
- 8th arrondissement : Monplaisir, Le Bachut, Mermoz, Les États-Unis, Le Grand Trou, Laënnec
- 9th arrondissement : Vaise, La Duchère, Gorge de Loup , Saint-Rambert- l'Île-Barbe
Up until January 1, 2015, Lyon was the capital of 14 cantons , which partly coincided with the urban arrondissements and partly further subdivided them.
|Canton||Consisted of…||Residents 1|
|Lyon-I||the 2nd arrondissement||30,958|
|Lyon II||the 1st arrondissement||29.209|
|Lyon III||the 4th arrondissement||36,240|
|Lyon IV||the 9th arrondissement||48,429|
|Lyon-V||the 5th arrondissement||46,693|
|Lyon VI||part of the 6th arrondissement||23,919|
|Lyon VII||part of the 6th arrondissement||25,560|
|Lyon-VIII||part of the 3rd arrondissement||35,414|
|Lyons-IX||part of the 7th arrondissement||38,642|
|Lyon-X||part of the 7th arrondissement||37.104|
|Lyon-XI||part of the 3rd arrondissement||35,310|
|Lyon-XII||part of the 8th arrondissement||38,850|
|Lyon-XIII||part of the 3rd arrondissement||27,411|
|Lyon XIV||part of the 8th arrondissement||42,604|
Lyon has partnerships with the following 26 cities:
- Birmingham , UK, since 1951
- Yokohama , Japan, since 1959
- Frankfurt am Main , Germany, since 1960
- Milan , Italy, since 1966
- Montreal , Canada, since 1979
- Be'er Scheva , Israel, since 1981
- Leipzig , Germany, since 1981 so-called “Pacte d'amitié” - city friendship
- Guangzhou , People's Republic of China, since 1988
- Łódź , Poland, since 1991
- Yerevan , Armenia, since 1992
- Ouagadougou , Burkina Faso, since 1993
- Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam, since 1997
- Gothenburg , Sweden, since 1998
- Beirut , Lebanon, since 1999
- Porto-Novo , Benin, since 1999
- Addis Ababa , Ethiopia, since 2002
- Rabat , Morocco, since 2003
- Bamako , Mali, since 2004
- Barcelona , Spain, cooperation agreement since 2004
- Jericho , Palestinian Territories, since 2004
- Philadelphia , USA, since 2004
- Turin , Italy, cooperation agreement since 2004
- Haute Matsiatra , Madagascar, since 2006
- Sétif , Algeria, since 2006
- Tinca , Romania, since 2011
- Boston , USA, since 2014
Famous Lyons include the Roman Emperor Claudius , the physicist André-Marie Ampère , the writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry , the world-famous chef Paul Bocuse , the pioneers of modern cinema, the Lumière brothers , and the surgeon and Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel .
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- Jean-François Reynaud, Jörg Fündling : Lyon. In: Real Lexicon for Antiquity and Christianity . Volume 23. Hiersemann, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-7772-1013-1 , Sp. 802-828.
- David G. Wigg: Lugdunum. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 19, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2001, ISBN 3-11-017163-5 , pp. 26-28. ( Digitized in the Google book search).
- Sebastian Redecke: The return of the seats. Lyon, the second largest city in France, created car-free urban spaces. In: the scales. Magazine of Grünenthal GmbH, Aachen. Volume 36, 1997, No. 1, pp. 23-29.
- Markets - In the belly of Lyon: La Croix-Rousse. Documentary, Germany, 2012, 43 min., Written and directed: Constanze von Hartmann, Ignacio Lantero, Alessandro Scalerandi, Stefano Tealdi, production: Stefilm, Golden Girls Filmproduktion , Laokoon, Media 3.14 SL, ZDF , series: Markets, German first broadcast: February 21, 2013 at arte , summary:.
- Thieves of the night . ( OT : Les Voleurs. ) Feature film, France, 1996, 117 min., Book: André Téchiné , Gilles Taurand, Michel Alexandre, director: André Téchiné, production: Les Films Alain Sarde , TF1 , Rhônes-Alpes Cinéma, theatrical release France: August 21, 1996, Germany: April 24, 1997, with Catherine Deneuve and Daniel Auteuil in the leading roles.
- The watchmaker of St. Paul . (OT: L'Horloger de Saint-Paul. ) Feature film, France, 1974, 105 min., Book: Georges Simenon , Pierre Bost , Jean Aurenche , Bertrand Tavernier , director: Bertrand Tavernier, with Jean Rochefort and Philippe Noiret in the leading roles
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- Figure 5 - Population 2016 et taux de variation annuel de la population des grandes aires urbaines entre 2011 et 2016. In: insee.fr, December 27, 2018, accessed on April 29, 2019.
- See the city portrait of the project “Reformation Cities of Europe”: Reformation City Lyon. France. Valdes and Viret. In: reformation-cities.org, accessed on August 14, 2017.
- Météo-France. - Humidity, duration of sunshine. In: wetterkontor.de.
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