جمهورية جيبوتي (Arabic)
République de Djibouti (French)
Jumhūriyyat Jībūtī (Arabic)
|Republic of Djibouti|
Motto : Unité, Égalité, Paix
( French for "unity, equality, peace" )
|Official language||Arabic , Somali and French|
|Form of government||republic|
|Government system||Presidential system|
|Head of state||
Ismail Omar Guelleh
|Head of government||
Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed
|population||865,267 (July 2017 estimate)|
|Population density||34 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||+ 2.18% (2016)|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.473 ( 172. ) (2016)|
|currency||Djiboutian Franc (DJF)|
|independence||June 27, 1977 (from France )|
|National holiday||June 27th (Independence Day)|
|Time zone||UTC + 3|
|ISO 3166||DJ , DJI, 262|
Djibouti [ dʒiˈbuːti ] ( Arabic جيبوتي Dschībūtī , French Djibouti , Somali Jabuuti , Afar Gabuuti ) is a republic in East Africa on the Bab al-Mandab Strait . It borders in the north on Eritrea , in the west and south on Ethiopia and in the south-east on Somalia or the internationally not recognized Somaliland and in the east on the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea . The Yemen is located a few kilometers away on the other side of the Red Sea.
The diverse desert landscape of Djibouti encloses the bay of Tadjoura, which extends far into the land, in a horseshoe shape . The land was once below sea level, as indicated by numerous coral reefs . The coast and the offshore islands, coral reefs and underwater volcanoes are considered a diving paradise. Djibouti is largely volcanic; the Ardoukoba volcano was not formed until 1978. In terms of landscape, the territory partly consists of the large subsidence field of the arid Afar lowlands , which partly sinks far below the level of the sea level . The greatest depth is in the Assalsee at 155 m below sea level. A few kilometers to the east, Lake Ghoubet merges into the Gulf of Tadjoura .
The Danakil Mountains in the north consist of crystalline mass rocks and younger basalt blankets . They reach their highest point on the border with Ethiopia and Eritrea in Mousa Alli with 2028 m. In the south of the country plains and basalt covers are predominant. In its drainless basins and salt pans, the only temporarily flowing water of the wadis evaporates; bizarre salt and gypsum formations line the shores of Lake Assal (57 km²) and Lake Abbe . It is fed via Lake Gamari by the Ethiopian river Awash , which - coming from the west - is lost in a system of several unpopulated salt basins .
Since the country is relatively small, it is located in a uniform climate zone and does not have any major climatic differences. The only significant fluctuations are in relation to the altitude of the respective starting point. There are essentially two distinctions: the coastline and the depressions as well as the somewhat higher regions in the north and south.
On the coast it is midsummer for European terms all year round, Djibouti City is one of the hottest cities in Africa. In January, temperatures in the Djibouti area range between 27 and 30 ° C, while at night it cools down to around 20-22 ° C. From April, temperatures begin to skyrocket, reaching 39–42 ° C from June to August. At night, the temperature usually does not drop below 30 ° C. Only from October do temperatures begin to level off again around the 30 ° C mark. The heat records in Djibouti are 45.9 ° C for the months of June and July and 45.8 ° C for August. The absolute minimum is 16 ° C, which was measured in January and February nights.
The air humidity is rather high all year round, with 70–75% in the winter months and a small drop to around 45% in midsummer. This often makes the heat unbearable. Precipitation is limited all year round, with an average of only 15 days of rain, a total of 140–170 mm. The sparse rain is most likely to fall in winter or during thunderstorms.
Sea temperatures are around 25–27 ° C in winter and often reach 30 ° C in summer. Morning winter fog is common along the coasts. The depressions and the salt pans, especially around Lake Assal, have similar climatic conditions . The hinterland (e.g. the Danakil Mountains), which is sometimes 500 to almost 2000 m high, is a little more humid, but here too there is only rare downpour. Temperatures continue to drop at night; during the day, except at high altitudes, the values are roughly the same as on the coast.
Average Monthly Temperatures and Rainfall for Djibouti (city)
Flora and fauna
Due to the lack of rain, thorn bush savannahs , semi- deserts and full deserts cover most of the country. Acacias , thuja , juniper bushes , wild figs and olive trees are only found at altitudes above 1200 m . A thorn tree and succulent forest extends over the slopes of Mousa Alli. In the Forêt du Day nature park , many of the otherwise disappeared plant species have been preserved.
As in other arid regions in Africa, gazelles , antelopes , zebras , hyenas and jackals live in Djibouti . The Abbe Lake in the southwest is known for the numerous ibises , pelicans and especially flamingos that occur here .
The two main ethnic groups of Djibouti are the Somali (60% of the total population) in the south and the Afar (35%) in the north and west of the country. Most of the Djiboutian Somali belong to the Issa , a subclan of the Dir , a smaller proportion are Gadabuursi . The Afar are an ethnic group whose territory is divided between Djibouti, Ethiopia and Eritrea. There are occasional ethnic tensions between the two ethnic groups; the Issa have dominated the country politically since independence, while some Afar feel marginalized.
Europeans (mostly French ) and Arabs (especially Yemenis ) make up a minority of around 5% of the population. In addition, tens of thousands of people from Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea are in the country. The Somalis are usually granted asylum because of the civil war in their country ; among the Ethiopians (especially from the Oromia , Somali and former Wällo regions ) and Eritreans are both refugees due to human rights violations and immigrants for economic reasons. The UNHCR operates a refugee camp in Ali Adde . In 2017, 12.1% of the population were born abroad.
In 2016, 77% of the population lived in cities. Life expectancy was 63 years and 31.7% were under 15 years old. Population growth in 2016 was an estimated 2.2%. A woman had an average of 2.35 children in her lifetime. The official languages are Arabic and French, but the most important languages spoken are Somali and Afar , both of which belong to the lowland East Cushite languages . 94% of the population are Sunni Muslims . The small Christian minority is largely Ethiopian Orthodox ; however, there is also a Catholic diocese of Djibouti .
Urbanization and cities
|city||1983 residents||2009 residents|
The originally nomadic country has experienced rapid urbanization since colonial times. As early as 1960, more people lived in cities than in rural areas. Today, depending on the calculation method, between 70% and 88% of the population live in cities; the official result of the 2009 census showed that 577,000 of the 818,159 inhabitants live in urban areas.
By far the largest city in the country is Djibouti City, which has grown from 40,000 inhabitants in 1960 to around 600,000 inhabitants. Despite all the problems that the rapid growth of Djibouti City brings with it, it is considered the most dynamic and richest city in the Horn of Africa, mainly because of the modern and active port and the purchasing power of the Djiboutian currency. In the first 20 years after independence, the smaller cities grew more slowly than the national average; the proportion of small cities in the total population has only increased since the late 1990s and has now reached around 10%.
The five regions of the country are only very poorly urbanized, none of the regions has an urban population of more than 50%. As a rule, the nomadic people outside the capital make up the majority of the population.
Djibouti is a highly underdeveloped country ; the official unemployment rate in 2005 was 60%. The pronounced rural exodus to Djibouti City is causing urban unemployment to rise further, and around half of the city's population lives in slums . Although hardly any people die of hunger in Djibouti, most people in slums like Arhiba do not have enough to eat. A dock worker earns 500 Djiboutian francs (DJF) a day, which corresponds to around 2.05 euros (as of November 2010). A loaf of bread costs 20 DJF, in contrast to other foodstuffs (e.g. fruit) and goods are expensive to import. When the Human Development Index 2013 Djibouti is on the 170th place.
The autocratically ruled Djibouti is still politically "stable", so that several states established military presences, including the United States, France, Italy, Spain, Japan and Turkey. German soldiers are also temporarily stationed in Djibouti as part of the Atalanta anti-piracy mission . In addition to Saudi Arabia, China is also recently building a military base. China is investing billions in Djibouti's infrastructure, such as the Addis Ababa – Djibouti railway line from Ethiopia to Djibouti. The track opened in October 2016.
The education system in Djibouti is strongly influenced by France . Although official efforts in the 1990s led to an increase in the number of students, the education system remains below the expectations of the population and the needs of a developing country. The school system is based on the French model, but schooling is still not compulsory . In 2007, Djibouti had 81 public primary schools , 24 registered private primary schools, 12 secondary schools and 2 vocational schools. The illiteracy rate was around 30% (22% for men and 42% for women).
There is no social legislation, and the health system is poorly developed. Overall, Djibouti spent 8.5% of its economic output on health in 2014. The life expectancy at birth for newborns from 2010 to 2015 was 61.6 years (women: 63.2 years, men: 60.0 years). The fertility rate is around five children per woman. The density of doctors is 18 doctors per 100,000 inhabitants. In 2016, just under 1.5% of the population was infected with HIV , making Djibouti one of the lower rates in Africa. Almost 29.5% of the children under 5 were malnourished.
In 2016, child mortality in Djibouti was 6.4%. In 1990 it was 11.8% and in 1976 it was 17.3%.
Development of life expectancy
|Period||Life expectancy in
|Period||Life expectancy in
For the pre-colonial history of the Afar see: Sultanate Adal
Like Somalia, present-day Djibouti came under the rule of Arab sultans between the 7th and 10th centuries, who Islamized the nomadic pastoral population. The strategic interest of the French in the area was awakened by the construction of the Suez Canal (1859–1869). In 1862 France had acquired the Obock area and the coastal area. It wanted to create a counterweight to the British military port in Aden . In 1892, France took possession of the previously autonomous sultanates of the city of Djibouti. In 1896 Djibouti was declared a French colony on the French Somali Coast with Djibouti as its capital. In 1917 a 781-kilometer-long railway line to Addis Ababa was completed (see Rail Transport in Ethiopia ). This made the area of economic interest to France, as Djibouti became the most important port of export for neighboring Ethiopia. In the period between the two world wars , the interior was opened up.
In 1946 the colony was converted into a French overseas territory . According to the Loi Lamine Guèye Act of 1946, all citizens of the Overseas Territories had the right to vote in elections to the French Parliament, so that women had the right to vote for this body . However, two classes (collèges) were chosen.
In 1956 Djibouti received limited autonomy through the loi-cadre Defferre . Only this law guaranteed universal suffrage. In 1957 a separate cabinet and territorial parliament was formed. While the majority of the Afar want to retain this status, many Issa sought independence and the connection of Djibouti to a greater Somalia . Especially the Issa leader Mahamoud Harbi advocated these goals. In 1958 the majority of the population voted in a referendum in favor of remaining with France. For the Afar this meant a favor from the French colonial rule. A new referendum on March 19, 1967 sparked tension between the neighboring states of Ethiopia and Somalia. The Afar sympathized with France and Ethiopia, the Issa with Somalia. Due to the pressure of the French authorities, the situation eased again and the area has been called " French Afar and Issa Territory " (Territoire Français des Afars et des Issas) .
After repeated unrest in 1972, France granted extensive self-government. In 1974 the UN and several African states demanded independence. After another referendum, the Afar largely abstained from voting on June 27, 1977 (national holiday) to achieve independence from France. Hassan Gouled Aptidon became the country's first president . The Issa politician formed a cabinet with all ethnic groups - the prime minister and foreign minister were Afar - but Afar repeatedly expressed displeasure with their secondary political situation, which led to various government crises and reshuffles. Universal suffrage regardless of gender was confirmed in 1977.
After his clear election victory in 1981, Gouled decided to take a decisive stance, declaring Djibouti a one-party state under his Issa-led Rassemblement Populaire pour le Progrès (RPP) party and banning all other parties.
In the following years the domestic political situation consolidated. On March 21, 1981, the President signed a friendship treaty with neighboring Ethiopia for a period of 10 years. From 1986 Djibouti acted as a peace broker between Ethiopia and Somalia. From 1988 Djibouti became a host country for Somali refugees, whereupon relations with Somalia deteriorated. In 1989 a flood disaster destroyed 70% of Djibouti City.
In 1991 fighting began between Afar rebels and government troops in the north of the country . The successes of the rebels induced the government to reintroduce a multi-party system in 1992. The civil war was largely ended with a peace agreement in December 1994; some of the rebels were still active until 2001. President Gouled resigned in 1999 for health reasons. His successor was Ismail Omar Guelleh of the RPP, who was re-elected in 2005.
In mid-2008, Djiboutian troops clashed with Eritrean troops several times in the disputed border area around Ras Doumeira . The US and the United Nations Security Council accused Eritrea of military aggression against Djibouti.
Under the 1992 Constitution, Djibouti is a presidential republic . The head of state is the president who is directly elected by the people for six years and who is also the commander in chief of the armed forces. He appoints the head of government and his cabinet . Legislative power lies with the National Assembly with 65 members directly elected for five years. All residents aged 18 and over have the right to vote. The legal system is based on Islamic law; the highest authority is the Supreme Court. Djibouti is a member of the UN and the Arab League . The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is based in Djibouti.
The ruling party Rassemblement Populaire pour le Progrès (RPP) was the only legal unitary party from 1981 to 1992 and has dominated the country's politics to this day. Critics therefore regard Djibouti as a de facto one-party state and accuse the government of authoritarian tendencies. In the parliamentary elections in 2003 in the won pour Union l'Alternance Démocratique united opposition parties nearly 37% of the vote, but all 65 seats went through the majority system to run by the RPP Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle (UMP) with 62.7% share of the vote . In protest, the opposition did not take part in the 2005 presidential elections and the 2008 parliamentary elections.
Military and security
The armed forces of Djibouti have a troop strength of approximately 4,000 men. The land forces as the largest contingent consist of 3,500 soldiers, seven regiments and 48 armored vehicles. The Navy has six patrol boats . The air force owns two transport aircraft ( Cessna 208 and Let L-410 ) and three helicopters (1 Eurocopter AS 355 and 2 Mil Mi-8/17 ).
In addition to the troops of Djibouti, foreign contingents are stationed in the country, including the 5th Régiment interarmes d'outre-mer (5th RIAOM) of the French Army de Terre . In addition to France , as part of the Forces françaises stationnées à Djibouti (FFDj) (with around 2,000 soldiers; 2012), and the USA ( Camp Lemonnier ), Japan and Germany also maintain a permanent base there. China announced the construction of a military base in Djibouti in December 2015 and reported in July 2017 that it had dispatched military personnel to commission it.
The German Navy has been deploying soldiers in the Horn of Africa since 2008 as part of Operation Atalanta . The units will each be relocated to the Bab al-Mandab for several months in order to monitor shipping traffic from the southern Red Sea via the Gulf of Aden to the Gulf of Oman .
The German participation has been taking place since December 22, 2008 through a resolution of the Bundestag of December 19, 2008. The mandate has been extended repeatedly by the Bundestag since then, most recently on May 18, 2017 until May 31, 2018 at the latest. Furthermore, the personnel limit was increased to 600 Soldiers reduced. The naval forces of the naval association, together with the coalition partners, secure the sea connection lines by checking suspicious ships. The aim is to cut off supplies and escape routes from suspected pirates or terrorist groups.
Administrative organization and decentralization
During the colonial period, the administrative division of the area followed the centralist model of France. In addition to the capital district, four military districts were established. After independence, this structure was retained, with civil administrators at the head of the districts, who represented the central government in their respective districts. The first attempts at decentralization were given up in 1979 in favor of national unity, and a short time later Djibouti became a one-party state in which decentralization played no role.
In addition to the introduction of a multi-party system, decentralization was also part of the agreements in the peace treaty of February 7, 2000, which ended the Djiboutian civil war . International donors such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the United Nations development program also called for them. In 2002 the Law on Decentralization and the Status of Regions was passed. It provides for the division of the country into five regions and the capital Djibouti , which has a special status ( ville ); the capital itself is divided into three municipalities. The first local and regional elections were held on March 10, 2006, and since then the municipalities and regions have had an elected parliament and an executive determined by this parliament. Civil status, road construction, market administration and the courts of traditional customary law now fall under the jurisdiction of the regions and municipalities. However, there are unanswered questions about the financing of these bodies, and there is also a lack of competent staff.
The inadequately developed road network is 3,100 kilometers long, almost 400 kilometers of which are paved. The most important and busiest route leads from Djibouti City to the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa . It represents the economic lifeline of the country.
The capital has a modern deep-water port with a free port and a container terminal. Thanks to numerous investors from the Arabian Peninsula, significant extensions to the port facilities in Doraleh have recently been built. Since its completion in April 2009, the country has one of the largest container terminals in the region. The port is becoming the most important in East Africa. On the southern edge of the capital is the Djibouti international airport , which connects the country with the outside world. In addition to the small civil airport, it also serves as an important US air force base.
The 756-kilometer standard-gauge railway line Djibouti – Addis Ababa (100 kilometers of which in Djibouti), which was built by the People's Republic of China, has been running again from the port of Djibouti to Addis Ababa since its opening in October 2016. It replaces the narrow-gauge line , which opened in 1917 and which has been closed beyond Dire Dawa since 2008 .
The economy of Djibouti is mainly based on the service sector. 76.3% of total GDP was generated in this sector in 2016. Agriculture, on the other hand, only had a share of 2.9% and industry of 20.8%. In the same year, however, 78% of the population were employed in agriculture. In 2016 GDP increased by 6.5%. In 2003, 4.3% of GDP was spent on the military, 6.1% on education and 5.7% on health. Inflation averaged 3% in 2016. Important sources of income are the payments made by France for the French military units stationed in the country and the transit trade with Ethiopia.
The unemployment rate is given at around 40% in 2017, making it one of the highest in the world. In 2014 it was estimated at 60%.
All GDP values are given in US dollars ( purchasing power parity ).
(purchasing power parity)
|1.20 billion||1.14 billion||1.22 billion||1.58 billion||1.70 billion||1.84 billion||1.98 billion||2.03 billion||2.14 billion||2.34 billion||2.50 billion||2.67 billion||2.88 billion||3.10 billion||3.34 billion||3.63 billion|
GDP per capita
(purchasing power parity)
(as a percentage of GDP)
Because of the generally dry climate and recurring droughts, agriculture is only possible to a very limited extent in Djibouti. About 9% of the area can be used as pasture land , extensive livestock farming is largely carried out by nomads . Vegetables, figs and coffee are grown on a modest scale .
Up to 80% of the food is imported from abroad, especially from Ethiopia. According to a report by the World Bank , Djibouti is, alongside Haiti, one of the countries with the greatest food insecurity and high susceptibility to food price increases .
Natural resources and energy
Salt from the numerous salt lakes is traditionally mined as a commercial good and sold in the highlands of Ethiopia (cf. Amole ); Djibouti's own salt supply, however, depends on imports. A US company is planning to industrialize salt production .
The energy supply is based entirely on imported petroleum .
Small businesses dominate the industry, producing foods, beverages, textiles and furniture, among other things.
The tourism is in its infancy. With the expansion of the corresponding infrastructure, transit travelers in particular are to be encouraged to stay for several days. There are particularly good development opportunities in the area of fishing and diving tourism .
In 2010 almost 51,000 tourists visited the country. Tourism revenue in 2015 was $ 31 million.
In 2016, Djibouti imported goods worth US $ 992 million, mainly food, machinery, clothing, petroleum and products mainly from China, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia.
In 2015, it exported $ 146 million in goods, mainly hides, skins and other livestock products, mostly to Somalia, the United States and Yemen.
The state budget included expenditures in 2016 of the equivalent of 885.9 million US dollars , which were income equivalent to 685.7 million US Dollar against. This results in a budget deficit of 10.6% of GDP . The national debt was 40.5% of GDP in 2014.
In 2006, the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was as follows:
In the 2017 press freedom ranking published by Reporters Without Borders , Djibouti was ranked 172nd out of 180 countries. According to a report by the non-governmental organization Reporters Without Borders, the political leadership does not allow any media diversity.
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