The term squad ( of , Switzerland. The ; of French. Quadre , cadre 'em, special area "; Russ. Кадры, kadry , from French) a special group originally referred to a military superior. Today the term is applied to particularly qualified or trained executives in politics and industry , who are often recruited within the respective organization.
In political parlance in the USSR and its satellite states (including the GDR ), the term denoted particularly trustworthy leaders for the party . A cadre party is led by the selected cadres. The term was later generalized to staff in general.
With squads both a group of persons may be designated as a to this group belonging to an individual.
The term refers to the civil servants or party functionaries in autocratic state systems, especially in socialist states (today, among others, People's Republic of China , Cuba ). In the Soviet sphere of influence, cadres were a group of people in the party and ideological sector with political and technical knowledge and skills ("party cadres", "leadership cadres", "leadership cadres", "junior cadres", "cadre policy", "cadre management"). In particular, they included the functionaries of the parties and mass organizations (executives) and university and technical college graduates ( experts ), but not normal working people.
The personnel department of a company was called "Kaderabteilung" in the GDR , the head of this department was called "Kaderleiter". Travel cadres were allowed to travel to the non-socialist economic area in order to carry out tasks for their companies or institutions .
politic and economy
In Switzerland, the term cadre is generally used for managers without negative connotations. A management position is accordingly a management position.
The term is used in sports that are played as a team sport. The team size is determined by the rules. In order to be able to participate successfully in championships and tournaments, teams need a squad that is considerably larger than the number of players competing in a game.
In addition, the term refers to the athletes sponsored by the sports associations . These are classified into various cadres based on specific performance criteria. In Germany there are federal cadres (usually A / B / C cadres) in which the athletes are funded by the federal association and possibly by the German Sporthilfe Foundation, and state cadres (usually D cadres) in which the Athletes are promoted by the respective regional associations. There are also pony squads and perspective squads to promote young talent. The cadres were introduced in the Federal Republic of Germany by the Federal Committee for Competitive Sport in 1970 in order to create comparability and transparency between the individual professional associations to promote performance. In the A (federal) squad are the athletes who achieved a position in the final battle at the last Olympic Games / World Championships (possibly only 6 among the first 8). In the B-team there are as many as are necessary to fill twice the number of starting places in the A- and B-team together at the Olympic Games / World Championships (e.g. athletics - max. 3 starting places per discipline, A-plus B-cadre = 6 people). There are twice as many in the C federal cadre as in the A and B cadres combined (e.g. 12 people in athletics).
Competitive sports reform
Since the beginning of the competitive sports reform (2017/2018), the DLV national cadres have included the cadre levels Olympia cadre (OK), perspective cadre (PK), supplementary cadre (EK) and, in the junior division, junior cadre 1 (U23), 2 (U20) ) and 3 (U18). The appointment to a national team is based on the sport-specific prognosis of the performance of an athlete.
In the Bundeswehr , the cadre refers to the active part of an otherwise inactive unit. This is usually quite small and usually only administers the documents of the assigned reservists. Examples are the hospital regiments (LazRgt) and reserve hospital groups ( ResLazGrp), which are only activated in the event of a defense and are manned by reservists (doctors, nurses, medical soldiers). The inactive sub-units are only manned by a few staff soldiers (mostly older sergeants), who are then called cadres. The head of the squad is referred to as the leader of the squad .
In the Swiss Army , all NCOs and officers are called cadres. When one speaks of the higher cadre, the ranks of the Swiss Army mean the higher non-commissioned officers and the officers. According to the regulations, however, there is no higher roster, there is only one roster.
In the Austrian Armed Forces , all officers and non-commissioned officers as well as the batch ranks (except recruits ) and in particular all ranks from private in a commanding function are referred to and addressed by cadre .
- Georg Assmann (Ed.): Dictionary of Marxist-Leninist sociology. 2nd, revised edition. Dietz, Berlin (East) 1977, p. 325.
- Bálint Balla : Cadre management. Attempt to idealize the “bureaucracy” of the Soviet people's democratic type (= sociological contemporary issues. NF No. 37). Enke, Stuttgart 1972, ISBN 3-432-01784-7 (also: Berlin, Techn. Univ., Habil.-Schr., 1972).
- Squad. In: Willi Ehlert (Ed.): Dictionary der Ökonomie Sozialismus. 3rd, supplemented and revised edition. Dietz, Berlin (East) 1973, p. 453.
- Gert-Joachim Glaeßner: Rule by cadre. Management of society and cadre policy in the GDR using the example of the state apparatus (= writings of the Central Institute for Social Science Research of the Free University of Berlin. Vol. 28). Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1977, ISBN 3-531-11431-X (At the same time: Berlin, Freie Univ., Diss., 1976: Social management and cadre policy in the GDR, illustrated using the example of the state apparatus. ).
- Arnd Krüger : Sport and Politics. From gymnastics father Jahn to state amateur. Torch bearer, Hanover 1975 ISBN 3-7716-2087-2 .
- Kader (meaning 3) , Duden, accessed March 14, 2018.
- DOSB : Adjustment of the cadre system as of January 1st, 2015 ( Memento of the original from August 7th, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 149 kB), January 12, 2015.
- Arnd Krüger : Sport and Politics. From gymnastics father Jahn to state amateur. Torch bearer, Hanover 1975, ISBN 3-7716-2087-2 .
- DLV-Bundeskader ( Memento of the original from May 4, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , from: Leichtathletik.de, accessed November 6, 2017.