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Vincent van Gogh , Auvers, 1890
A plowed field in England
Fields near Ampleben in Lower Saxony
Harvested field with straw bales in Dienstedt in Thuringia
Winter grain field near Aachen- Laurensberg
Field left and harvested in Baden-Württemberg

A field , even field or blow mentioned, is an agriculturally unused ground ( culture medium ), which regularly, for example, with a plow processed and having a crop is ordered.

The words are not to be understood completely as synonyms: One speaks of a wheat or rape field, but mostly of a potato or beet field. There are also landscape differences in the use of these words. A land used as arable land is called arable land .

The loose, worked top layer (about 30 cm) of a field enriched with organic material is referred to as arable top. In certain areas (Courland) the term was also used for the sprouting seed. The field plaice or plaice for short is actually a large piece of earth that was thrown up by the plow . The latter term is also used out of date as a metaphor for home .


The word Acker goes back to the Indo-European aĝro via Old High German ackar / acchar and initially only referred to the land outside of settlements, where the cattle were driven to pasture and also to fertilize the soil. Related to this are Swiss German Acher , Greek agros and Latin ager , which both mean field . To plow means to turn the earth, to sweep the ground , to transfer: to toil . For arable land, see also Esch (corridor) . Meadows and pastures do not belong to the arable land. The Order of the surfaces as well as occasional plow referred.

Field borders

As a demarcation , Rain between surfaces naturally, difficult changeable characteristics were such. B. trees, hedges , streams , paths or artificial boundary signs such. B. ditches , piles of stones or walls , gates and fences . Also landmarks to mark the parcel boundaries were and are common.

Species and relation to the landscape

A field is a part of the agricultural area. The grain field is common . According to Alfred Helfenstein, the term field (originally a flat corridor) only referred to the grain field (not a meadow) since the beginning of the three-field economy in the Middle Ages. After the Object Browser, the authorities arable land, arable grassland, distinguish arable Hack Rain , grassland-arable and grassland hack Rain. Fields are parts of cultural landscapes .

Illuminated fields are accessible but unused commercial areas with road accesses, sewers, water, electricity and telecommunication lines .

Usage structure


In Germany , most of the arable land is used for plant production for food and fodder purposes , only a small part is used for growing energy crops .

Arable land by main crop group in 1,000 hectares
Main fruit groups 2010 2013 2015
Agricultural area 16 704.0 16 699.6 16 730.7
Farmland 11 846.7 11 875.9 11 846.4
Grain for grain production 6,595.4 6,533.7 6 529.2
- wheat 3,297.7 3 128.2 3,282.7
- rye and winter marsh cereals 627.1 784.6 616.0
- barley 1,641.3 1,570.4 1,621.8
legumes 100.7 74.7 160.4
Root crops 624.3 605.3 554.1
- potatoes 254.4 242.8 236.7
- sugar beets 364.1 357.4 312.8
Horticultural products on the farmland 130.9 132.3 136.9
Commercial crops 1,537.7 1,535.5 1,374.4
- winter rape 1,457.3 1,460.0 1,281.8
Plants for green harvest / forage plants 2,571.0 2,760.3 2,746.2
- Silage maize / green maize 1,828.9 2,003.2 2 100.4
Set aside areas / fallow land 252.4 198.9 310.2


In Switzerland 398,200 were hectares (38% of the LN used) as arable land, of which 8% for biological agriculture . On a large part (143,300 ha) grain was grown, which was used on the one hand for food (83,000 ha) and on the other hand as feed (60,300 ha). The acreage for spelled (5000 ha) grew by 41% between 2014 and 2017. The other areas (38,900 hectares; 4% of the land area) contained 13,400 hectares of vineyards and 7200 hectares of orchards .


Fields are subject to property tax according to § 2 GrStG . The assessment is the basis of taxation. In the context of urban planning and development at constraints farmland may land rezoned be. This often increases the price per square meter by a factor of ten or more. The resulting increase in value and the proceeds or additional proceeds that can be achieved as a result of the rededication of arable land in building land and the sale of the rededicated arable land at "building land prices" are sometimes referred to by the phrase " fifth crop rotation ".

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Acker  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: field  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Acker  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikiquote: Acker  - Quotes

Individual evidence

  1. JG Krünitz: Economic Encyclopedia . The seeds that had got into the crumb were found to be yellow-tipped. or The field was tilled very clearly, and had a lot of crumb for a wheat country
  2. VDI Society Technologies of Life Sciences (Ed.): Use of machines taking into account the drivability of agriculturally used soils (VDI 6101) .
  3. Basic level farmer . BLV Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Munich 2004, p. 161 .
  4. Knaur: The German Dictionary . Lexographic Institute Munich, Munich 1985, p. 858 .
  5. ^ Friedrich Kluge , Alfred Götze : Etymological dictionary of the German language . 20th edition, ed. by Walther Mitzka , De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1967; Reprint (“21st unchanged edition”) ibid 1975, ISBN 3-11-005709-3 , p. 6 f.
  6. Duden 7 . Bibliographisches Institut Mannheim, Mannheim 1963, p. 12 .
  7. Alfred Helfenstein: The Namengut Pilate territory. Keller, Luzern 1982, ISBN 3-85766-004-X , p. 46.
  8. Table of arable land use on the website of the Federal Statistical Office. ( Memento from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
  9. Federal Statistical Office : Agricultural Structure Survey 2017: Fewer farms, but more and more organic farms In: , May 8, 2018, accessed on May 11, 2018.