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Rabat coat of arms
Rabat (Morocco)
Basic data
State : MoroccoMorocco Morocco
Region : Rabat-Salé-Kénitra
Prefecture : Rabat
Coordinates 34 ° 2 ′  N , 6 ° 50 ′  W Coordinates: 34 ° 2 ′  N , 6 ° 50 ′  W
Residents : 573,895 (2014)
Area : 112 km²
Population density : 5,124 inhabitants per km²
Height : 20  m
Postal code : 10000-10220
City administration website :
www.mairiederabat.com Rabat
Kasbah des Oudaias at the mouth of the Bou-Regreg
Kasbah des Oudaias at the mouth of the Bou-Regreg

Rabat ( Central Atlas Tamazight ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ Aṛbaṭ , Arabic الرباط, DMG ar-Ribāṭ  'fortified place') has been the capital of Morocco since 1956 with the seat of government and the residence of the king; at the same time, the city is the capital of the Rabat-Salé-Kénitra region . Rabat is located on the Atlantic coast on the southern bank of the Bou-Regreg opposite the neighboring town of Salé . The metropolitan area ( Wilaya ) Rabat-Salé is divided into four prefectures; the prefecture of Rabat comprises a built-up area with the administrative and business center.

Along with Fès , Meknes and Marrakech, Rabat is one of the four royal cities of Morocco . The name goes back to an Islamic border fortress ( Ribat ) that Zanata - Berbers built in the 10th century at the mouth of the Bou-Regreg river. In the 12th century the Almohads had the Ribat expanded into a fortified city ( kasbah ), which remained an important trading town with and in competition with Salé until the 19th century. In the 17th century, the independent pirate republic of Bou-Regreg ensured an economic boom, and Andalusians immigrated from the Iberian Peninsula ensured population growth. With the beginning of the French Protectorate , Rabat became the seat of the General President in 1912 . Since the turn of the millennium, the large-scale Bab el-Bahr project has been underway on Bou-Regreg, with the aim of turning the previously uninhabited river bank into a cultural center.


Rabat is about 90 kilometers on the A3 motorway northeast of Casablanca and 200 kilometers on the A1 motorway along the coast south of Tangier . The distance on the A 2 motorway east inland to Meknes is 120 kilometers. Rabat and Salé each lie on a rock outcrop above the wide Bou Regreg valley. Almost two kilometers as the crow flies separate the fortification walls of both old towns at the confluence of the river into the Atlantic. The only road bridge in the city center was the four-lane Pont Moulay El Hassan , built in the late 1950s , which was replaced by the higher Hassan II bridge in May 2011 . The new bridge is used for motor and tram traffic. Due to the greater height of the new bridge of 12.8 meters, the Bou-Regreg estuary became navigable inland, so that larger yachts can now also call at the newly built Marina of Salé. For long-distance traffic, two more road bridges will be added a few kilometers inland.

The Rabat-Sale airport is eight kilometers northeast of the center near Salé.

The coastal strip from the industrial city of Kenitra, 45 kilometers to the north, to Casablanca in the south, is one of the most densely populated regions in the country and has the most economically strong industrial production. This area, which was declared a preferred development zone during the colonial period, is home to 34 percent of the Moroccan population. The prefecture of Rabat has an area of ​​9,526 hectares and the prefecture of Salé of 15,095 hectares, separated by the alluvial , agricultural plain of the Bou-Regreg. To the north of Salé, the field plain of the village of Bouknadel forms the border of the conurbation, 15 kilometers south of Rabat, the industrial city of Témara is also part of it.

In December 2007, the official start of construction for the Rabat-Salé tram , which is to develop the Rabat-Salé metropolitan area in two lines with a length of 20 kilometers and 31 stops. After its inauguration, the new Hassan II bridge has been available for road traffic and trams since May 23, 2011. The tram has started operation with lines 1 and 2 (phase 1). Line 2 is to be expanded further.

Population development

year 1982 1994 2004 2014
Residents 526.124 615.377 621.480 573,895

At the end of the 19th century, around 30,000 people lived together in Rabat and Salé. In 1912, Rabat was estimated to have 27,000 inhabitants and Salé was 19,000. In the 1952 census there were 156,000 inhabitants, the number of which had grown to 231,000 by 1960, about three times as many as in Salé. From the 1970s, Salé began to catch up. The population of the entire Rabat Prefecture was 623,457 according to the 1994 census. This year Salé was already slightly ahead with 631,803 inhabitants, as it developed more and more into a “dormitory city” for workers and employees in Rabat.


In 1933, the first hominid skull bones in Northwest Africa were found near Rabat, derived from a Homo erectus, or more likely from an approximately 100,000 year old Homo sapiens , known as the Rabat hominid. Stone tools from the surrounding area indicate a Neolithic settlement.

Probably from the 8th century BC. BC the Phoenicians owned a port on Bou-Regreg. Only the Carthaginian settlement Sala on the south bank of the river from the 3rd century BC can be proven. This place was conquered during the reign of the Roman emperor Claudius (ruled 41–54). Emperor Trajan (r. 98–117) granted him city ​​rights under the name Colonia Sala . It was the southernmost city of the province of Mauretania Tingitana , the border of which ran roughly on a line to Meknes and included the Volubilis . The foundation walls of the Roman settlement are preserved within the walled medieval necropolis of Chellah on the eastern edge of today's city center. Until the arrival of the Arab Fatimids , there seems to have been no continuous settlement. At the end of the 10th century, members of the Banu Ifran , a Berber tribe that belonged to the Zanata , built an Islamic border fortress (Ribat) on the site of today's kasbah on the south side of the river mouth . The later city of Rabat took its name from this. The fortified base served the fight against the politically and religiously hostile independent Berber empire of the Bargawata , which stretched along the Atlantic coast from here to Safi in the south. At that time there was already a place called Salā, inhabited by Banu Ifran, on the opposite northern bank . The inland area of ​​the Chellah had lost its importance.

Almohad city walls on Boulevard ed Dousteur. The southern boundary of the palace district - still without the tram route in front of the city wall

The dispute over various Islamic faiths ended with the conquest by the Sunni empire of the Almoravids (1061–1147). During the rule of the first Almohad caliph Abd al-Mu'min (ruled 1147–1163), the Ribat was expanded from 1150 to a fortified palace with a residential town ( Kasbah des Oudaïas ). The early Islamic settlement was called al-mahdiya , under the Almohads it became mahdiyat Ibn Tūmart after the founder of this religious reform movement . The devout fighters ( mujahideen ) of the Almohads set up a tent camp below the castle hill , where they gathered before the crossing to the Iberian Peninsula . Yaʿqūb al-Mansūr (ruled 1184–1199) planned to turn the most important port city of the empire, which was acting as a great power, into the capital. The advantage of Rabat was that it was strategically located more favorably than Marrakech . Al-Mansur had the massive enclosing walls with city gates of impressive dimensions built, which are still preserved today. The area enclosed by the walls is so extensive that it was only completely built over in the 20th century. His services also include the construction of the Great Mosque, the minaret of which , the Hassan Tower , became the city's landmark. His successor immediately halted construction on the new city complex. Most of the buildings remained unfinished and the center of the empire was moved back inland to Marrakech because of the reorientation to the new domestic political difficulties.

From the 13th century there was the city of Salé at the mouth of the Bou-Regreg on the north bank, the Kasbah des Oudaïas in the south on the sea bank and behind it the almost abandoned city of al-Mansur. Coming from the northeast, the Merinids conquered the Almohad Empire from the middle of the 13th century ; In 1251 they extended their control to the Bou-Regreg and occupied Salé. They were not interested in Rabat, but at the end of the 13th century they determined the location of the former Roman settlement 300 meters east of the Almohad city wall as the royal necropolis ( Chellah ). From the 14th century on, economic life was concentrated in the international seaport of the neighboring city of Salé. The Arab traveler Leo Africanus came through Rabat in 1500 and reported that there were only around 100 inhabited houses.

Rabat only recovered when the Moors (Andalusians) expelled from Spain by the Reconquista settled in Rabat and Salé. The last Moors were forcibly converted to Christianity Moors who arrived en masse from 1609 to 1614 in Morocco. As a contemporary historian described, the newcomers to Salé made themselves unpopular through un-Islamic behavior and clothing, which is why they had to move to a separate district of Rabat on the other side of the river. Revenge against the Spaniards made them bitter fighters of the pirate republic of Bou-Regreg , founded in 1627 . Both cities became the center of organized piracy and formed a practically independent small empire compared to the Saadian dynasty ruling the country . The tasks were different on both sides of the river: the port and the shipyard were in Salé, from where most of the trade and piracy started. Rabat, which was called S'lah Dschedid ("New Salé") at that time , took over political and military control functions with the Kasbah and the Medina .

In the years that followed, there were multiple power struggles between the two neighboring cities, which were fought over the river with cannon fire. In 1637 an English fleet ended the siege of the Andalusians at Salé. After a counterattack on Rabat in the same year, the Andalusians sought the support of Muhammad al-Hajj (Muḥammad al-Ḥāǧǧ, † 1671), a Sufi leader whose grandfather had founded the order of the Dila Brotherhood (Dilāʾiyya), the most important opposition movement against the Saadians. In 1641 the Dilaiyyas conquered the coveted port of Salé, which Muhammad al-Hajj controlled until 1651. Afterwards, his son Abdullah, who lived in the Kasbah, took control of the city-state. In 1660 the Andalusians besieged the Kasbah until a year later Abdullah gave up his position. The independent republic existed until 1668, when the first Alawid sultan Mulai ar-Raschid (ruled 1666–1672) took the city and placed it under central authority.

In the 17th century there were times when up to 100 merchant ships from Europe docked in the port each year. Independently of this, the pirate raids against merchant ships continued until the beginning of the 19th century, which is why English and French warships shot at the city several times. After the death of the second Alawid sultan Mulai Ismail (r. 1672–1727), unrest broke out in the country, which ended the unified rule of the Makhzen . There were again skirmishes between Salé and Rabat, as both cities supported another son of Ismail in the War of Succession. In 1755 large parts of the city were destroyed by an earthquake. Ten years later, French warships bombed Rabat to counter the ongoing piracy. Then the Alawids allowed the establishment of a French consulate. In 1807 the Mellah , a residential area assigned to the Jews, was established. The pirate problem ended in 1829 when the Austrian monarchy's navy took revenge for the loss of a merchant ship and set fire to all of the Moroccan coastal cities.

Due to economic crises in the 19th century, the inhabitants of Salé became impoverished, while the modest maritime trade with Europe and thus the entire business life that had developed around the loading facilities and customs buildings was concentrated in Rabat. In addition, political unrest weakened the sultan's rule. In September 1845, residents of Rabat rebelled against the governor appointed by the sultan and appointed a city head from among their ranks. In a cholera epidemic in Rabat and Salé in 1854, around 6000 people died. The larger port of Casablanca replaced Rabat as a commercial center at the beginning of the 20th century.

Courtyard of the Royal Palace

At the Algeciras Conference from January to April 1906, the sultan's sovereignty was formally recognized, while some Moroccan port cities - including Rabat - were to be controlled by the French police and the others by the Spanish police. In August 1907, Mulai Abd al-Hafiz began to rebel against his brother Abd al-Aziz (r. 1894–1908) with the support of some Berber tribes . Fearing for his life, he fled to Rabat under the care of the French stationed there. In July 1908, with French support, he defeated the troops of al-Aziz. On January 5, 1909, al-Hafiz was recognized by the French as the new sultan. Despite his dislike of the Europeans for strictly religious reasons, he was soon seen by the people as their puppet. Al-Hafiz signed the protectorate treaty with the French on March 30, 1912 in Fez. They chose Rabat as the administrative capital of French Morocco and made other fundamental decisions for future development: Casablanca was to be expanded as the economic capital and an industrial port was to be built in Kenitra . The division into an investment zone with the three cities on the coast and a negligible inland area was decisive for the economic development of Morocco during the colonial period. Even after independence, their negative effects were only partially mitigated.

The first French general resident Hubert Lyautey had his official seat in Rabat from 1912 to 1925, as did the Sultan Mulai Yusuf (ruled 1912-1927) , who was appointed by the French to preserve the appearance of an ongoing sultanate . During the colonial rule, which lasted until 1956, the structures of the old town were hardly touched, but a completely new administrative district was created. Lyautey commissioned the city planner Henri Prost (1874-1959) to draw up a general development plan for five large Moroccan cities. The design for Rabat presented in 1920 envisaged the construction of new European districts separately from the traditional quarters, following the usual French pattern. The reason for the separation was that they wanted to preserve the authentic character of the old towns. In practice, only Europeans and the local upper class developed neighborhoods, while the lower classes remained in the undeveloped old towns. Until 1947 the plan remained the only guideline for urban development. As a consequence of this division and the rapidly growing population, the first slum areas ( bidonvilles ) emerged in the 1920s , in which more than 25,000 inhabitants were already living in 1947. In the old town, the population density doubled by the end of the 1940s.

After independence, Rabat remained the capital of the country, the sultan's palace, with its previous symbolic function, was converted into a center of power, where the current king also resides.


Rabat - modern capital with a historical core: a common heritage
UNESCO world heritage UNESCO World Heritage Emblem
National territory: MoroccoMorocco Morocco
Type: Culture
Criteria : ii, iv
Surface: 349 ha
Reference No .: 1401
UNESCO region : Arabic states
History of enrollment
Enrollment: 2012  (session 36)

Rabat is divided inland along the river bank from the Kasbah des Oudaïas via the Arab old town ( Medina ) to the planned French city of Ville Nouvelle with the Rabat Ville train station in the center. This includes a central villa area with a few embassies near the Hassan Tower. The French new town ends on Boulevard er Rahba at the first river bridge. Undeveloped land begins east of the boulevard. The new districts ( quartiers ) on the banks of the Bou-Regreg are four to eight kilometers further outside from Youssoufia to Hay Nahda . To the south of the train station, Avenue John Kennedy (also Avenue Mohammed VI) leads to the center of the extensive embassy district of Souissi, where two-storey villas are hidden behind high hedges in a quiet garden city.

Along the coast to the southwest, after the kasbah and a large cemetery, follow the well-tended middle-class residential area Océan and east of it centrally located Les Orangers, as well as further along the coast the popular residential areas Akkari, Yacoub El Mansour, Massira and Hay el Fath , two kilometers before Témara . In the middle area between the sea and the river there are several mixed residential and business districts from Dijour Jama to the south via Agdal to the villa district Hay Riad .

The city was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2012.

Old town

Kasbah des Oudaïas. Enclosing walls from the north. Right the Atlantic, left the mouth of the Bou-Regreg
Bab el Oudaïa. Entrance to the kasbah

The medina is surrounded on three sides by the Almohad city wall, which was completed in 1197, only to the east of the Kasbah is a small piece of the rock edge above the river bank missing. The generously planned, altogether 5250 meters long wall leads over the medina around a large part of the new town in the west and south, where it encloses the garden area of ​​the royal palace. The much smaller area of ​​the medieval medina is demarcated from the French new town by the Andalusian wall from the 17th century. The former Mellah was on the river bank within the Andalusian Wall. The Great Mosque from the 14th century (rebuilt in 1882 and 1939) is located on Rue Souika, parallel to the wall. The streets of the medina are straighter and wider than in other Moroccan cities. Four gates lead from the new town through the Andalusian wall into the souq , which extends over most of the medina. A main entrance leads from the new town along Avenue Mohammed V across the old town and ends at the cemetery located inside the town wall with a view of the sea. On the west side, the unadorned Bab el Had rammed earth gate in the Almohad wall is worth mentioning.

The cemetery is adjacent to the Kasbah des Oudaïas , whose entrance, the representative Bab el Oudaïa , can be reached from the Place Souk el Ghezel. The white plastered houses in the winding pedestrian streets behind have been carefully restored. The tourist destination is also a sought-after and expensive residential area. Inside the Kasbah is the Jama al Atiq , the city's oldest mosque from the 12th century (restored in the 18th century). Below the entrance gate to the kasbah, behind a front wall, with which the kasbah was expanded from 1666 to 1672 by a palace in a garden, is the Musée des Oudaïas , in which handicrafts are exhibited. The "Andalusian Garden" was created in the French colonial era.

Ville Nouvelle

Avenue Mohammed V, the main shopping street in the French New Town, by the train station

In contrast to Salé, which has hardly any buildings from the colonial era, a generous colonial new town with magnificent apartment blocks was built in Rabat. The wide boulevard Hassan II, which is crossed by the avenue Mohammed V, which leads to the south, runs parallel to the Andalusian Wall. Numerous hotels, banks, the main post office and the Rabat Ville train station to the south are located on this main shopping street in the French New Town. The oldest buildings were built in the 1920s in the sweeping Art Deco style. Further public buildings are located further east in the vicinity of the parallel avenue Allal Ben Abdallah. In the south, the Es Sunna Great Mosque (early 20th century) forms the end of the business district. The Archaeological Museum ( Musée Archéologique ) a few meters to the east gives an overview of Moroccan history. It contains the most important finds in the country, especially from the Roman period. The Musée Mohammed VI d'art moderne et contemporain is also nearby . On the other side of the mosque, the road continues south along the outer wall of the government district. Construction of the royal palace began in 1864. The palace district includes other buildings from the 19th century and a large meeting place ( mechouar ).

Hassan Tower . In the foreground remains of the outer walls of the former mosque made of rammed earth

From the train station, a road leads past the huge, snow-white cathedral Saint-Pierre (inaugurated in 1921) to the Hassan Tower ( Tour Hassan ) near the Bou-Regreg . The tower named after al-Hasan ibn ʿAlī , the grandson of the Prophet or after the Arabic word hassane (“beauty”) is the symbol of Rabat. The tower that stands today is the unfinished minaret of the Great Mosque, which the Almohad caliph Yaʿqūb al-Mansūr commissioned in 1191. In the new capital, it was to become the largest mosque in the Islamic world after the Great Mosque of Samarra . At Lisbon earthquake of 1755 the oratory was destroyed. It had the external dimensions of 183 × 139 meters. Small remains of the rammed earth walls are still standing. The re-erected stumps of the former 312 columns and 112 pillars made of marble have been preserved. According to the plans, the 44-meter-high square Hassan Tower should have reached over 80 meters. It was built just a few years later as the minaret of the Koutoubia Mosque in Marrakech.

At the other end of the large terrace is the mausoleum of Mohammed V , built between 1961 and 1967, made of white marble. The building's tomb, which is sunk into the ground, can be viewed from a surrounding gallery. In addition to Mohammed V, the cenotaphs of King Hassan II and Prince Mulai Abdallah, a brother of Hassan II, who died in 1983, are also located here .

To the southwest of the station, avenue Moulay Hassan runs through the Almohad wall at Bab er Rouah ("Gate of the Wind") on the edge of the government district. This monumental stone-walled gateway and the entrance to the kasbah from the same period represent the two most beautiful portals in the mud wall. The building has two side towers and several square adjoining rooms vaulted with domes. Today the city art gallery of the same name is housed there. The Bab Rouah gallery shows modern Moroccan art, for example the works of the painter Abderrahman Meliani on a regular basis .


Merinid portal of the Chellah

In the open area southeast of the Almohad wall, the high, crenellated rammed earth wall of the Chellah surrounds the Merinid city of the dead. Access is through a monumental stone portal from the 14th century. The octagonal flank towers end in square platforms at the top. The passage is laid out at an angle for better defense and covered with groin vaults made of bricks. The footpath leads through a park with bushes and trees down a hill to the remains of the Roman settlement of Sala Colonia, uncovered in 1930 . The few remaining rows of stone houses and commercial shops reveal the Decumanus , which led to the former port as the main axis of the city. This ended at a triumphal arch, of which only the foundations have been preserved.

Next to it is the necropolis , established from the end of the 13th century , in which several Merinid sultans and Islamic saints ( marabouts ) were buried. The tomb of Sultan Abu l-Hasan , who died in 1351, is best preserved. Sams ad-Dauha (1330-1380), one of the sultan's wives, who is said to have been an English or Scottish princess, is also buried there. Nearby is a well-preserved minaret with diamond patterns and remains of mosaic tiles that belonged to a mosque with an adjoining madrasa . The inner courtyard of the madrasa had a large rectangular water basin in the middle and was roofed by a flat wooden structure on pillars. The student bedrooms bordered the courtyard.

The construction of the necropolis took place at a place previously worshiped by the local Berbers near a sacred spring. A sacred pond is hidden at the edge of the large tombs, which is fed from this spring and in which eels live or should live. According to tradition, women feed the eels with eggs in the 20 square meter masonry basin and throw coins into them, which they expect to have plenty of offspring. In a similar way, turtles in the Moroccan town of Lalla Takerkoust or catfish in Dafra in Burkina Faso were worshiped in Islamic popular belief . Of the seven holy tombs ( Qubbas ), the most famous belongs to Sidi bin Yunis, the guardian of the Paradise Spring ( kauthar or kausar ). The still venerated graves of saints may not be visited.

Outer quarters

Embassy district Souissi on the avenue Mohammed VI leading to the center

The four-lane avenue Avenue an-Nasr leads west from Bab er Rouah to the middle-class residential and business district of Agdal . There you will find the National Library ( Bibliothèque nationale du Royaume du Maroc ) and the Agdal University ( Université Mohammed V Agdal - Rabat ), the largest university in the country.

Compared to the busy economic metropolis of Casablanca, Rabat is considered a quieter administrative city. Many government officials and embassy staff live in the Souissi district, designed as a garden city, outside of the south.

Since 1994, the Bab el-Bahr project has been building a new urban center on the north bank of the river between the Ville Nouvelle of Rabat and the Medina of Salé, which is intended to connect the two cities. Several upscale residential and business districts are planned. On the Quartier de la Culture on the river bank, the architectural highlight of the entire project is to be a large theater with 2050 seats, as well as an auditorium with 520 seats and an open-air theater for 7000 visitors. At the end of 2010, the shell of a larger part of the residential buildings was completed.

In the districts close to the center of Rabat, the areas with slum dwellings have been converted into decent living spaces since the 1990s. The former corrugated iron huts in the Oued Akreuch and Douar Diss districts , which are located far outside, also gave way to mostly permanent houses. The majority of the residents have recently moved here from the country. Other quarters such as Hajj, Maadid and Sidi Taiba consist of more or less solid, brick-built residential units on owner-occupied land, but they were created illegally without building permission, which is why the basic infrastructure is often lacking. Such areas are overpopulated and only have narrow traffic routes.



Due to its location on the Atlantic Ocean, Rabat has a Mediterranean climate with moderate temperatures. Most of the rain falls in winter (October to March), the summers are largely dry and maximum daily temperatures reach an average of 26 to 28 ° C. It gets significantly hotter (up to 45 ° C) and drier when the Chergui , a desert wind from the southeast, prevails .

Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Rabat
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 17.2 17.7 19.2 20.0 22.1 24.1 26.8 27.1 26.4 24.0 20.6 17.7 O 21.9
Min. Temperature (° C) 8.0 8.6 9.2 10.4 12.7 15.4 17.6 17.7 16.7 14.1 11.1 8.7 O 12.5
Precipitation ( mm ) 77 74 61 62 25th 7th 1 1 6th 44 97 101 Σ 556
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 5.8 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.4 9.6 10.2 9.9 8.9 7.8 6.4 5.8 O 8th
Rainy days ( d ) 6th 7th 7th 6th 2 1 0 0 1 6th 6th 7th Σ 49
Humidity ( % ) 82 82 80 78 77 78 78 79 80 79 80 83 O 79.7
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: wetterkontor.de


In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Rabat ranked 117th out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018. The city thus achieved one of the best placements on the African continent.

sons and daughters of the town

Town twinning


  • Jamil M. Abun-Nasr: A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1987
  • CE Bosworth et al. a. (Ed.): The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition . Vol. 8, EJ Brill, Leiden 1995, pp. 506-508
  • Ingeborg Lehmann, Rita Henss: Morocco. Karl Baedeker, Ostfildern 2009, pp. 370–389, ISBN 978-3-8297-1156-2
  • Thomas K. Park, Aomar Boum: Historical Dictionary of Morocco. Library of Congress. 2nd ed., Scarecrow Press, Lanham 2006, pp. 299f
  • Barnaby Rogerson: Marrakech, Fez, Rabat. Cadogan Guides, London 2000, pp. 215-258, ISBN 978-1-86011-973-6

Web links

Commons : Rabat  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Rabat  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Rabat - population development
  2. Francoise Navez Bouchanine, p 2, 5
  3. a b Francoise Navez Bouchanine, p 3
  4. Abdellatif Fadloullah: Explosion urbaine et maîtrise de la croissance des grandes agglomérations marocaines: le cas de la capitale. University of Rabat, 2010 ( archive )
  5. ^ G. Philip Rightmire: The Evolution of Homo Erectus: Comparative Anatomical Studies of an Extinct Human Species. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1993, p. 119, ISBN 978-0-521-44998-4
  6. Thomas K. Park, Aomar Boum, p. 300
  7. Abun-Nasr, pp. 221f
  8. ^ Peter Lamborn Wilson : Pirate Utopias: Moorish Corsairs & European Renegadoes. Autonomedia, Williamsburg (Brooklyn) 2004, pp. 89-91, 151, ISBN 978-1-57027-024-6
  9. Abun-Nasr, p. 299
  10. Abun-Nasr, p. 311f
  11. Potiron de Boisfleury: The Origins of Marshal Lyautey's Pacification Doctrine in Morocco from 1912 to 1925. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, January 2010, p. 41
  12. Barnaby Rogerson, pp. 216-219
  13. UNESCO World Heritage Center: Rabat, modern capital and historic city: a shared heritage
  14. Ingeborg Lehmann, Rita Henss, pp. 381–385; Michael Köhler: Morocco. Travel properly. DuMont, Cologne 1986, pp. 106-108; Arnold Betten: Morocco. Antiquity, Berber Traditions and Islam - History, Art and Culture in the Maghreb. DuMont, Ostfildern 2009, pp. 197–199
  15. ^ Hubert Lang : The cult of saints in Morocco. Forms and functions of pilgrimages. (Passau Mediterranean Studies, Special Series 3) Passavia Universitätsverlag, Passau 1992, p. 73, ISBN 3-86036-006-X
  16. Aménagement de la Vallée du Bouregreg. ( Memento of March 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) bouregreg.com
  17. ^ Hadid reveals £ 100 million Rabat Grand Theater plans. The Architect's Journal, November 17, 2010
  18. Francoise Navez Bouchanine, p.7
  19. Mercer's 2018 Quality of Living Rankings. Retrieved August 18, 2018 .
  20. Bethlehem Twinning Cities (English)