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Popular pirate symbol: The Jolly Roger

In piracy or piracy is violence , property crime or deprivation of liberty , which for selfish purposes by use of a maritime or aircraft on the high seas are perpetrated or in other areas subject to any state authority. Up until an international treaty regulation in 1958, piracy was usually understood to mean the same acts, insofar as they were committed at sea or even from sea. Comparable state measures are, even if they are illegal, no piracy. Today such measures war and government vessels are subject, under the privateering but they were until 1856 also by government-authorized private ( buccaneer , privateer ) made and were therefore in their external appearance often indistinguishable from piracy. Beach , river and air piracy are also not piracy in the strict sense of the word .


The word pirate is derived from the Latin pirata "pirate" (or from synonymous ancient Greek πειρατής peirātḗs ) - this from πειρᾶν peiran "try, undertake, scout out" through πεῖρα peira "venture, undertake, attack". Since πειρατής in Greek could simply designate a fighter at sea whose legitimacy was denied, there was also the more precise expression καταποντιστής ( katapontistḗs ), which actually only meant a pirate in the narrower sense.

The words Flibustier and Bukanier originally refer to two groups of privateers in the Caribbean, but they are sometimes also used as synonyms for buccaneering - that is, piracy on behalf of a belligerent power - or even piracy in general.


Piracy is outlawed internationally . All states are therefore entitled to fight and prosecute them, regardless of the nationality of the perpetrators and their vehicles as well as the scene of the crime, and are obliged to cooperate in this regard. In ancient times, pirates were mostly indistinguishable from belligerents, and their occupation was often considered respectable. Correspondingly, they were either fought against or taken into wages on the basis of opportunity. Since around 1400–1200 BC A maritime law existed in the Mediterranean Sea, but only around the time of the Attic-Delian League in the 5th century BC. In BC, the pirate's conception changed from enemy to criminal. In the first century BC Chr. Called Cicero the pirates as enemies of humanity to whom no promise and no oath is to keep. After a period of relative insignificance of the law of the sea, this view was solidified in the high Middle Ages in the blanket declaration of peace by the pirate supposedly outside the Christian community. This continued into the 19th century in the right to kill pirates at sea at any time without further ado. In the meantime there are also calls for less moralizing or partisan approaches to piracy.

Nevertheless, piracy always appears as an enduring phenomenon in cultural history if the conditions for it are given. This is the case wherever maritime trade reaches a sufficiently large volume, at the same time the intensity of surveillance and control does not exceed a certain level in relation to the length of the coast and part of the population sees piracy as a worthwhile alternative to other occupations. Today, this applies above all to emerging countries and individual large ports with inefficient authorities, as well as to sea areas where important international shipping routes run along coasts, where the capacities of the local authorities are overwhelmed. Relatively high risks for shipping exist in the area around Indonesia and in the Strait of Malacca , off West and East Africa including the Gulf of Aden and off Chittagong . There is also notable piracy in the Caribbean and India. The main affected is cargo shipping, which is mostly robbed of its cash and valuables, and less often of the ship or cargo. Before Somalia, at the beginning of the 21st century, there were many kidnappings of ships and crews with blackmailing of shipping companies:

Piracy spread throughout history mainly as a result of the boom in maritime trade , but was soon suppressed. The supposed heroic and glorious character of piracy in the domination-free area of ​​the high seas and the idea of ​​accumulated wealth have contributed significantly to the lasting fascination of the literary and media figure of the pirate. The portrayal of pirates fluctuates between demonization and romanticized exaggeration.

History of piracy

The first documented piracy dates back to the 14th century BC in Egypt.


In ancient times , all seafaring peoples practiced piracy. Coastal piracy predominated, in which coastal towns were attacked with rowboats and uncovered galleys and ships moving or resting near the coast were attacked when the opportunity was favorable. Only with the development of the trireme in the 6th century BC It became technically possible to pursue other ships and to effectively pirate at sea. Overall, the development of piracy followed the technical possibilities of the respective age.

In the Hellenistic era, Crete was a notorious pirate location. The focus of piracy shifted in the 2nd century BC. To Cilicia . During the weak phase of the Roman Republic in the last century BC BC the threat to the Egyptian grain deliveries from Cilician pirates became an almost existential threat even to Rome. Rome left the fight against pirates to the Greek allies for a long time. It was not until the decisive campaign under Gnaeus Pompeius in 67 BC. BC restored the security of the sea routes in the Mediterranean . In the rest of history, never again has such a complete and lasting victory over organized piracy been achieved in such a short period of time.

From the end of the 8th to the beginning of the 11th century, Scandinavian pirates ( Vikings ) plagued the coasts of Northern Europe. With their typical fast Viking ships, they penetrated along the great rivers deep into the inland and, after devastating surprise attacks, plundered numerous monasteries, cities and trading centers.

As early as the late Middle Ages , rulers and cities began to provide ship captains with letters of piracy as part of feuding . This theoretically gave the pirates a legal right to be treated as combatants by the opposing side , but only as long as the armed conflict lasted. If they continued their robberies in peacetime - which was easy because, in contrast to mercenaries, they did not receive a fixed pay , but only a share of the booty (prize) - this immediately made them common pirates. In the last quarter of the 14th century there was a significant increase in piracy in the North and Baltic Seas. The Likedeeler or Vitalienbrüder threatened and seriously damaged the trade of the Hanseatic League at times. Like some later pirates in the so-called " Golden Age ", they shared their prey equally. Hence the designation as Likedeeler ( Low German for "equal parter").

Between 1390 and 1597 alone, at least 428 pirates were executed on Grasbrook , an island just outside Hamburg . Among them were demonstrably the Vitalienbrüder Gödeke Michels and Magister Wigbold as well as presumably Klaus Störtebeker .

In the Mediterranean, semi-legal practice of privateering, which opened the door to abuse and arbitrariness, not only of Christian princes and the emerging commercial centers such as the Republic of Venice until well into the modern era operated in, but also by the Maltese knights and Muslim rulers of North Africa. In addition to robbery, the capture of slaves and the extortion of tribute and ransom payments played an important role. The barbarian corsairs posed a threat to sea trade and the coasts of the entire Mediterranean and parts of the Atlantic since the 16th century. It was not until the middle of the 19th century that the barbarians were finally defeated by the fleets of various European nations and the US Navy . There was also piracy in the eastern Mediterranean and on the Greek islands during the Ottoman Empire ; so the pirates of Catecali and other places were driven out by the Royal Navy in 1827 .

East asia

Around the same time, piracy in East Asia took a different direction. In the 13th and 14th centuries, especially Japanese pirates, the so-called Wokou , attacked the coasts of Korea and northern China . Only during the time of the attempted Mongol invasions in Japan did their activities diminish. In the 16th century, piracy increasingly shifted to Chinese waters. Although the name “Wokou” continued to be used, it was now more a question of local bandits and smugglers, who occasionally even undertook raids along the large rivers far into the hinterland. The teams were mostly recruited for this in the impoverished fishing villages in southern China.

Since the turmoil of the transition from the Ming - to the Qing dynasty in the 17th century, some Chinese merchants succeeded in establishing real "pirate dynasties" until the 19th century, such as the Zheng families, which were not only run by competing (also European) traders were able to extort protection money , but with their huge fleets also became a political power factor in China, Manchuria and Vietnam . The distribution of the booty among the teams was also based on a fixed key - in contrast to the Euro-American pirates of the same time, the Chinese pirate fleets were organized in a strictly hierarchical manner.

Caribbean and "Golden Age"

After the conquest and during the colonization of America by Spain and Portugal , a form of piracy developed in the period from the 16th to the 18th centuries, especially in the Caribbean and the coastal areas of South America , which is still popular today with the image of pirates , in film and in fiction .

A characteristic of this era was that all seafaring European nations tended to engage in permanent and persistent war at sea , regardless of whether the same nations were at war on land or not. The already blurred line between more or less legal pirates and illegal pirates was completely blurred and the phenomenon of the privateer in the true sense developed. The geopolitical aim of the first French and English , and later also the Dutch governments was primarily to share in the riches of the New World and, secondarily, to disrupt the trade of their competitors. These conflicts were exacerbated by the denominational differences between Catholic and Protestant nations.

The main aim of the buccaneers was the Spanish silver fleet , with which the annual output of the South and Central American mines was brought to Spain. The teams were recruited from the local buccaneers , who developed their very own lifestyle with their own laws, and who soon renounced such externalities as letters of piracy during their raids . This era ended around 1690, when all the great powers of the time began to value the interest in secure maritime trade more than the weakening of other states. As a result, there were increased measures by all sea powers against piracy. The numerous pirates, who were now outlawed by all over the world, initially looked for other places of refuge outside the Caribbean, such as the ports of North America , the coasts of West Africa or Madagascar . But here, too, they were gradually driven out, mainly by the British Royal Navy , until around 1730 .

Piracy in the present

With the increasing development and enforcement of international maritime law by the navies of overseas trading nations and with the invention and spread of steam shipping , classic piracy in the sphere of influence of the western industrial nations was pushed back more and more in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries. Nevertheless, piracy is once again a serious danger in some regions and is even increasing again due to globalization and political upheavals. It must be assumed that the number of unreported cases is quite high. Often the shipping companies do not report attacks that have actually been committed or attempted, because otherwise the insurance premiums would rise or their reputation could be damaged.

Sensational incidents

The Remnants of an RPG After the Seabourn Spirit Attack (2005)

In 1992 the Ocean Blessing and the tanker Nagasaki Spirit collided . The latter had driven through the Straits of Malacca without a guide after a pirate attack . 51 people died and 12,000 tons of oil ended up in the sea.

On December 6, 2001, the well-known New Zealand regatta sailor and environmentalist Sir Peter Blake was shot dead by river pirates in the Amazon estuary while he was rushing to the aid of his crew with a rifle.

In 2005, the Seabourn Spirit passenger ship was attacked off Somalia by boats armed with machine guns and bazookas , and one person was injured on board. However, the ship escaped the attack on the high seas.

On April 4, 2008, pirates attacked the French yacht Le Ponant off the coast of Somalia and took about 30 sailors hostage. After a week the sailors were released and the six pirates were overwhelmed by French forces in a helicopter attack. Four of the pirates belonged to the clan of the then President of Somalia Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed .

In September 2008, succeeded pirates off the Somali coast, under the flag of Belize propelled Ukrainian cargo ship Faina with 30 heavy tanks to capture on board.

On November 15, 2008, pirates hijacked the Liberian flag supertanker Sirius Star with, according to US figures, 25 crew members. The distance between the Saudi tanker and the coast, namely 800 km southeast of the Kenyan port city of Mombasa, was remarkable . This distance has so far been very unusual for pirate attacks because the distance to the pirate base is extremely large, which is assumed to be in the autonomous Somali region of Puntland .

The pirates' booty was also remarkable, as the Sirius Star , the latest generation of super tankers, was valued at over 150 million euros. In addition, she had loaded two million barrels of crude oil worth around 80–90 million euros (around 110 million US dollars) as a shipload .

The tanker Longchamp , managed by a German shipping company, was hijacked off the Somali coast at around 2:30 a.m. on January 29, 2009. Because of the incident, the public prosecutor's office was investigating for the first time in Hamburg into an attack on air and sea traffic .

In July 2009 the Arctic Sea was hijacked in the Baltic Sea. There are suspicions that the ship illegally delivered weapons and was hijacked in the course of a secret service operation.

The FWN Rapide was attacked by pirates off Nigeria in April 2018 and part of the crew was abducted.

Legal situation

international law

The principle of freedom of the seas introduced by Hugo Grotius at the beginning of the 17th century limits the exercise of state power on the high seas to ships flying their own flag. Piracy was exempt from this principle, however, as its prohibition had long been considered a mandatory law . This customary international law was incorporated into the international agreements on the law of the sea in the 20th century.

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of December 10, 1982, like the Convention on the High Seas of April 29, 1958 , obliges states to jointly combat piracy and allows them to detain pirate vehicles and arrest those on board on the high seas as well as the confiscation of existing assets. The further measures are subject to the case law of the inciting state. The individual states are also obliged to combat piracy within their territorial waters. However, your sovereignty remains unaffected here. Pirates can therefore only be pursued by forces of foreign states to the border of the territorial waters if the neighboring states do not want any further cooperation.

Art. 101 of the Convention on the Law of the Sea defines the same as Art. 15 of the Convention on the High Seas:

"Piracy is any of the following:

a) any unlawful act of violence or deprivation of liberty or any looting committed by the crew or passengers of a private ship or aircraft for private purposes and which is directed
i) on the high seas against another ship or aircraft or against persons or assets on board that ship or aircraft;
ii) against a ship, aircraft, person or property in a place not under any state jurisdiction;
b) any voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or aircraft in the knowledge of facts from which it can be concluded that it is a pirate ship or aircraft;
c) any incitement to an act referred to in letters a or b or any deliberate facilitation of such an act. "

This definition explicitly differentiates piracy from comparable acts by state-mandated actors. Under international law, these are measures taken by a state. If such a measure is not lawful, an act of aggression on the part of this state within the meaning of Art. 39 of the Charter of the United Nations may be present in an extreme case .

Competence in German constitutional law

In Germany, the tasks resulting from international law are assigned to the Federal Police and Customs , which have been cooperating in the Coast Guard coordination group since 1994, on the basis of the Sea Tasks Act through the Sea Authority Ordinance .

There are different legal positions on the use of the navy : One means that the German Navy already rules out fighting pirates by Article 87a of the Basic Law (GG), through which the function of the armed forces on defense and a few, expressly mentioned, others Tasks is restricted. The German Navy is thus limited to providing emergency aid in the event of current attacks. The capture of a pirate vehicle or the arrest of pirates would be an official presumption under German law , and corresponding orders would be illegal.

The contrary opinion relies on Article 25 of the Basic Law, in which the generally recognized rules of international law precede federal law. Art. 110 of the Convention on the Law of the Sea expressly names warships as those ships that are allowed to control pirate ships on the high seas. This right is then also granted to other “state ships” (e.g. coast guard, customs).

Since the fight against pirates by naval forces is permitted under international law, the German Navy is likely to take action. In addition, the Bundeswehr carries out classic police tasks (patrols, identity checks) on missions abroad (Afghanistan, Kosovo) and is trained for this (e.g. operational training against demonstrators). As a rule, all of these foreign missions are not defense missions in the sense of Article 87a of the Basic Law, but peace missions and surveillance missions initiated by international law and UN resolutions.

Criminal law

Piracy can be prosecuted by any country according to the principle of world law . In the case of a conviction, in addition to imprisonment for the perpetrator, the confiscation or forfeiture of instruments of crime, in particular the vehicles used, as well as unlawfully obtained advantages, in particular pecuniary advantages, are possible, unless the injured party is entitled to claims.

In Germany, piracy is usually punishable as an attack on air or sea traffic under Section 316c StGB , possibly in conjunction with Section 6 StGB, which regulates the validity of German law for offenses against internationally protected legal interests regardless of the law of the crime scene. The threat of punishment is imprisonment for no less than five years. If the death of a person was caused at least recklessly, it is not less than ten years or life.

Many other states do not have any corresponding special regulations. Their case law assesses the criminal offenses committed in acts of piracy in detail. As a rule, serious robbery , deprivation of liberty , bodily harm and the like come into question.

Shipping law

A pirate attack is a distress at sea . The distress signals commonly used in shipping are to be used for alerting . All ships that learn of an emergency are obliged to provide assistance, provided they do not put themselves in danger. As with other emergencies at sea, the responsible official bodies are the Maritime Rescue Coordination Centers , which coordinate the deployment of the rescue forces, including the naval forces and the coast guard .

The International Maritime Organization is responsible for safety at sea . Since 2004, apply in the context of SOLAS the safety of -Übereinkommens International Ship and Port Facility Security Code ( ISPS Code ), applicable to ships of commercial vessels with a gross tonnage set of 500 or higher also measures to protect against piracy.

Liability and civil law

Although the house rules of the shipowner form a sufficient legal basis to ward off pirate attacks (Section 903 sentence 1 BGB ), the increasing use of private security forces and the certification procedure provided for this result in complicated questions of liability law. The captain and security guards have to prove that they acted in self-defense (§§ 227 and 904) in the event of a pirate attack in which people were harmed.

Areas affected by piracy today

Areas affected by piracy today

In 1992, the Piracy Reporting Center of the International Maritime Bureau was established in Kuala Lumpur . It collects reports of piracy and evaluates them. It also helps in finding stolen ships. What happens every day at sea and in ports can be read in the daily reports of the IMB. In addition, the IMB publishes quarterly and year-round summaries of its reports with global overview maps.

According to the IMB, at least 30 people were killed in pirate attacks in 2004 - nine more than in the previous year. In 2003 the number of fatalities from pirate attacks more than doubled compared to the previous year. The IMB registered 445 attacks in 2004 (2003: 329). The focal point of piracy was the waters of Indonesia , where 93 attacks were reported in 2004. 37 attacks in the Strait of Malacca (between the island of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula ) were reported in 2004.

In 2005 a total of 274 attacks were known, in 2007 there were 263. 440 (2007 292) crew members were kidnapped, mostly to extort ransom. In addition to the sea area around Indonesia, the coasts of Somalia and Yemen were now also affected by piracy (with high ransom demands in some cases ). In 2006, piracy caused worldwide damage estimated at around 16 billion US dollars (which at the time was about 12.8 billion euros ). Other estimates suggest lower sums.


According to the 2006 IMF report, the main focus of piracy was still in Indonesian waters (more than 40 raids reported). It was believed that many incidents were not reported. In the Strait of Malacca, there were only 8 raids due to the increased patrols of the neighboring countries. From the Strait of Singapore (it connects the Strait of Malacca to the South China Sea) were 9 incidents reported. A second focus was the roadstead of Chittagong ( Bangladesh ) with 33 reports . Here, too, the number of raids fell; the access routes to the port were risk areas.


Somali pirate operations area from 2005 to 2010

One problem that received widespread public attention by 2008 was piracy off the Somali coast . Somalia was considered a failed state .

In fact, the Somali transitional government in neighboring northern Somalia has no power whatsoever and can therefore neither control the ports nor the Somali territorial waters in this area. With the consent of the transitional government, the United Nations Security Council therefore authorized on June 2, 2008, by virtue of its powers under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, for an initial period of six months, states cooperating with the transitional government to take measures against pirates in Somali territorial waters the applicable international law provides for the high seas. According to estimates by the Gulf Research Center in Dubai, the number of Somali pirates increased from around a hundred to around a thousand between 2005 and 2008 . There are no direct connections to Somali terrorists or Islamists , rather it is a form of economically oriented organized crime that takes advantage of the civil war-like conditions in Somalia. However, there existed ties to the Government , Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed , the Darod - Clan was partially involved in piracy. As a result of the fight against pirates by Sharia courts in Mogadishu and because of the French and American naval presence in Djibouti , the center of Somalia's pirates has moved further south into the Gulf of Aden and around the city of Eyl . The operational area now extends deep into the Indian Ocean . This is made possible by the use of mother ships.

According to estimates from autumn 2019, the number of pirate attacks decreased overall, but local focuses remained, such as the Gulf of Guinea , which is a high risk area for kidnappings and robbery. According to the International Maritime Bureau, more than 80% of the known cases in both categories occurred there.

South America

Six raids each in the Bay of Santos in Brazil and in the port of Callao in Peru were reported from South America .

Sports sailors are also victims of piracy. In addition to kidnapping the crew and robbing the ship, possible goals are the sailing boat or yacht .

In addition to the areas already mentioned, blue water sailors were warned in 2002 about various sea areas off South America and the Caribbean, such as the Amazon delta , the east coast of Venezuela , the Gulf of Darién , the port of Guayaquil ( Ecuador ) and several Central American countries. Off Venezuela, piracy increased 160% from 2016 to 2017, with yachts and sailboats being the main targets. This is attributed to the national crisis there .

Groups of offenders are poor locals (e.g. fishermen), drug smugglers and corrupt members of the national security forces (e.g. marines , coast guards , shipping police ).


In general, there are three types of pirate attacks:

  • low level armed robbery (LLAR), the attack of lightly armed pirates with small boats with the aim of getting the personal belongings of the crew and the money on board into their possession
  • medium level armed assault and robbery (MLAAR), violent attacks by well-organized gangs who carry out large-scale thefts and are not afraid to kill crew members
  • Major criminal highjack (MCHJ), international, well-organized large gangs, armed with submachine guns , Molotov cocktails and heavy hand weapons, who steal entire ships and expose or kill the crews.

Procedure of modern pirates

For organized pirate gangs who aim for a ransom, commercial shipping is primarily of interest. Ships and their crews are hijacked and only released by the shipping company against payment of a ransom. Negotiations and payments are usually handled professionally through negotiators in other regions. The gangs are very well organized, the pirates usually operate with small, highly motorized boats . In Somalia , thanks to the lack of government authority, entire tribal communities live from economic piracy.

In most cases, modern pirates are not interested in the cargo but in the contents of the ship's safe , which often contains large sums of cash for paying salaries and port dues. In addition, such attacks are also aimed at other quickly transportable and valuable objects, for example navigation instruments. Such attacks usually take place between 1:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. The value of the loot in such raids is usually 10,000 to 20,000 US dollars . In some cases, the pirates forced the crew to leave the ship and drove the hijacked ship to a port, where it received false papers and was used under a different name. The most famous such case was the Petro Ranger tanker . which was hijacked in 1998 on the way from Singapore to Ho Chi Minh City and renamed MV Wilby .

If the large ships have to travel in the straits or near the coast due to defects, weather conditions or time constraints, they reduce their speed and can then be boarded more easily by pirates with speedboats. At full speed this is not possible due to the speed of modern ships, the high side walls and the formation of waves on and especially behind the ship. Nevertheless, there are also raids on the high seas. It is believed that mother ships put the speedboats in position. Some of the pirates are so heavily armed that the ships can be forced to stop.

Sometimes pirates work with information from official authorities. So it can be explained that in some cases robberies take place exactly when money for the payment of wages has been taken on board. Seafarers from developing countries such as the Philippines are particularly affected by this. Assaults due to material emergency usually take place with small open fishing boats near the coast or on ships at anchor. The men are armed with knives or machetes, less often with firearms, and are mainly looking for food, cash and jewelry.

The example of China shows that even law enforcement officers can become licensed pirates: In some regions, in the 1990s, the coast guard was allowed to privately distribute half of all contraband. As a result, there were indiscriminate seizures outside of China's territorial waters. In some cases, merchants were forced to call at Chinese ports at gunpoint and the ships, including their crews and cargo, were interned there until the shipowners paid substantial fines.

For some years now, ship takeovers with the participation of important crew members have also been reported. For example, there were reports that breakaway members of the Free Aceh Movement had carried out isolated operations in the Strait of Malacca . The loot in such operations can be up to US $ 200,000, of which the crew members involved are paid sums of US $ 10,000 to 20,000.

Fulfillment of requirements

Former FBI agent Jack Cloonan, who acted as mediator in hostage-taking, described the news magazine Spiegel : “If a ship was hijacked, the shipping companies concerned usually hired specialists like him, but in practice the boys are up there armed to the teeth . And you sit down there in your rubber dinghy with the sacks. ”In the meantime, the money sacks are often dropped on parachutes from airplanes.

FDP defense expert Rainer Stinner called for a ban on ransom payments to Somali pirates. In an interview with the “Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung” in April 2009, he criticized the fact that German shipowners had to buy their way out of pirates off the coast of Africa for millions of dollars because the politicians were unable to act. “With the ransom, the pirates have been able to equip themselves with better and better weapons and new, faster boats in recent months. That makes fighting them more and more difficult. "

Measures against modern piracy

Ship security

Long Range Acoustic Device in use
Special forces practice searching ships

To protect against pirates, crews on large ships close all open doors and hatches as soon as there is a risk of attack; Doors are partially welded on the lower decks . The actual defense takes place with water hoses, from which water is sprayed onto the attacker at high pressure. There are also electric fence systems that are supposed to make it impossible to climb side walls. In addition, some shipowners instruct their crews to smash empty bottles on the weather deck because many pirates board the ships barefoot.

Large ships with a heavy crew use a high-voltage fence around the ship, and an "acoustic cannon" ( sonic cannon ) was also used, with which the attackers are driven away by high-energy bundled high-frequency tones, the so-called Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD).

Direct combat

Another measure against modern piracy is direct combat with warships, which are far superior to pirates in terms of armament and equipment. Pirate attacks are repelled by warning shots or direct fire at the attacker. The use of ground troops on land to destroy the pirates' retreats, or the defense against pirates by small mobile guided missile teams on the freighters themselves, is also under discussion, particularly in the fight against pirates in the Horn of Africa (see next paragraph) be stationed. In the long term against piracy, state power over their home region should continue to be restored, since pirates mostly operate from unlawful areas.

Arming merchant ships (e.g. with guns) is not regulated under international maritime law. If armed, the merchant ships would have to be converted into warships and thus lose their status as merchant ships, or without the conversion would have no international legal status.

Horn of Africa
Naval operations area in Operation Enduring Freedom

Some of the world's most important sea trade routes run from the Suez Canal through the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and branch off at the Horn of Africa towards the Persian Gulf, East Asia and Australia. You thus connect these areas with Europe. Due to the political situation in some bordering countries, especially Somalia , where all assertive statehood has collapsed, and Yemen, the bordering sea areas are threatened by piracy.

The United States (USA) and its allies have been engaged in the military fight against terrorism, including piracy, since 2001 in response to the terrorist attacks on September 11th . a. with the naval operation in the Horn of Africa, part of Operation Enduring Freedom , in which the German Navy is also involved. The aim is to combat the supply or support by sea for terrorists in the areas bordering the area of ​​operations, as well as to secure shipping lines. Because of this presence, piracy is also contained. Occasionally there is also direct combat against pirates. In addition, a personal connection to piracy is also to be assumed for the arms and drug trafficking. However, the participation of the German Navy raises constitutional problems due to the strict separation between police and military tasks in the Basic Law.

Nevertheless, there has been a sharp increase in piracy originating in Somalia in particular since 2005, which has led to appropriate precautionary measures by shipping. As early as 2007, the International Maritime Bureau recommended a safety distance of 200 nautical miles from the Somali coast. The increase in pirate attacks in the Gulf of Aden led in August 2008 to the establishment of a corridor through this body of water designated as the “Maritime Security Patrol Area” and specially secured by the international fleet association.

Economic consequences

Due to increasing piracy, the largest container shipping company in the world, the Mærsk Line , decided in 2009 to no longer navigate the Suez Canal and instead use ships, as they did before 1869, to make the long detour around Africa and the Cape of Good Hope . As a result, customers on the route between Europe and the Far East are likely to be delayed up to 1200 ships annually by up to two weeks.

Economists assume that this development means a sensitive disruption of world trade (as of 2009), that goods will become more expensive worldwide and that the global economic crisis of 2008 will be fueled as a result. How a failure of the main source of income for Egypt and thus the Suez Canal itself will not be foreseeable in the long term (as of 2009).

Piracy in art

Classic piracy was used in many ways in art, often depicted realistically, but also often transfigured and romanticized. Numerous clichés have developed that are associated with this term today. This includes, for example, the eye patch . According to science journalist Christoph Drösser , the eye patch was not widespread among pirates. There would be no contemporary depictions of pirates with eye patches from the golden age of piracy , which ended around 1730. The stereotype did not emerge until 100 years later, and it became really popular through the cartoons of the 20th century . A wooden leg, metal hook-shaped arm prosthesis (grappling hook), pistol, scimitar, parrot on shoulder, tricorn hat or headscarf, torn off clothing, notched cut and stabbing weapons , treasure chest , a violent appearance or a stubborn moral standard are also part of this. Although pirates have always been equipped with modern equipment within the scope of their available possibilities and have acted calculatingly, the subject of a typical pirate in literature, film and comics developed on some striking, but often unrealistic features.


The literary adaptation of seafaring adventures can be at least to the Odyssey of Homer traced. An ancient novel that also dealt with piracy was Heliodors Aethiopica ("The Ethiopian Adventures of Theagenes and Charikleia"). Piracy is also a recurring theme in later world literature - for example in the Arabian Nights in the stories about Sindbad the seafarer .

Classic pirate novel

The pirate novel in its current form was developed in the 18th century. After factual reports such as Alexandre Olivier Exquemelins 1678 under the title De Americaensche Zee-Rovers ("The American Sea Robbers", 1681) or the book A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates, and also their Policies, Discipline and Government of a certain Captain Charles Johnson achieved considerable commercial success, Daniel Defoe published Life, Adventures and Piracies of Captain Singleton in 1720 , the first fictional novel about the pirates of the Caribbean.

Illustration by George Roux for Robert Louis Stevenson's 1885 edition of Treasure Island

The pirates in today's literature had their forerunners mainly in English penny notebooks , as they appeared since the middle of the 19th century, the so-called penny dreadfuls . These periodicals, which are usually published weekly, fluctuated between literarily quite demanding publications and junk literature. After the advent of the steamships and the associated decline in piracy, it was possible to make Caribbean piracy a topic and to make it romantic and adventurous, regardless of the fact that it was too close to reality. However, until 1860 it was the Muslim corsairs of the Mediterranean who dominated the pirate novels. By 1890 the Groschenhefte could reach a circulation of up to 665,000 copies sold weekly.

The target audience for these adventure novels were boys and young men. The booklets covered the entire range of maritime adventures: shipwreck, robinsonades , colonial and other sea wars, slave trade and pirate adventures. In connection with this, the most famous pirate novel Treasure Island (" The Treasure Island ") by Robert Louis Stevenson appeared in 1881/1882 under the pseudonym "Captain George North".

Other well-known examples are Emilio Salgari's five- and eleven-volume novel cycles about The Pirates of the Antilles (1898–1908) and the Malaysian pirate Sandokan (1895–1913). The latter was adapted in 1976 in the successful Italian television series Sandokan - The Tiger of Malaysia . Rafael Sabatini's Captain Blood (1922) is also formative for our current pirate cliché and model for numerous Hollywood adaptations . It is considered the most authentic pirate novel.

This form of literature made use of considerable clichés, like modern penny books still today. The latest example, which takes up almost all the classic elements of the Penny Dreadful , is the novel The Heirs of the Black Flag by Michael Peinkofer , published in 2006 . In it, the teenage hero enslaved by the Spaniards becomes the leader of pirates, whose former captain turns out to be his father, who only became a pirate in search of him, the teenage hero; the “son” of the particularly brutal enemy pirate captain turns out to be his brother, and the hero rescues the beautiful daughter of a Spanish governor from the hands of this brutal pirate captain.

This narrative patterns has also been taken up in the ZDF - Christmas series Jack Holborn in 1982 with the pirate Captain Sharingham.

More modern adaptations

Also known is the song " The Pirate Jenny " in the Threepenny Opera by Bertolt Brecht . It tells of the daydream of the maid Jenny, who dreams of her miserable existence because she feels ignored. A pirate ship "with eight sails" is supposed to bring her liberation, which she takes with her.

The American writer William S. Burroughs , a representative of beatnik and hippie culture with an existentialist twist, has dealt with the story of the pirates in a number of novels. Based on the cut-up method spins Burroughs a network of historic and fantastic storylines, most recently in cities in the red night (Cities of the red night) . He is interested in pirate communities that were committed to their own progressive, liberal-democratic principles by today's standards as early as the 18th century. His heroes initially trace the path and life in these groups, then connect with other underground movements in order to overcome bourgeois society using guerrilla and PSI techniques .

The author Fritz Graßhoff wrote pirate song lyrics, which (e.g. set to music by Lotar Olias ) were performed as chansons or recitations by many performers ( Heinz Reincke , Ingrid van Bergen , Günter Pfitzmann , Hannes Messemer and others) and recorded on sound carriers.



Main article: Pirate film

The pirate film is one of the oldest film genres and is a sub-form of the adventure film . As a rule, it deals with piracy from the 17th to 19th centuries, whereby the respective film can be more or less based on historical events. The pirate film is mostly characterized by battle scenes, exotic locations and often the rebellion of an individual against a superior force, as well as the reduction of women to a more decorative, courted or in need accessory.

The pirates often appear as evil antagonists of the main character (for example, Captain Hook in Peter Pan ), but can also be the main actor and popular figure themselves. Often the pirate is presented as stressed male daredevils, as already by Douglas Fairbanks in the silent film The Black Pirate 1926, which is considered the first commercially successful pirate movie, or Errol Flynn as Captain Blood in the 1,935 on the novel by Rafael Sabatini resulting film Under pirate flag . Other classics, such as The Red Corsair from 1952 with Burt Lancaster as Captain Vallo, had a major impact on today's romanticized image of piracy.

A defining element of most English-language pirate films is the so-called pirate speech , which, however, cannot be historically proven, but rather goes back to the actor Robert Newton and his roles in several successful pirate films of the 1950s.

Dramaturgical restrictions and frequent repetitions of similar plot sequences in the classic pirate films led from the 1940s to ironic alienation up to satire or the processing of the material as a musical . Examples of this are The Princess and the Pirate from 1944 with Bob Hope , the musical Der Pirat or, more recently, Roman Polański's Piraten (1986). New roles also emerged, which is why Geena Davis was able to play a female captain in the 1995 film The Pirate Bride .

After the pirate theme had almost been declared dead in the film, it has again achieved considerable success in films such as those in the Pirates of the Caribbean series . Step here u. a. Johnny Depp as Captain Jack Sparrow and Geoffrey Rush as Captain Hector Barbossa.

Some templates were filmed several times, so the number of film adaptations of the novel Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson goes into the double-digit range with various modifications; Peter Pan with the character of the pirate Captain Hook has been filmed at least nine times.

watch TV


Pirate cliché

Comics have also followed the narrative pattern in classic pirate literature that has developed since the 19th century . In the comic series Das Phantom , which has been published since 1936, the masked hero u. a. dedicated to the fight against mostly bizarre pirates. Characters like Iron Hand, Black Beard and the Devil Masks are mainly depicted as evil opponents of the hero.

In the comic series Der Rote Korsar by Charlier and Hubinon , published since 1959 (after the authors died, the series was continued by other artists), however, the adopted son Rick of the eponymous pirate is the main character and the popular figure. He, his adoptive father and the two recurring characters Baba (a black giant) and Dreifuss (a well-read pirate with a wooden leg quoting Latin classic) experience various adventures in this series, with the typical elements of pirate stories. This comic series was recorded in Asterix , where the pirates appearing in almost every issue are satirising the main characters of the Red Corsair . Here, however, they regularly fail, almost always end up shipwrecked and represent an important running gag .

The pirate motif was further developed in the late 1960s in the comics about Corto Maltese , the "captain without a ship", by Hugo Pratt . In the melancholy adventure story The South Sea Ballade , Corto Maltese is involved in the machinations of pirates at the beginning of the First World War , who do dubious business with emissaries of the East Asia Squadron of the German Navy in the island world of Melanesia . The brutal and unpredictable Rasputin and the level-headed Japanese Taki Jap are only subject to the mysterious Monaco, "the last pirate", who makes himself unrecognizable under a monk's robe and pulls the strings from a hidden island. Tragic hero is a German naval officer who loses his military honor and in the end is shot dead on charges of piracy.

The manga series One Piece , created by a group of straw hat pirates led by Monkey D. Luffy , is one of the most successful Japanese manga series ever.

computer game

Pirates was the pioneer ! from 1987, which combines elements of computer role-playing games , economic simulation and real-time strategy games and is considered a classic among computer games.

While in some games, such as The Patrician , Port Royale or the Anno series, pirates primarily represent disruptive and inhibiting game elements, in other games the player slips into the skin of pirates, as in Pirates! Monkey Island with the pirate Guybrush Threepwood, Tropico 2 or Assassin's Creed IV Black Flag.

As far as games are concerned with role-playing games, such as Pirates of the Burning Sea , Pirates of the Caribbean around the character Nathaniel Hawk, Skies of Arcadia , or pirates - rulers of the Caribbean , battle sequences dominate, while simulation games such as Tropico 2, individual fights are not shown.

Almost all of the games are set in the “golden age” of piracy in the 17th to 18th centuries and are mostly played in the Caribbean, with the exception of The Patrician and Skies of Arcadia . Well-known stereotypes from pirate films are mostly used, such as skull flags, treasure islands, eye patches and wooden legs.

The fourth part of the Assassin's Creed saga, Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag , has a pirate scenario as the background.

The 2018 published Sea of Thieves is a multiplayer - Action-Adventure ( MMO ), which thematically deals with pirates and in the first-person view is played.

More well-known fictional pirates


Various bands deal with the pirate theme in their music, e.g. For example, the medieval rock bands Elmsfeuer and Vroudenspil , who call their style "buccaneer folk", or the metal bands Alestorm , Swashbuckle and Running Wild , who made pirate metal popular as a subgenre in heavy metal. The topic is also dealt with in a humorous way, such as B. the band Mr. Hurley & the powder monkeys proves. YeBanishedPrivateers , who can be assigned to the folk area, sound more authentic and wild . In the pop field has Santiano managed to establish itself, and skirt gown to present The pirates and scurvy .


Piracy and organization

A whole series of partly prominent organizations and business models have recently been observed as forms of piracy by researchers at HEC Paris .

Piracy and entrepreneurship

Current research is also increasingly focusing on apparent similarities between entrepreneurship and piracy. In this context, piracy is discussed as a strategic source of inspiration for entrepreneurship training as well as for research on entrepreneurship and business model innovation. The concept of guerrilla marketing goes in a similar direction , in which surprise effects are achieved with limited resources and unconventional methods.


Scientific literature and non-fiction books

  • Frank Bardelle: Privateer in the Caribbean Sea. On the emergence and social transformation of a historical “marginal movement”. Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 1986, ISBN 3-924550-20-4 (A scientific work with an extensive bibliography, also Münster (Westphalia), university, dissertation, 1986).
  • Arne Bialuschewski: Pirate Life . The adventurous journeys of the pirate Richard Sievers. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 3-593-35819-0 .
  • Arne Bialuschewski: The pirate problem in the 17th and 18th centuries. In: Stephan Conermann (ed.): The Indian Ocean in historical perspective. (= Asia and Africa. Contributions from the Center for Asian and African Studies (ZAAS) at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel. Vol. 1). EB-Verlag, Schenefeld / Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-930826-44-5 , pp. 245-261.
  • Matthias Blazek: Piracy, Murder and Atonement - A 700-year history of the death penalty in Hamburg 1292-1949 . ibidem, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-8382-0457-4 .
  • Robert Bohn : The pirates. 2nd Edition. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-48027-6 (a generally understandable introduction to the history of piracy in the Caribbean and the "Golden Age").
  • Douglas Botting et al. a .: History of seafaring - adventurers of the Caribbean. Bechtermünz, Eltville am Rhein 1992, ISBN 3-86047-025-6 .
  • George Cypriano Bühler: Fight the pirates, My mission under a foreign flag. written down by Tina Klopp. Econ, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-430-20150-6 .
  • Alejandro Colás, Bryan Mabee (Eds.): Mercenaries, pirates, bandits and empires. Private violence in historical context. Columbia University Press, New York 2010, ISBN 978-0-231-70208-9 .
  • David Cordingly: Pirates: Fear and Terror on the Seas . VGS Verlagsgesellschaft, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-8025-2708-9 .
  • David Cordingly: Under the black flag. Legend and reality of pirate life . dtv, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-423-30817-6 (good, introductory presentation of the private sector).
  • Gabriele Dummschat: Klaus Störtebeker and the Hanseatic League - seafaring and pirate life . Hinstorff Verlag, Rostock 2016, ISBN 978-3-356-02044-1 .
  • Volker Grieb, Sabine Todt (Ed.): Piracy from antiquity to the present (= historical messages, supplements. Vol. 81). Steiner, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-515-10138-7 .
  • Daniel Heller-Roazen: The enemy of everyone . The pirate and the law. from the English by Horst Brühmann. Fischer Wissenschaft, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-10-031410-9 .
  • Aleta-Amirée von Holzen: “A Pirate's Life for Me!” From “The Black Pirate” to “Pirates of the Caribbean” - adventure concepts in pirate films (= popular literatures and media. Vol. 1). SSI, Zurich 2007, ISBN 978-3-9521172-4-8 (partly also: Zurich, University, Licentiate thesis, 2007).
  • Michael Kempe: Curse of the oceans. Piracy, International Law and International Relations 1500–1900. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-593-39291-2 .
  • Angus Kontam: Atlas of Forays at Sea. Weltbild, Augsburg 1999, ISBN 3-8289-0736-9 . (Extensively illustrated overview from antiquity to the present day. Contrary to the title, only a few and small scheme cards)
  • Peter Linebaugh, Marcus Rediker: The Many Headed Hydra, Sailors, Slaves, Commoners and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic . Beacon Press, Boston 2005, ISBN 0-8070-5007-5 .
  • Stephan Maninger: Piracy, terrorism and the fight for free sea routes . (= Texts of the working group Security Policy at Universities. No. 5). Science and Security, Bonn, April 2006.
  • Georg Mischuk: Piracy in Southeast Asia. An analysis of the political actors involved and the threat to commercial shipping . Office for Geoinformation of the Bundeswehr, Euskirchen 2009.
  • Martin N. Murphy: Contemporary piracy and maritime terrorism, the threat to international security . (= Adelphi paper. 388). Routledge, Abingdon 2007, ISBN 978-0-415-45234-2 .
  • Andreas Obenaus, Eugen Pfister, Birgit Tremml (eds.): Terror of the traders and rulers: Pirate communities in history . Mandelbaum, Vienna 2012, ISBN 978-3-85476-403-8 .
  • Marcus Rediker: Villains of All Nations, Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. Beacon Press, Boston 2004, ISBN 0-8070-5024-5 .
  • Hartmut Roder (Ed.): Pirates. The Lords of the Seven Seas. Edition Temmen : Bremen 2000, ISBN 3-86108-536-4 . (Catalog book for an exhibition; including: Detlef Quintern: Bremen slaves in Africa? On the legend of the pirates of the Barbarian Coast. And Kay Hoffmann: The beach is under the pavement. Some comments on the pirate in the film )
  • Hartmut Roder (Ed.): Pirates. Adventure or Threat? Edition Temmen, Bremen 2002, ISBN 3-86108-785-5 . (Accompanying volume to the Symposium Piracy in Past and Present. Adventure or Threat? By the Überseemuseum Bremen on November 10th and 11th, 2000)
  • Douglas Stewart: Pirates. Organized crime at sea . mare, Hamburg 2002; Piper, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-492-23968-4 (deals exclusively with modern piracy).
  • Eigel Wiese: Piracy - New Dimensions of an Old Phenomenon . Koehler, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-7822-1008-9 .
  • Rolf-Harald Wippich: Risks of the Far East Business. Pirate attacks on North German merchant ships in the China Sea (1840–1870). In: Hansische Geschichtsblätter. Volume 125, 2007, pp. 143-168.
  • Dieter Zimmerling: Störtebeker & Co. Verlag Die Hanse, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-434-52573-4 .
  • Ralph Klein: Modern Piracy - The pirates off Somalia and their early African brothers . Verlag Association A, Berlin / Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-86241-416-1 .
  • Alain Felkel : Operation Pirate Hunt. From antiquity to the present . Osburg, Hamburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-95510-059-9 .
  • Christian Ferrara: The slow decline of the Spanish empire: The rivalry between England and Spain in Hispanic America and the beginnings of piracy 1560–1600. Grin, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-638-89632-0 .


Web links

Wikisource: Piracy  - Sources and Full Texts
Commons : Piracy  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
 Wikinews: Piracy  - In The News
Wiktionary: Piracy  - Explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Historical piracy

Modern piracy


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  2. Helke Kammerer-Grothaus: From Argonauts and pirates in antiquity. In: Hartmut Roder (Ed.): Pirates - The Lords of the Seven Seas. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2000, ISBN 3-86108-536-4 .
  3. On the medieval pirates in the North and Baltic Seas, the myth of Klaus Störtebeker and the reception of the Likedeelers in the present cf. Karin Lubowski: hero or scoundrel. In: Hamburger Abendblatt. October 21, 2006. The mentioned documentary The True Treasure of Störtebeker. (Script and direction: Arne Lorenz , first broadcast on NDR, December 26, 2007) also deals with the involvement of the Vitalienbrüder in the conflicts between the former kingdoms of Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Mecklenburg.
  4. Blazek: Piracy, Murder and Atonement - A 700-year history of the death penalty in Hamburg 1292-1949. P. 42.
  5. Stupid chat: Klaus Störtebeker and the Hanse - maritime and pirate life. P. 92.
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  8. Swantje Dake: Marine protects "MS Germany". In: Spiegel Online. November 9, 2005.
  9. TerraDaily, November 7, 2005 .
  10. French Navy pursues hijacked yacht. In: Wirtschaftswoche. April 4, 2008.
  11. French catch pirates. In: FAZ. April 11, 2008.
  12. Jump up ↑ Kidnappers belonged to the clan of Somalia's presidents. tagesschau.de from May 5, 2008 ( Memento from December 8, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  13. After capturing a Ukrainian freighter - Russia wants to fight pirates off Somalia. tagesschau.de from September 26, 2008 ( Memento from September 28, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  14. German tanker captured off Somalia. on: faz.net , January 29, 2009.
  15. German Navy calls anti-pirate mission success. In: Spiegel Online. January 30, 2009.
  16. Saudi super tanker kidnapped. In: Handelsblatt. November 18, 2008.
  17. Pirates call the shipping company. In: Spiegel Online. January 31, 2009.
  18. ^ Erwin Beckert, Gerhard Breuer: Public Maritime Law. de Gruyter, Berlin 1991, margin no. 830.
  19. Intervention on the high seas: Naval Inspector Nolting wants to send soldiers on pirate hunt. In: Focus. April 28, 2008, No. 18, p. 14.
  20. Denny Vorbrücken: The dangers for captains are not only lurking at sea. In: Ship & Harbor. 65 (2013), issue 12, p. 58 ff.
  21. Services of the IMB Piracy Reporting Center ( Memento of December 17, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (English).
  22. Robbers on the high seas - piracy is on the rise. In: n-tv.de , January 13, 2007.
  23. Resolution 1816 (2008) of the United Nations Security Council (all resolutions 2008) ( Memento of October 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
  24. ^ Rainer Hermann: Lucrative business on the Somali coast. In: ZAZ-Online. November 19, 2008.
  25. "Nine crewmembers abducted from Norwegian-flagged ship off Benin" Aljazeera from November 4, 2019
  26. Yacht piracy ( Memento from January 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  27. Yacht piracy - SkipperGuide ⚓ - Information from sailors for sailors. Retrieved December 17, 2019 .
  28. (6) Attacks in Venezuela: The pirates of the Caribbean return. In: tagesspiegel.de. Retrieved August 14, 2018 .
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  30. Eigel Wiese: Defense without weapons. In: Hansa . Issue 8/2012, Schiffahrts-Verlag Hansa, Hamburg 2012, ISSN  0017-7504 , pp. 72-74.
  31. Hartmut Roder: Defense against pirates today: heroic deed or senseless endeavor? In: Hartmut Roder (Ed.): Pirates - Adventure or Threat? Edition Temmen, Bremen 2002, ISBN 3-86108-785-5 .
  32. einsatz.bundeswehr.de ( Memento from February 21, 2010 on WebCite )
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  35. Christoph Drösser : Did pirates wear eye patches because one eye was blind because of the sun? In: right ? , The time 27/2016 of June 23, 2016, edited online on July 9, 2016.
  36. See Aleta-Amirée von Holzen: “A Pirate's Life for Me!” From “The Black Pirate” to “Pirates of the Caribbean” - adventure concepts in pirate films. (= Popular literatures and media. 1). Zurich 2007.
  37. Jack Holborn in the Internet Movie Database (English)
  38. ^ Fritz Graßhoff: Seeräuber-Report. Songs, lieder & ballads . Erdmann, Tübingen / Basel 1972, ISBN 3-7711-0142-5 ; LP Pirate Report . Electrola, Cologne 1973.
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  40. Kay Hoffmann: Under the pavement is the beach - some comments on the pirate in the film. In: Hartmut Roder (Ed.): Pirates - Lords of the Seven Seas. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2000, ISBN 3-86108-536-4 ; Aleta-Amirée von Holzen: “A Pirate's Life for Me!” From “The Black Pirate” to “Pirates of the Caribbean” - adventure concepts in pirate films. (= Popular literatures and media. 1). Zurich 2007.
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  42. Peter Kuckuk : The damage to a job description - pirates as constant losers in the series comic "Asterix and Obelix". In: Hartmut Roder (Ed.): Pirates - The Lords of the Seven Seas. ISBN 3-86108-536-4 .
  43. ^ R. Durand, J. Vergne: The Pirate Organization: Lessons from the Fringes of Capitalism . Harvard Business Review Press, 2013.
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  45. ^ S. Roth: Booties, bounties, business models: a map to the next red oceans. In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business , Vol. 22 (2014) No. 4, pp. 439-448. bepress.com
  46. ^ S. Roth: The eye-patch of the beholder. In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business , Vol. 22 (2014) No. 4, pp. 399-407. bepress.com
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on November 8, 2006 .