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The term mimosa is used metaphorically for a very sensitive and overly sensitive (or recovering from an illness) person. Illustration Sensitive (Mimosa) from Fleurs Animées ( Inspired Flowers) by the French artist Grandville

A metaphor ( ancient Greek μεταφορά metaphorá “transfer”) is a “ linguistic expression (especially used as a stylistic device ) in which a word (a group of words) is transferred from its actual meaning to another without a direct comparison of the relationship between the indicative and What is marked made clear ".

German synonyms are image or transmission; accordingly, a frequent use is called visual language and a frequently used adverbial definition is “in the figurative sense (s)”.


The actual expression is replaced by something that should be clearer, more vivid or linguistically richer, e.g. B. Tree crown for 'top of the tree' or desert ship for 'camel'. In some cases, metaphors also fill semantic gaps that could only be closed with more complex paraphrases ( bottleneck ).

The metaphor uses the principle of similarity and formulates a selected and thus constructed relation between similar phenomena, but not related in terms of content, whereby it transfers meaning between them.

It can also be used as an abbreviated ( pictorial ) comparison. - example:

  • Hercules is a lion for "Hercules is as strong as a lion".

Here the strength of the predator “lion” is transferred to the heroHercules ”.

The syntactic elimination of the comparison particles (in the example the word like ) makes the metaphorical formulation more concise or more intense and tends to appeal more to the imagination , while the comparison is more rational.

Metaphors are used in fixed, commonly used terms (e.g. mountain foot for the lower part of a mountain), in idioms (e.g. falling out of the clouds ), as adjectives (e.g. gray theory ) and as verbs (e.g. the trees are falling ).

Depending on usage or habitualization , metaphors can be divided into new types of metaphorical expressions, which are sometimes perceived as bold, clichéd metaphors (e.g. the fire of love ) whose metaphorical status is still noticeable despite frequent use, and faded metaphors, whose metaphorical origin is no longer present (for example, Leitfaden is hardly associated with Ariadne any more ).

In addition to the narrower concept of metaphor, literary studies also know another concept of metaphor, which is aimed at figurative speaking in general, i.e. also includes comparison , parable , parable or allegory in the broader sense and does not take quantitative criteria into account.

On the other hand, metonymy is based on the principle of contiguity , it sets a "real" relation between content-related phenomena in language, between which a meaning has also been transferred. - example:

  • drink a glass


The metaphor belongs to the rhetorical stylistic devices , more precisely to the tropics , the types of improper designation.

The word itself comes from the ancient Greek μεταφορά , metaphorá , literally "transmission", from μετα-φορέω , meta-phoréō , "transmit, translate, transport", or from the synonymous μετα-φέρω , meta-phérō .

The main feature of the metaphor is the relationship of similarity ( analogy ) between what is literally said and what is meant figuratively, in contrast to other tropes, which, for example, have a relationship of neighborhood or contiguity ( metonymy ), between the particular and the general ( synecdoche ) or contrarity ( Irony ).

Metaphors are used primarily for the following reasons:

  • because there is no separate word for the thing meant . - example:
  • because an existing word or the thing referred to is considered offensive or is assessed negatively and should therefore be circumscribed by a more harmless expression. - example:
  • because an abstract concept is supposed to be symbolized by a clearer fact. - example:
    • Ravages of time
  • because the factual property on which the similarity is based should be particularly emphasized. - example:

Although metaphors of this kind already play an important role in colloquial and non-literary language, the use of sought-after, conspicuous, memorable and sometimes deliberately enigmatic or obscure metaphors is a special feature of literary artful and poetic language that sets it apart from normal linguistic usage (see also literary character ).

Metaphor in Aristotle

Approaches to a theory of metaphor can be found first in Aristotle , in his poetics and rhetoric . In poetics he uses the expression metaphor in the original, wider meaning of "transference", which in the rhetorical terminology developed since then roughly corresponds to the range of meanings of "trope":

A metaphor is the transfer of a word (which is thus used in an improper sense), namely “either from genus to species, or from species to genus, or from one species to another, or according to the rules of analogy . "( Poetik 21, 1457b7 ff. Translation by M. Fuhrmann)

These four main types, of which the first two are based on a relationship between the particular and the general and can therefore also be classified as subspecies of the Synekdoche , are illustrated by examples:

  • From the genre to the type : “My ship is standing still ” for “My ship is at anchor ” - the general ( standing still ) is referred to instead of the particular (lying at anchor).
  • From species to genre: “ ten thousand good things” for “ many good things” - the reverse case, in which the particular stands for the general .
  • From one species to the other: "With the ore the soul skimming " instead of " cutting off " - skimming and cutting are ways of taking away, so there is a similarity relationship and thus a metaphor in the narrow sense.
  • According to the rules of the analogy : “ evening of life” for “ old age ” - between day (a) and evening (b) there is the same relationship as between human life (c) and age (d), ie a: b = c: d so that the second term (b) of the analogy can be taken for the fourth (d) and vice versa, “age of the day” can be formed. Here, too, we are dealing with a relationship of similarity, i.e. a metaphor in the narrower sense.

In rhetoric , too , Aristotle starts from the broader meaning of the term metaphor and speaks of its four main types, among which he emphasizes analogy as the most important (III, x, 7, 1411a). He emphasizes their particular aptitude to “bring before one's eyes” what has been said and to visualize things in “effectiveness” ( energeia ) by using what is inanimate for inanimate (III, xi, 1411b f.). Metaphor has a moment of deception and surprise, of deviation from expectation, but at the same time it is also a means of wit, knowledge and learning, comparable to philosophy, which also recognizes the similar in things that are far apart (III, xi , 5ff., 1412a ff.). Aristotle extends the concept of metaphor in rhetoric even further by subsuming the comparison under it (III, 4, 1406b f., Translation by FG ​​Sieveke):

“But the parable is also a metaphor; because the difference between the two is only slight. For when one says (with regard to Achilles): 'Like a lion he fell on him', it is a parable; but if you say: 'A lion fell on him', then it is a metaphor, because both are brave, Achilles was called a lion in a figurative sense. "

The categorization of comparison as a metaphor (in the broader sense) has not continued in modern times, but it has remained customary to describe the metaphor as an implicit comparison, without a comparison expression (“like”, “as”).

Linguistic metaphor theory

In historical linguistics , the metaphor is seen as a change in meaning based on similarity . - example:

  • Horse (originally just an animal) for a piece of sports equipment.

In cognitive linguistics , metaphors are considered to be one of the essential structuring of thinking. They are described as “conceptual metaphors” connecting a source area to a target area, for example, “Life” (target area) “is a journey” (source area). Several common metaphorical expressions can usually be assigned to such a concept (“At the beginning of life”, “Path of life”, “Stumbling blocks” etc.). Metaphorical creativity is therefore mainly possible within the existing concepts. Harald Weinrich pursues a comparable approach in the investigation of "image fields" to which an "image donor area" and an "image recipient area" are assigned.

These “conceptual metaphors” are not always new metaphors and we are aware of them as such. Common (dead) metaphors are often used, even when literal expressions are numerous. For example, instead of saying “He was nice to me”, we use the metaphorical variant “He was sweet to me”. Here, too, we have a source area and a target area. The former is from the domain of taste (“sweet”), many other metaphors come from domains of sensory perception. So in order to represent something emotional ("being nice"), that is, an experience remote from the body, we take a body-close experience from just such a domain and thus verbalize our emotional world. The use and understanding of such metaphors, as well as the reasons for their relatively frequent use, are a fairly topical research topic in linguistics.

The interaction theory (Black / Ivor Armstrong Richards ), preceded the cognitive can apply metaphor theory of Lakoff and Johnson, sees the metaphor as a duality of tenor and vehicle , wherein the vehicle to mind the tenor transported and so the recipient does understandable.

In contrast, pragmatic linguistics does not examine the metaphor in terms of its conceptual functionality, but rather in its function within a communication situation determined by the speaker, utterance and recipient, and is based on the following assumptions:

  1. The metaphor is part of an utterance, its place and function in context are examined. It is recognized not on the basis of rules, but in a context-related manner. The communicative sense results from the utterance situation.
  2. The metaphor should not be examined for its essence, but can only be explained for the specific context. By considering the use of metaphors and their explanation, one comes to the respective context-related meaning. A comprehensive description is therefore not possible.
  3. The metaphor cannot be replaced or paraphrased by an actual expression.
  4. The use of the metaphor lies in a field of tension between creativity and rule-based guidance. The formation of metaphors falls back on conventional modes of use, the original meaning is retained or partially retained in the new context of use.
  5. Metaphorical speaking is used consciously as a communicative process and contains a conscious ambiguity. Interaction takes place between the speakers through the process of interpretation that arises from the incongruence between metaphor and context. The unusual word usage represents a meaningful and informative deviation.

Coenen (1931–2016) takes a different approach with his thesis (2002) on the analogy of metaphor . He understands the creation of metaphors as a motivated act. A linguistic sign used as a metaphor does not appear in its core meaning ( denotation , referred to by Coenen as a “theoretical area of ​​application”), but by means of its own connotation (the so-called “metaphorical theoretical area of ​​application”). This results in a change in the visual field of the linguistic sign that is usually surprising for the recipient. According to Coenen, an image field consists of an image field area and the associated set of positions. Two or more different image fields can be connected by means of a common structural formula (analogy root). An analogy root is the set of all descriptions that justify an analogy. Using this structural formula, it is possible to paradigmatically exchange the elements of the positional sets of the participating image fields and combine them into a new metaphor.

The metaphor is decoded (unless it is a “dead metaphor” = lexicalized metaphor) via the connotation of its linguistic symbols. In order to be able to decode successfully, the recipient therefore not only needs knowledge of the core but also of the peripheral meaning of a linguistic character.

Metaphor types (selection)

There is no systematic distinction between subspecies of the metaphor. Attributes such as “dark” or “bold”, however, describe properties of metaphors that are not inherent in every metaphor to the same extent, and of which several properties can also be given in the same metaphor:

  • Anthropomorphism , personification - are types of metaphors that provide non-human things with human attributes (anthropomorphism) or generally give them human traits (personification). Example: The sun is smiling, winter is coming.
  • Dead metaphors - whose metaphorical character is no longer conscious, e.g. B. table leg , glove (similar to: faded metaphors; counter-term: living metaphors).
  • Lexicalized metaphors - dead metaphors that have entered the vocabulary as secondary meanings. Example: Castle (castle that "closes" a valley); Electricity (“flow” of electrical charge carriers).
  • Standing metaphors that can be found again and again in comparable contexts, cf. Topos and idioms .
  • Dark metaphors - are based on particularly difficult to recognize, "far-fetched" similarities and require a special intellectual effort on the part of the interpreter, cf. Concetto .
  • Bold metaphors - link two areas of reality that are traditionally viewed as incompatible, e.g. B. sexual metaphors in mystical-religious poetry, or computer-technical metaphors in modern love poetry.
  • Euphemistic metaphors - replace an expression that is taboo or fraught with negative ideas (e.g. going home for “to die”).

In literary studies on the literature of modern times, the term “ absolute metaphor ” is often found , which then usually means a metaphor that not only - like the “dark metaphor” - opposes particular difficulty to understanding or - like every metaphor - does not can be transferred into conceptual speech without loss of meaning or effect, but is chosen precisely for the sake of this non-transferability. The existence of an absolute metaphor in this sense can therefore be determined less by its properties than by the poetological context of its occurrence.

In Hans Blumenberg's “Metaphorology” , established metaphors of philosophical or scientific discourses are also considered “absolute metaphors”, provided that they have an immediately plausible meaning that, other than metaphorically, cannot or not yet be stated.

Animal metaphors

An animal metaphor is a linguistic expression with which an actual or stereotype- based context of meaning from the animal kingdom is transferred to another, often human-related area. Depending on the time, society and culture, the underlying attributions of meaning are interpreted and used differently. Animal metaphors are mostly used for devaluation through dehumanization - less often also for revaluation. They are used in particular to construct and fix images of the enemy, that is, as dysphemism . In the high effectiveness of animal metaphors, the power of social stereotypes becomes recognizable and at the same time analyzable.

Examples of pejorative, dehumanizing animal metaphors for humans:

Sports metaphors

Sports metaphors are understood as visual expressions of the colloquial and technical languages ​​that have their starting point in the field of sports. The extremely visual sports language with its vivid idioms contributes significantly to the dynamization and rejuvenation of the language and, according to Siegbert Warwitz, counteracts the drying up of abstract terminology.

Examples of eloquent metaphors

  • Getting the cow off the ice - Solving a problem
  • Ride a Wave of Success - Having unusually much success over an extended period of time
  • Revolving door effect - quick change between two states
  • Elevator crew - often ascends, but also descends again
  • Trample the right - disregard, violate the right
  • Glass ceiling - women career disadvantage
  • Praise Someone Heaven - Praise someone exaggeratedly high
  • Korinthenkacker - someone who deals with insignificant little things and details
  • War fatigue - poor willingness to continue (participate in) a war
  • Empty straw thresh - talk without content
  • Wall of Silence - Rejecting Silence
  • Can't hold a candle to someone - not nearly as good as someone else in terms of skills or achievements
  • Kaderschmiede - educational institution for future cadres , leadership elites
  • Break someone's heart - destroy someone's happiness in life
  • Looking for a needle in a haystack - a hopeless search from the start
  • Nutshell - Small Boat
  • Explainable - repeatedly explaining the same facts
  • Pyrrhic Victory - Success bought too dearly
  • Raven parents - parents who neglect their children
  • Pink Glasses - Positive Selective Perception
  • Getting the hang of it - (finally) bringing a thing to an end
  • Hit the nail on the head - address an issue from exactly the point of view that matters
  • Yesterday's news - something that is a thing of the past and no longer has any significance for the present
  • Theatrum mundi (world theater) - The vanity and nothingness of the world
  • Great moment - decisions, actions or events with fateful consequences
  • Flash in the pan - Temporary strong commitment
  • Invisible hand - self-regulation (e.g. of the market)
  • Cradle of Humanity - Region of Hominization
  • Numbers graveyard - Confusing collection of numbers or calculations
  • Putting someone to the test - asking awkward questions
  • Open a barrel - bring something up or make it a topic, or tackle something new
  • Wink with the fence post - clear indication of a fact
  • Lead desert - endlessly long, unstructured text

Further examples in the list of German idioms .

Metaphor analysis

With the help of the analysis of metaphors, habitus , implicit knowledge , social representations and discourses can be revealed and compared.

Social sciences

In the social sciences , systematic metaphor analysis is a method of qualitative research. It can be based on different theories - for example in linguistics with the help of linguistic metaphor theory or in communication science with the help of framing theory .

The aim of social-scientific and communication-theoretical metaphor research is to investigate the shaping of collective thought and interpretation patterns, models, ideologies, meaning processes and action orientations or the influence of individuals through such patterns. Sociology is increasingly recognizing the role of metaphors in constituting reality.

The systematic metaphor analysis can be used to obtain reliable generalizations about such contexts of meaning. Many individual metaphors with the same meaning are combined into a metaphorical concept and all of them - not just conspicuous metaphors - are examined. By examining the contexts, the analysis illuminates the entire conceptual system of a speaker, group or phenomenon and also takes into account its cultural context.

In the early sociological theory, metaphors of the organism dominated, today it is technical metaphors and those from the world of networks and systems. This shows parallels to psychological research (see below).

Psychology and psychotherapy

In psychology, metaphors are used to describe new facts or to drastically characterize other facts. They also make it easier to represent the unknown through the known. They help to address taboo and offensive topics in a "veiled way".

Metaphors are actively used as a creative stylistic device in many psychotherapeutic therapy directions.

In hypnotherapy according to Milton H. Erickson , metaphors are used to induce hypnotic trance states in clients. This is to give them a preconscious and subconscious access to deal with their concerns.

In the systemic therapy , the use of a central metaphors art. Often, the therapeutic use of metaphor with telling (therapeutic) stories is almost the same set. In a more comprehensive view of the use of metaphors in therapy and counseling, this also includes the use of idioms, proverbs and quotations, the creation of pictures, the use of picture cards and symbol cubes, the use of figure constellations as well as complex methods such as the systemic hero's journey .

Dedre Gentner and Jonathan Grudin, through an analysis of editions of the Psychological Review since 1894, showed that the use of metaphors in psychological research has also changed dramatically. In the beginning, spatial metaphors and those from the field of living beings were mainly used, today systemic, mathematical and physical metaphors are in the foreground. While the use of metaphors decreased in the middle of the study period (1935–1955), it recently increased again significantly, which shows the conceptual changes in the theory of consciousness during this time.

See also


Pöschl 1964, Shibles 1971, van Noppen et al. 1985/1990, the work by Rolf 2005 and the anthology by Haverkamp 1996 are particularly suitable for indexing the extremely extensive literature, see also the references to metaphorology in the philosophy bibliography of the philosophy portal .

  • Bernhard Asmuth: Metaphor. In: Literary Studies Lexicon. Basic concepts of German studies , ed. by Horst Brunner and Rainer Moritz, Erich Schmidt, Berlin 1997, pp. 219–222, ISBN 3-503-03745-4 (2nd edition 2006).
  • Günter Bader : Melancholy and Metaphor. A sketch. Tubingen 1990.
  • Max Black (Ed.): Models and Metaphors. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY 1962.
  • Wolfgang Bergem, Lothar Bluhm , Friedhelm Marx (eds.): Metaphor and model. A Wuppertal colloquium on literary and scientific forms of constructing reality. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier 1996, ISBN 3-88476-192-7 .
  • Hans Blumenberg : Paradigms for a Metaphorology. Bouvier, Bonn 1960. (New edition: (= Suhrkamp pocket book science. 1301). Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 3-518-28901-2 )
  • DE Cooper: metaphor. Oxford 1986.
  • Donald Davidson : What Metaphors Mean (1978). [Section: Limits of the literal. ] In: Truth and Interpretation. Suhrkamp, ​​1986, ISBN 3-518-06040-6 , pp. 343-371.
  • Thomas Eder , Franz Josef Czernin (ed.): On the metaphor. The metaphor in philosophy, science and literature . Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich / Paderborn 2007, ISBN 978-3-7705-4214-7 .
  • Bernd Enders , Jürgen Oberschmidt, Gerhard Schmitt (eds.): The metaphor as a ›medium‹ of understanding music. Scientific symposium, June 17 - June 19, 2011, Osnabrück University. epOs-Music , Osnabrück 2013, ISBN 978-3-940255-38-9 .
  • Milton H. Erickson , EL Rossi: Hypnotherapy: Setup - Examples - Research. Pfeiffer, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-608-89672-4 .
  • Robert J. Fogelin : Figuratively Speaking. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT 1988.
  • Stefan Gottschling : Lexicon of Words . SGV-Verlag, Augsburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-9811027-3-4 .
  • S. Hammel: Handbook of therapeutic storytelling: stories and metaphors in psychotherapy, child and family therapy, medicine, coaching and supervision. Velcro cotta. Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-608-89081-5 .
  • Anselm Haverkamp (Ed.): Theory of Metaphor , Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1996.
  • Anselm Haverkamp (ed.): The paradoxical metaphor. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1998.
  • Jaakko Hintikka (Ed.): Aspects of Metaphor. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht 1994.
  • Eva F. Kittay, David Hills: Metaphor. In: Encyclopedia of Philosophy . 2nd Edition. Volume 6, pp. 166-169.
  • Roman Jakobson : Essays on linguistics and poetics. (= Collection Dialog. 71). ed. and a. by Wolfgang Raible , ex. by Regine Kuhn. Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, Munich 1974, ISBN 3-485-03071-6 .
  • M. Johnson (Ed.): Philosophical Perspectives on Metaphor. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 1981.
  • Ralf Konersmann (Hrsg.): Dictionary of philosophical metaphors. 2nd Edition. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2008, ISBN 978-3-534-18820-8 .
  • Ulrich Krewitt: Metaphor and tropical speech in the conception of the Middle Ages. (= Supplements to the Middle Latin Yearbook. 7). Henn, Ratingen / Kastellaun / Wuppertal 1971.
  • Gerhard Kurz : metaphor, allegory, symbol. (= Small Vandenhoeck series. 1486). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1982, ISBN 3-525-33476-1 .
  • George Lakoff , M. Johnson : Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1980.
  • CH Langton, SR Langton: Stories with Magic: Working with Metaphors in Psychotherapy. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-608-89673-2 .
  • SR Levin: The Semantics of Metaphor. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1977.
  • Holger Lindemann : The great metaphor treasure chest. Systemic work with language images. Volume 1: Basics and Methods. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2016, ISBN 978-3-525-40275-7 .
  • Holger Lindemann: The great metaphor treasure chest. Systemic work with language images. Volume 2: The Systemic Hero's Journey. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2016, ISBN 978-3-525-40264-1 .
  • Regina Mahlmann : Sprachbilder, Metaphern & Co. Beltz Verlag, Weinheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-407-36487-6 .
  • AP Martinich: Art. Metaphor. In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
  • Ahlrich Meyer : Mechanical and organic metaphors of political philosophy. In: Archive for the history of concepts . Volume XIII, Issue 2, 1969, pp. 128-199.
  • JP van Noppen, S. De Knop, R. Jongen (Eds.): Metaphor. Volume 1: A Bibliography of Post-1970 Publications. Volume 2: A Classified Bibliography of Publications. Benjamin, Amsterdam 1985/1990.
  • Andrew Ortony (Ed.): Metaphor and Thought. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK 1993.
  • Viktor Pöschl (Ed.): Bibliography on ancient picture language. Heidelberg 1964, ISBN 978-3-8253-0419-5 .
  • Paul Ricœur : The living metaphor. Munich 1986, ISBN 3-7705-2349-0 .
  • Eckard Rolf: metaphor theories. Typology - Presentation - Bibliography. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-018331-5 .
  • Sheldon Sacks (Ed.): On Metaphor. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1979.
  • A. von Schlippe, J. Schweitzer: Textbook of systemic therapy and advice. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2000, ISBN 3-525-40185-X .
  • R. Schwing, A. Fryszer: Systemic craft. Tool for practice. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 3-525-45372-8 .
  • WA Shibles: Metaphor. An annotated bibliography and history. Whitewater 1971, ISBN 0-912386-00-2 .
  • Helge Skirl, Monika Schwarz-Friesel: Metaphor. (= Short introductions to German linguistics. Volume 4). Winter, Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8253-5306-3 .
  • Bernhard HF Taureck : Metaphors and parables in philosophy. Attempt at a critical iconology of philosophy. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-518-29266-8 .
  • Bernd Wahlbrinck: Dead metaphors live longer. With instructions on how to revive the same. Tumbelwied, 2018, ISBN 978-3-00-061506-1 .
  • René Wellek , Austin Warren: Theory of Literature. Athenäum Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1972, ISBN 3-8072-2005-4 , pp. 198–228.
  • Harald Weinrich : Art. Metaphor. In: Historical Dictionary of Philosophy . Volume 5, pp. 1179-1186.

Web links

Commons : Metaphors  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: metaphor  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b Duden | Metaphor | Spelling, meaning, definition, synonyms, origin. In: Retrieved December 7, 2016 .
  2. Duden | Imagery | Spelling, meaning, definition, synonyms, origin. In: Retrieved December 7, 2016 .
  3. Dietmar Peil: Metaphor. In: Ansgar Nünning (ed.): Basic concepts of literary theory. Metzler Verlag, Stuttgart / Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-476-10347-1 , p. 176.
  4. metaphor. In: Uwe Spörl: Basislexikon Literaturwissenschaft. Schöningh Verlag, Paderborn u. a. 2004, ISBN 3-506-99003-9 , pp. 97 f. and Katrin Kohl: Tropik. In: In Gerhard Lauer, Christine Ruhrberg (Hrsg.): Lexicon literary studies · Hundred basic terms. Philipp Reclam jun. Verlag , Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-15-010810-9 , p. 338. See also the detailed description in René Wellek , Austin Warren: Theory of Literature. Athenäum Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1972, ISBN 3-8072-2005-4 , p. 199 ff.
  5. metaphor. In: Heike Gfrereis (ed.): Basic concepts of literary studies . Metzler Verlag , Stuttgart / Weimar 1999, ISBN 3-476-10320-X , p. 124 f.
  6. Dietmar Peil: Metaphor. In: Ansgar Nünning (ed.): Basic concepts of literary theory. Metzler Verlag, Stuttgart / Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-476-10347-1 , p. 176. The concept of metaphor in the broader sense of imagery is also used in René Wellek, Austin Warren: Theory of Literature. Athenäum Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1972, ISBN 3-8072-2005-4 , pp. 199 ff., Defined.
  7. ^ Manfred Fuhrmann : Aristoteles: Poetik. Greek / German. (= Universal Library. 7828). 2. bibliogr. supplementary edition. Reclam, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-15-007828-8 .
  8. ^ Franz G. Sieveke: Aristoteles, Rhetorik. Fink, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-7705-0788-6 , p. 176.
  9. George Lakoff , Mark Johnson: Metaphors We Live By. Chicago University Press, Amsterdam / Philadelphia 1980, ISBN 0-226-46800-3 .
  10. Harald Weinrich: Semantics of the bold metaphor. In: DVjs. 37, 1963, pp. 325-344.
  11. Cf. Francesca MM Citron, Adele E. Goldberg: Metaphorical sentences are more emotionally engaging than their literal counterparts. In: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Volume 26, Issue 11, November 2014, pp. 2585-2595. See also George Lakoff and Mark Johnson: Metaphors we live by. University of Chicago Press 1980, ISBN 978-0226-46801-3 , in particular pp. 4 ff. And 139 ff. Cf. also Zoltan Kovecses: Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. Oxford University Press, USA; 2nd rev. Edition March 2010, ISBN 978-0195-37494-0 , Preface to the First Edition , pp. X ff., Preface to the Second Edition , pp. VII f. and pp. 195-214.
  12. Werner Kügler: On the pragmatics of metaphor: metaphor models and historical paradigms. (= European university publications. Volume 89, series 13). Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1984, ISBN 3-8204-8008-0 .
  13. Hans Georg Coenen: Analogy and Metaphor. Foundation of a theory of pictorial speech. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2002, ISBN 3-11-017343-3 .
  14. Robert Allen Palmatier: Speaking of Animals: A Dictionary of Animal Metaphors. Westport CT 1995.
  15. Bernhard Pörksen: The construction of enemy images: On the use of language in neo-Nazi media. Wiesbaden 2005, p. 231ff.
  16. ^ Gabriele Scheffler: Swearwords in the subject stock of a society. Marburg 2000.
  17. ^ Gerhard Strauss: Metaphors - preliminary considerations for their lexicographical representation. In: Gisela Harras, Ulrike Hass-Zumkehr, Gerhard Strauss (Ed.): Word meanings and their representation in the dictionary. 1991, ISBN 3-11-012903-5 , pp. 125-211.
  18. ^ Rudolf Schmitt: Metaphor Analysis and the Construction of Gender. In: Forum Qualitative Social Research / Forum: Qualitative Social Research. Volume 10, No. 2, 2009, p. 15 f. ( PDF )
  19. Walter Haubrich: The visual language of sport in contemporary German. Schorndorf 1965.
  20. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: Sport in the mirror of language - a metaphor analysis. Tübingen 1967.
  21. ^ A b Rudolf Schmitt: Systematic metaphor analysis as a method of qualitative social research. Wiesbaden 2017.
  22. ^ G. Fairhurst, R. Sarr: The art of framing. San Francisco 1996.
  23. Rudolf Schmitt: Systematic metaphor analysis as a qualitative social science research method. Conference lecture Future Research Avenues of Metaphor (Mülheim, May 20-21, 2011). In: , accessed on January 13, 2017 (PDF; 226 kB).
  24. ^ Rudolf Schmitt: Metaphor Analysis. In: Günter Mey, Katja Mruck (Hrsg.): Handbook Qualitative Research in Psychology. Wiesbaden 2010, pp. 676-691.
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