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The term home mostly refers to a relationship between people and space ( territory ). In common parlance it is applied to the place into which a person is born and in which the earliest socialization experiences take place, which initially shape identity , character , mentality , attitudes and world views . It also has a special relationship with the term “ settlement ”; In contrast to the living space , this usually refers to a sedentary oneLife form, d. H. a permanent or long-term settlement and living in one place or in a region . The concept of home is in constant discussion.


The word Heimat in 2 m high letters on the edge of a new building area in Wetzgau

There is no uniform definition . For Bausinger Heimat is a spatial-social unit of medium range in which people can experience security and reliability of their existence, as well as a place of deeper trust: “Home as a near world that is understandable and transparent, as a framework in which behavioral expectations are stabilized , in which meaningful, assessable action is possible - homeland as a contrast to alienation and alienation , as an area of ​​appropriation, active penetration, reliability ”. In Greverus (1979) the concept of identity assumed a special position. Home is an “ideal world” and can only be found in the trinity of community, space and tradition; because only here are the human needs for identity, security and active lifestyle satisfied in a culturally structured territory. In any case, home, or better: dealing with home, represents one of the other fields of identification that form the self-identity .

From an ethological and anthropological point of view, Heimat reflects the need for spatial orientation and the first “territory” that could offer identity, stimulation and security for one's own existence ( Paul Leyhausen ). In terms of existential philosophy , homeland provides a spatial and also time-related orientation for the self-acquisition of people in interrelation with the concept of the foreign ( Otto Friedrich Bollnow ). From a sociological point of view, home in complementarity to foreign is one of the constitutional conditions of group identity ( Georg Simmel ). In the last two ways of looking at things, the term home would have its own historical dimension as well as its inner dimension.

Home could also be “won over again”, since the term home includes the possibility of being at home - that is, of acquiring a familiar environment and developing social affiliations. Finding one's home can therefore take place in moving models of spatial definitions and personal assignments. The home as a social space opens up more in everyday and everyday interactions within the framework of acquaintances, friendships and neighborhoods and opens up in the examination of the everyday and cultural environment - with the aim of gaining individual certainty of action. Understood in this way, home would be a possibility of life and not proof of origin. Home would “no longer be understood as a backdrop, but as a context of life, as an element of active engagement”. Home is the place where you are at home and feel at home, "where I live in the full sense of the word as someone who is used to it and not just native", and which can be actively acquired in a creative process. Home always has a spatial crystallization core. The basis would therefore be a dynamic concept that man as a cultural being naturally needs a social space, home - which is why he creates it anew in his consciousness and through his behavior.


Home is present in every person's brain. Home is made up of tons of engrams . The longer he stays in one place, the more the engrams are synaptically solidified in him, provided that they correlate positively with emotions. Feelings of home are manifested through repeated imprinting .

The Roman philosopher Cicero developed this line of thought .

If emotionally affirmed, several places can become home to a particular individual. In a similar way, non-place-bound feelings of home arise (like feeling at home in a language).

Conversely, the disintegration of neuronal structures in the course of dementia often results in a feeling of homelessness, even if nothing essential has objectively changed in the patient's environment: When engrams dissolve, the feeling of home disappears.

Word history

The term Heimat was originally a neuter: “hämatli” - “das Heimat” (ahd. Heim-Uodil , Gothic haim-oÞli ). It comes from Germanic haima, haimi from Indo-European kei "lie" ( English home ; also related to Greek koimáo : "bring to bed") and from Germanic ôÞala "inheritance", "place of origin" and meant a right to live with a place to sleep in the house. Until the middle of the 19th century, the word was a sober word that was used in a legal and geographical sense. The term was mainly used in official offices such as the police and mayor's office by officials and notaries when it came to the place of birth , place of residence or country of origin, especially in inheritance law . In the German dictionary of the Brothers Grimm Heimat 1877 was defined firstly as “the country or even just the area in which one was born or has permanent residence”, secondly as “the place of birth or permanent residence”; in the third place was added: "Even the parental home and property is called that in Bavaria."

This shows that the term was used to designate a right of residence or residence. Birth itself did not yet confer a right of residence; those who did not have homeland rights were not only homeless, but also less privileged. To have “home” also meant, above all, to have a right to at least a makeshift supply from public funds. That is why people without possessions were not given a “ home certificate ” because it was feared that they would only become a burden on the public coffers in old age or in the event of illness. The stranger, the poor or the sick, wins the right of domicile in a welfare institution, the hospital (old people's or poor home) or asylum (foreigner's home).

Anyone who had no property, no home, was still denied marriage in the 19th century. This is what the Württemberg Civil Rights Act of December 4, 1833 says:

“A community citizen has to prove himself to the community authorities about a certain food level before his marriage [...]. The sufficiency of the property is measured with consideration of the different personal and local circumstances in each case. "

In 1897 Heimat was defined as follows:

“Designation for the place of birth, also for the place where someone has his home, i. H. has his apartment. In legal language, home is understood to mean the local or community membership of a person, which does not necessarily coincide with community citizenship, in that the home law in and of itself is only a resident (inmate, community member) right. Citizenship is also referred to as the right of home. Recently, the term home has also been used synonymously with support residence, although these are two very different terms. "

- Meyers Konversationslexikon, Leipzig and Vienna 1897, keyword Heimat.

Even today, in some countries, such as Switzerland , there is a “ home law ” in the traditional sense of the word. Under certain circumstances (for example a long stay in the country in question, perfect command of the national language) one can obtain a "certificate of origin" and thus have the right to acquire citizenship of this country.

Meaning of the term “home” today

“First you belong to your god, to him first of all the homeland” - the motto carved on the entrance gate of the open-air theater in Lohne in the Oldenburger Münsterland , built in 1951

According to Gerhard Handschuh, the term home has four dimensions

  1. a spatial dimension,
  2. a time dimension,
  3. a social dimension and
  4. a cultural dimension.

The following line of thought from 1948 proves that these dimensions are often interconnected:

“For centuries the tower of our home church has soared up into the sky as a silent and yet vocal witness of days gone by. No matter how difficult the times may be, the home church offered consolation, united and reconciled. She was the father's dear friend in suffering and joie de vivre, in dreadful distress, in the thundering roar of war, in lovely days of peace, in life and in death. What she was to the fathers, she always be to us, the grateful sons:

First you belong to your god, to
him first of all the homeland.
Sachsenkind, with every fiber
you owe your people!

We want to make this word of the Westphalian poet [meaning Friedrich Wilhelm Weber ] our own on the hundredth anniversary of the consecration of St. Pankratius! "

In the quote from the celebratory speech from 1948, which was taken over unchanged in 2007 from the parish of St. Pankratius in Emsdetten in the Münsterland region , the familiar church in the hometown, the "Heimatkirche" as a building, is connected with the faith as the home of man, with the institution of Roman Catholic Church as "home". This creates a feeling of solidarity, also with one's own people (tribe), which should be reinforced by quoting a poet who was committed to his homeland. Weber's homeland was Westphalia , to which the Oldenburger Münsterland also formerly belonged, in which his saying is also quoted (see the photo above), but also old Saxony , whose heartland was Westphalia. The connection between the allegedly “earth-grown” (Lower) Saxons appears in the Weber quote as “rooted” in the “homeland”.

Spatial dimension

Memorial plaque in Backnang

In the scientific context, the “home”, the place or area of ​​habitual residence of a living being, is referred to as a habitat or living space. In this sense one can speak of home even in abstractions.


  • Plant : "The home of the Weymouths pine is the North American continent."
  • Animal : "The gray squirrel came from North America, its original homeland, presumably by ship to the British Isles and there threatens to displace the native red squirrel."
  • Abstract: "Greece and the city of Athens are considered the home of democracy."
  • Abstract: "The homeland of the Indo-European language family can be assumed south of the Caspian Sea."

To feel at home in a "new home"

People can also “feel at home” away from the place or region where they were born (and grew up). The Latin saying: “ Ubi bene, ibi patria. ”(German:“ Where I feel good, there is my fatherland, my home ”) illustrates this. For example, a Jew who was persecuted in Germany and who emigrated from Germany may perceive Israel as a “new home”, especially since, unlike in Germany, he is mostly surrounded by other Jews.

Heinrich Heine's poem The Silesian Weavers makes it clear that not everyone automatically perceives the land of birth as “home” . There it says:

"A curse to the false fatherland, // Where only shame and shame flourish."

Occasionally people with a migration background say that they consider both countries, that of their ethnic origin and the one in which they have lived or lived for a long time, to be their home.

The new home is a process that requires the activity of the newcomer. Acquiring the language of the host country is central to this. “The first home in which you were born and where you grew up is given as a gift. You have to actively acquire your second home ”, formulates the journalist and educator Hartmut Sommer and points out that the openness of the host society is also an important prerequisite for success. The philosopher Bernhard Waldenfels sums this up in a nutshell: "Home is not administered by registration offices". According to migration research, it will take several generations for integration to be fully completed.

The "real home"

With the actual home is transferred the home away from the place of birth or the place of growing up understood.

The idea that Palestine is the “real home” of the Jews has existed since the Babylonian exile of Judaism. It took concrete political form in the idea of Zionism . It was supported in 1917 by the Balfour Declaration , in which it is stated that a "national home for the Jewish people" should be created in the area of ​​Palestine, so that they should return from the diaspora to their "actual homeland".

In a similar way, especially in circles of German expellees, there is talk of the “homeland in the east”, which is also the home of the children and grandchildren of the expellees who grew up in Germany today. In this context, warns Christian Graf von Krockow against in the home other than something "very concrete" to see, "To specifically and personally to say it: My home is adamant in rural Pomerania , in that silent land beyond the Oder , the once belonged to the German East and has now become the Polish West. ”Since this type of home is something very personal, Western Pomerania cannot be the home of his descendants who were born and raised elsewhere. The concept of home is reduced to absurdity through the “dissolution into the abstract”.

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing had already expressed himself similarly in his 1779 drama Nathan the Wise , who asked Recha, Nathan's daughter, rhetorically in the third act :

"... And how do
you know for which earth ball you are born,
If you are not for which one you were
born on?"

- Gotthold Ephraim Lessing : Nathan the Wise

Home in the hereafter

In Christianity, the view is widespread that the “real” home of man is in heaven , in the hereafter. In this world, however, people are only "guests". The Baroque poet Paul Gerhardt exemplifies this view in his song Gast auf Erden . The idea that people are only guests in this world can already be found in Psalm 119 (verse 19).

Exile and utopia

Writers who had to leave their homeland in the wake of National Socialism through flight and expulsion described them as realistically as possible from memory. Famous examples are Thomas Mann , Bertolt Brecht , Alfred Döblin , Lion Feuchtwanger , Leonhard Frank , Ludwig Marcuse , Franz Werfel and Stefan Zweig .

The term utopia is also a spatial category, since “utopos”, literally translated, means “no place”. Following on from exile literature, home is also described as something that has not yet been reached. The not-yet, the concrete utopia is Ernst Bloch's concept of home, which he designed in his main work The Principle of Hope in Exile in the US . For Bloch, who had to leave Wilhelmine Germany as a war opponent in 1914, had to leave Nazi Germany as a Marxist Jew in the 1930s and forcibly emigrated from the GDR in the 1950s, home lies beyond class society . He sums up Karl Marx 's theses on Feuerbach as follows:

"The socialized humanity in union with a nature imparted to it is the reconstruction of the world into a home."

Building on this, Bernhard Schlink brought home again into conversation as a utopia in an essay. This notion explicitly pushes the place-related part of the term aside and regards home as a “non-place”: a feeling , a hope , a longing to be experienced, especially in exile . This idea has long been foreshadowed in the Christian conception of the earth, which has only been exile to man since he forfeited paradise.

The motto of the series of events on the occasion of the peace festival in Augsburg in 2014 was: “Home? I've never been there!"

Home without spatial reference

Since home refers to something with which the individual identifies , abstractions such as the nation , the fatherland , a language (usually the mother tongue ) or a religion are suitable to function as home, namely as “spiritual home” . So home does not always mean a specific place, a home.

Time dimension

In a non-religious, poetic sense, the term home first appeared in the age of industrialization in literature in the context of the romantic movement . Increasingly, job seekers moved from the countryside to the big cities, where they could find work in factories. Over time, this led to urbanization and impoverishment. The standing order was dissolved. The opposition between aristocracy and peasantry was replaced in the course of urbanization and the victory of capitalism by that between the masses of workers in the factories, what the Marxists called the proletariat , and a new bourgeoisie . Those who were confronted with the danger of social decline saw the new world order, which was determined by fewer and fewer upper-class citizens, but by all the more industrial workers, as something "sinister". The home movement as a counter-movement to belief in progress and modernity is a reflex to the disappearance of the "good old days". The home movement transfigured rural life. In this context, the way of production and life in agriculture and pre-industrial production, which largely disappeared by the end of the 19th century, appear as home.

Although agriculture was also affected by industrialization, around 1900 the peasantry was considered "original", as a "healthy and persistent force". So around 1900 the Heimatliteratur was created , which is assigned to the trivial literature (cf. Heimatwriter ).

Feelings of home also arise in adults through memories of their own childhood, which is often transfigured as a “paradisiacal time”. Leaving home after leaving school is equated by many with “being driven out of childhood paradise”. Joseph von Eichendorff exemplifies this feeling in his poem Farewell .

Social dimension

The term “home” also applies to relationships with other individuals and also to one's own person. “Home located in the present - settled in the here and now - calls for an answer to the decisive question: Am I in the right place here? What place in the world would I like and can I take to be my home? "

Ortwin Renn contradicts the thesis that big cities cannot be “home” as they are today . In the age of industrial mass society and in view of increasing international interdependencies, the concept of home can no longer be based on the statics of premodern agricultural society. At the end of the 20th century, home is no longer just a village idyll, which in truth never really existed, but also an industrial area and metropolitan area.

From a sociological point of view, in a sense, every socially uprooted person is homeless . A physical distance from the place of birth or of growing up is not necessary for this form of homelessness. The feeling of uprooting arises as a result of the disappearance of the familiar environment through changes in the landscape, through new construction and reconstruction of buildings and traffic routes, through social change and through the devaluation of skills that the individual has acquired in the course of his life.

Economic dimension

Reimar von Alvensleben from the University of Kiel demonstrated in 1999 that one can generally assume that consumers prefer products from “their” region . This is due to the “human need for a manageable and identity-forming environment. Familiarity with a region gives people security and creates sympathy for the region (contact-affect phenomenon). "

Ultimately, feelings of home give consumers the impression that products from their own region are generally better than products with a different geographic origin. This fact leads to a boom in products that are advertised with the attribute “from the region for the region”.

That the subjective feeling that a product “from a distance” cannot be of good quality must be wrong, is made clear by the fact that only one product of a certain type of goods can objectively be “the best in Germany, across Europe or worldwide” that everyone who does not live in the vicinity of the place of manufacture of this product must be wrong. However, it is correct that long transport routes, e.g. B. with food that can affect the freshness of a product.

In terms of investment decisions economists have a " Home - bias " discovered: So tended German to their money (especially for share purchases to invest) in German companies, especially companies in the "neighborhood". By doing this, they missed the chance to make higher profits by investing abroad.

Political dimension

For a long time (not only in Germany) there was a strong correlation between the social milieu to which someone belonged and the party they voted for. It was common for members of the working class to vote for the SPD (or after the First World War the KPD ), while Catholics saw the German Center Party as their “political home”. Even after the Second World War, the so-called people 's parties could rely on a relatively large number of citizens who, as regular voters, repeatedly voted for “their” party.

For the present in Germany, according to an Allensbach study, it can be determined that among 70 percent of Germans the feeling of being “politically homeless” is widespread. These 70 percent are neither “anywheres” who rate globalization and its consequences unreservedly positive, nor “somewheres” who are “nailed to their local homeland”. “No party is currently making a convincing offer to this large majority. Not the fringes, the center is homeless in Germany ”, says the“ Welt ”journalist Daniel Dettling.

The pair of terms “Somewheres and Anywheres” coined the British David Goodhart in his book The Road to Somewhere . According to Goodhart, there are two worlds of values ​​that are irreconcilable: the world of the citizens and that of the elites. The mostly academically educated and wealthy elites were largely of the "Anywheres" type. With their cosmopolitan liberalism , they dominated the politics, culture and society of the countries in which they (temporarily) stayed, although in no highly developed country more than a quarter of the population belong to the typical "anywheres".

Cultural dimension

In the 1950s and the first half of the 1960s, many so-called homeland films were also produced, which can often be assigned to trivial entertainment. Nevertheless, this does not apply to the entire genre, especially not to the new Heimatfilm from the 1970s to the present day. In particular, Edgar Reitz's film trilogy Heimat, made between 1984 and 2004, gave an international audience a more nuanced view of home by trying to reproduce as few clichés as possible about the ideal world .

Home care was and is primarily carried out in associations, only in a few countries in the world is it organized by the state. These homeland associations cultivate customs , a cultural asset that should be kept alive if possible. However, institutions such as local museums also serve to promote tourism by displaying folklore , regardless of whether what is shown is really cultivated in the region . Often, for example, traditional costumes are only worn in the presence of the paying audience, but not privately.

In Germany, most of the traditional costumes and homeland associations that maintain the regionally specific traditional costumes in an authentic manner are grouped together in the German Trachtenverband eV (DTV) based in Munich. Around two million members are registered here nationwide, including over 200,000 children and young people. These are organized in the German Trachtenjugend, which belongs to the German Trachtenverband. The providers are usually active in their local associations and groups, most of them in rural areas. Regional costumes of the respective landscapes are worn, which are adapted to contemporary wear requirements and needs.

The history of a certain landscape or a certain place as home in the sense of cultural identity examines the local history or folklore . It is documented in local museums .

Emotional dimension

Local protest against the threat to “homeland” from the
Garzweiler open- cast lignite mine

Psychologically, home today is a subjective feeling, independent of political and legal definitions. It consists of individual attitudes towards place, society and personal development of the individual. Their loss or fear of it is felt as homesick . For those who have left or lost their homeland, homeland can become synonymous with fatherland . It is possible for a person to choose a adopted home . One can also lose one's home through a natural disaster or through a fundamental redesign of the area through human interference.

In a guest contribution for the program booklet for the Augsburg High Peace Festival 2014 under the motto: “Home? I've never been there! ”Said Oliver Kontny, pointing out that most cities no longer exist for an adult who grew up there and later returns there, in the sense that“ cities are being converted into spaces in which excess capital is everywhere can generate even more returns ”, and consequently hardly any feelings of home. Strictly speaking, one could “not live in the same city twice and if one did nothing else all one's life”. Already for the Babylon of the Old Testament it was said that “the nameless Fron” led to “that the wonderfully laid out megacity Babylon with its clear grid squares did not become the home of the people. You came because you were abducted or you were looking for work, and you stayed because you couldn't get away from alcohol and the parties. ”Without diversity management , it is difficult to give migrants a sense of home in their new place of residence.

Language as a cultural home is meant when an exiled German writer declares that his home is the German language or German literature. Home as a way of life means the confession of a seafarer: "My home is the sea".

Using the term home can also provide food for thought. For example, the sight of a bear or a wolf in the Olderdissen home zoo in Bielefeld can raise the question of whether bears and wolves (like the other “home animals” in the zoo) “belong to Germany, which is often associated with strong emotions “, Where they lived centuries ago (unpathetically formulated: lived).

Heimat in the plural

Usually the term home is used in the singular and with a certain article (“home”), which suggests that every person has exactly one home. In the Duden dictionary, for example, the keyword Heimat has the note: "Plural not common".

In contrast, the integration office of the city of Zurich advocates the thesis: "Everyone has different identities and different homes."

In his novel Origin , which was published in 2019 and was awarded the German Book Prize , the author Saša Stanišić speaks of “feel-good places ” that give him a feeling of “home”. At the same time, he warns against “belonging kitsch”, especially in a form by which others (especially “strangers”) are to be kept away from the “feel-good place”.

Compounds ("home" + x)

Local lore

Until the 1960s / 1970s, the curricula for the subject of local history in the elementary schools of the federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany with the “development of the spatial and intellectual children's home” should educate schoolchildren to “love their home” and “loyalty to home”; the “home education” should bring about a “homeland awareness” as well as a “bond with the home” via a “formation of attitudes and feelings”. In 1964, through the Hamburg Agreement, the “elementary school” was abolished as a school type and replaced by elementary and secondary schools . In 1969 the exclusive designation "Heimatkunde" was given up for a subject. In most countries, the subject of local history was replaced by a subject that is still known today as a subject .

Above all, the old subject of local studies was criticized

  • the discrepancy between the children's world of experience and the supposedly "heal" rural and artisanal idyll of local history lessons,
  • the solidification in standard topics, in particular the dominance of geographical and local history content with neglect of scientific and technical topics and
  • failure to take social change into account, d. H. the progressive automation of the mode of production, the increasing mobility of people and new social developments and conflicts.

Love of home

In some German state constitutions an obligation of the state is anchored to urge educators to “educate to love their homeland”. Such an obligation is contained in Art. 12 of the Baden-Württemberg Constitution , Art. 131 of the Constitution of Bavaria , Art. 7 of the Constitution of North Rhine-Westphalia , Art. 33 of the Constitution of Rhineland-Palatinate , Art. 30 of the Constitution of Saarland and Art. 101 of the constitution of Saxony . However, it is not permissible not to hire or dismiss a teacher because of a lack of fear of God, love of the homeland or constitutional patriotism. Likewise, promotion conferences may not decide not to promote a student on this basis.

In Slovakia , on April 1, 2010, a “Law to Support Homeland Love” came into force. It is intended to promote patriotism and identification with their own state among the population. Among other things, the law stipulates that all meetings of governments and parliaments (from the national House of Representatives to the smallest municipal councils) and even public citizens' assemblies should begin with the singing of the national anthem . All sporting events organized by national associations must also begin with the anthem. In future, the state coat of arms , the flag and the texts of the national anthem and the constitutional preamble must be hung in the classrooms of all public schools in the country .

The German anarchist Erich Mühsam criticized:

“Adoration of one's homeland has nothing to do with love of the country. […] Every animal that has not been torn from its natural environment feels a love of home without ever reinterpreting it in a sense of fatherland, without ever wishing for its home to be expanded or armored. An animal without a home will properly feel no love of home, at most a longing for home. It is no different with humans. Can the poorly nourished young person growing up in an unhealthy basement let his gloomy childhood environment shine as an alluring image of home over his life path? Can he - and this is surely the hallmark of love for his homeland - be moved in the distance by the desire to be embraced again by the atmosphere of his origin? Whose youth had no home, whose home contained no joy, also had no home with which a love could connect him. But there is no duty to love, and to make love of one's homeland a duty by being able to convince those whose feet have never touched a piece of sunny land at home that they have a fatherland that is their devotion, their love, their heroism May demand blood and his life, which shows the extent to which the distortion of the mania for authority can disfigure the human soul. "

Kurt Tucholsky saw Heimat as a positive value, which non-nationalist forces in particular should adopt in order to be able to counter the German hype, the political reaction and those who completely rejected the concept of Heimat :

“When it comes to patriotism, we let everyone surpass us - we feel international. In the homeland love of nobody - not even of those in whose name the land is registered. It is ours. And as repugnant as I am those who - inverted nationalists - leave nothing good at all in this country, no good hair, no forest, no sky, no waves - we are so sharply opposed to falling into patrioticism. We whistle on the flags - but we love this country. And just as the national federations drum on the path - with the same right, with exactly the same right, we, we who were born here, we who write and speak German better than the majority of the national donkeys - with exactly the same Rightly we take over river and forest, beach and house, clearing and meadow: it is our land. [...] Germany is a divided country. We are part of him. And in all opposites stands - unshakable, without a flag, without an organ grinder, without sentimentality and without a drawn sword - the silent love for our homeland. "

The SPD chairman at the time, Andrea Nahles, emphasized in the summer of 2018 that one “cannot control” people's feeling of being at home in one place. “The feeling grows from below” (among the people in the communities). It is important that "everyone [...] should be able to decide for themselves", "where he or she would like to live - and be able to feel at home there".

Homeland security

The term became popular from the early days of the company . He expressed himself, among other things, in expressions such as homeland security movement or homeland security architecture . With increasing militarization in the inter-war period, he mainly stood for ethnic or nationalist groups, such as in the Carinthian defensive struggle for the Heimwehr . During National Socialism , the politicized homeland cult was justified on a racist basis and cultivated ideologically.

The US Department of Homeland Security

The US Department of Homeland Security is often referred to as the "Heimatschutzministerium" in German today. An alternate translation related to the assignment reads " United States Department of Homeland Security ". Territorial defense is still assigned to the US Department of Defense . In other current uses of the term “Heimatschutz” in German-speaking countries, there is also the strong connotation “(also ready to use force) defensibility against threats to the homeland”.

Homeland Security in the Bundeswehr

After the establishment of the Bundeswehr on May 5, 1955, the military meaning of the term "Heimatschutz" lived on in the Heimatschutz battalions as reserve units of the Bundeswehr.

Today, homeland security is an area of ​​responsibility of the entire Bundeswehr, especially its regional security and support forces , and includes defense tasks on German territory as well as administrative assistance in cases of natural disasters and serious accidents, to protect critical infrastructure and in internal emergencies . In 2019, a pilot project to re-establish homeland security associations in the form of state regiments will start in Bavaria .

The Bundeswehr conception of 2018 defines homeland security as "the tasks that are to be performed by the Bundeswehr as part of the national security provision to protect Germany and its citizens outside of a state of tension and defense." Homeland security therefore counts - beyond the tasks already mentioned above - also the monitoring and guaranteeing of the security in the German airspace and sea ​​area , the defense against territorial missiles , the ensuring the availability of critical space infrastructures and the implementation of the search and rescue service inland (land, North Sea , Baltic Sea ). In addition, there are close links to the tasks of the Bundeswehr, which must be performed throughout, such as contributions to cyber security , the state-wide picture of the situation in the cyber and information space and the maintenance of domestic operations.

Homeland security in right-wing extremism

Homeland security is a term that plays an ideological role within right-wing extremism . Right-wing extremists assume a romanticized image of home that is always linked with racist, ethnic and religious, especially anti-Semitic, components. For example, an “unmistakable ethnic peculiarity and ability to survive” is claimed.

According to right-wing extremist understanding, homeland does not mean a region, a region or a city, but a race-based community of descent and the area inhabited by it. "Ethnicity is understood in this context as the result of being born into a biological 'community of descent'". According to the ethnic-ideological view, this results in an inner bond that is also evident in physical, cultural and mental relationships. A “collective identity” emerges from a seemingly “natural” basic principle: the people as a community of descent and territorial community. Home is thus the "ancestral" territory of this community within secure, but in principle also expandable (" people without space ") spatial boundaries.

From this understanding of politics, right-wing extremists develop the need to protect this living space. Immigration is seen as a threat to the right of one's own people to exist. So wrote z. For example, the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) 2010 in its party program: “Against the will of the German people, big business, government and trade unions smuggled millions of foreigners into Germany. Mass naturalizations weaken German citizenship and question the German people's right to exist. ”Immigration is portrayed as Germany’s biggest problem:“ The criticism of immigration and the associated foreign infiltration that has been exercised by the NPD for many years is in the middle arrived in our society. The growing and daily perceptible threat resulting from the failed integration and the tolerance of millions of rejected asylum seekers can no longer be swept under the carpet even by the traditionally immigration-friendly mass media. "

The right-wing extremist party “The III. Weg ”puts forward the theses in this context:“ Preserve home: In order to maintain the national identity of the German people, the foreign infiltration of Germany and the ongoing abuse of asylum must be stopped immediately. ... environmental protection is homeland protection: goal of the party The third way is the creation or restoration of an environment worth living in, the preservation and development of the biological substance of the people and the promotion of health. "The protection of the environment is the basis for the preservation of the" biological Substance of the people ”.

The so-called " geodeterminism " is hidden behind this view . He says that space has a direct effect on a person's psychological properties, even on his character . The natural structure of the room shapes it in a clear way and must therefore be preserved. A Westphalian is essentially different from a Saxon because both grow up under significantly different geographical conditions. This imprinting by nature , by the landscape and the environment is important and also shapes the German in German. As a consequence, however, the landscape must be preserved as part of home. Furthermore, these valuable properties have already been genetically imprinted on the German population - a treasure that needs to be preserved. Although this theory is not scientifically tenable, it makes it understandable why right-wing extremists take the concept of home, which they associate with nature, landscape and the environment, so seriously. From this point of view, immigration represents a threat, because genetic mixing could occur, which in turn could impair the German characteristics.

In addition, religious clichés are passed on.

Homeland Security in Switzerland

In Switzerland, the term is politically relatively unaffected and generally stands for monument protection and homeland preservation in the broader sense - see Swiss homeland protection .

Home politics

Since March 14, 2018 there has been a “ Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Home Affairs (BMI)” in Germany. This is the first time in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany that a federal ministry has been created which, in its own name, shows that it is responsible for questions relating to “homeland”. Horst Seehofer ( CSU ) was appointed by the Federal President as the first “Home Minister” . At the state level there are currently (2018) two home ministries in Germany, namely the Bavarian State Ministry of Finance, for Regional Development and Homeland, established in 2014, and the Ministry for Home, Municipal Affairs, Construction and Equality of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, newly established in 2017 .

The main instrument of the new “Heimatpolitik” announced by Seehofer is the “ Equal Living Conditions” commission , which includes the entire federal cabinet , the heads of government from all 16 countries and representatives of the central municipal associations ( German Association of Cities , German District Association , Association of Cities and Municipalities ). The Commission is facing the "task of aligning the infrastructure of our country - in cities and in rural areas - with the requirements of the future".

According to Seehofer, the people's sense of home in Germany is threatened if the people's immediate surroundings change rapidly and significantly. The invasion of privacy, crime and the loss of values ​​are perceived as dangers as well as uncontrolled immigration. Especially in times of rapid change, people's sense of home is a task and an opportunity for politics.

The “Ministry for Home, Local Affairs, Building and Equal Opportunities” (MHKBG) in North Rhine-Westphalia has launched a “ Home Support Program ” for which it intends to provide 150 million euros by 2022. "Initiatives and projects that strengthen local and regional identity and community and thus home."

In South Tyrol , the South Tyrolean People's Party founded the “Platform Home” in August 2018. In view of the fact that the SVP, which had always won the absolute majority of the seats in the South Tyrolean state parliament since 1946 , had lost this majority in 2013 and feared further losses in the state elections on October 21, 2018 , the platform should clarify the electorate that the "Heimat- und Volkstumsppolitik" should be seen as the core brand of the South Tyrolean People's Party. "Our initiative wants to enable a positive orientation towards values ​​such as freedom, independence and home in a united Europe, without drifting into divisive patriotism", a state parliament candidate for the SVP explained the goals of the platform. The SVP's share of the vote fell in the 2018 state election from 45.7 to 41.9 percent.

"Home 2.0"

The addition "2.0" is used in two different meanings: on the one hand to make it clear that the term Heimat is understood differently (and "more modern") than the supporters of "Heimat 1.0", and on the other hand to denote the chance that Newcomers (also from abroad) can (and should) find a “second home” at their new place of residence.

In the sense of the first use of the term, “Heimat 2.0” is a central term for people who consider themselves to be residents of the “ global village ” and who in principle rate globalization and its consequences positively. Philipp Riederle says: “Moscow and New York are right next to Burgau , I can visit the Museum of Modern Art just as much as the Ulm Minster .” Anchoring in a local community (which can also change) is important, “because we are global communicate and are on the move, but cannot live in the global. "

Johannes Schneider says: “The home of the future [...] is patchwork instead of privilege. It is compatible with everyone who is looking for it and who [...] for their psychological well-being are dependent on feeling at home somewhere or somehow. "

Current legal issues

Right holder: Victim of political or ethnic persecution

For the constitutional lawyer and political scientist Peter Pernthaler, “home” is the “own country” of a people or an ethnic group . “In this sense, the specific settlement-historical home is just as inseparable part of ethnic identity as language, history and culture.” However, outside of the German-speaking area there are hardly any explicit references to a “right to home”. Nonetheless, expulsions and an exchange of populations against their will should be assessed as violations of the peoples' right to self-determination . Most likely, a right to “return to one's own country” can be derived from Article 12, Paragraph 4 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966 (“No one may arbitrarily be deprived of the right to enter one's own country.”) )

The international law Alfred de Zayas stated on 9 October 2004 in a speech to the Federation of Expellees :

“There is no compulsion to live in your home country, but there is a right to remain in your home country and not to be expelled from there. If one is expelled, there is then a right of return. "

In 1989 Ralf Dahrendorf protested against deriving a right to a home from the peoples' right to self-determination :

“The Armenians have no right to live among Armenians. But there is a right for Armenian citizens of their community to be like among equals, not to be disadvantaged, and to cultivate their own language and culture. These are civil rights , rights of the individual against any supremacy. The so-called right to self-determination has served as an alibi for homogeneity , and homogeneity always means the expulsion or oppression of minorities . "

Right holder: Victim of the uninhabitability of their hometown

Art. 11 GG guarantees all German citizens the right to freedom of movement within the Federal Republic of Germany as a civil right . This includes the right to freely choose your place of residence within Germany and to stay there. Some lawyers call this form of freedom of movement the right to a home . However, this right presupposes that residents of a house or apartment are its owner, tenant or tenant who cannot be terminated. If, for example, an operating company has acquired ownership of all the houses in a village that is to give way to open- cast lignite mining (including through legal expropriations ), then the “right to a home” has become irrelevant.

A “right to a home” is invoked by people around the world whose residential areas have become or are in danger of becoming uninhabitable. B. Residents of atoll states and low-lying areas threatened by sea ​​level rise .

Discrimination of "foreigners"

Article 3, Paragraph 3 of the Basic Law reads:

"Nobody may be disadvantaged or preferred because of their gender, their origin, their race, their language, their homeland and origin, their beliefs, their religious or political views."

In this case, home means the ethnic or spatial origin, and origin means the social origin of a person. The citizenship of a person is not meant . Foreigners can only invoke human rights , but not civil rights , as these are only available to residents (in Germany: German citizens ). Since the basic right to freedom of movement according to Article 11 of the Basic Law is a civil right, foreigners cannot derive a right to stay in Germany or at a specific location in Germany from this. In addition to German citizens, citizens from a member state of the European Union enjoy freedom of movement in Germany .

Art. 3 para. 3 GG turns against the negative side of thinking in categories of “home”, which is based on the desire for delimitation, ie. H. there is a temptation to discriminate newcomers of all kinds as “ foreigners ” . A legally correct deportation of non-privileged foreigners does not count as discrimination from a legal point of view.

In 2013, the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) declared all people in Germany who are legally staying here " welcome " .

The term "home state"

In German law, the “home state” is the state whose national is a person, regardless of whether the person concerned perceives this state as his home or not. He can only be expelled or deported to this state if this is legally permissible.

In international law, the principle applies: "The foreigner is also subject to the law and sovereignty of his own state abroad." For example, a conscript under the law of his home state cannot legally evade his military service by leaving it.


Appropriation of the concept of home by the political right

The völkisch movement referred to the terms home and home movement early on . Among other things, she called for a Germanization of Christianity and recourse to an alleged pre-Christian popular belief ( Neopaganism ). Heimat was interpreted as the basis of an "unmistakable völkisch peculiarity and ability to survive", which was often associated with the emphasis on völkisch superiority. The concept of home was taken up by the NSDAP and put into service.

Today's right-wing extremist groups such as the Free Comradeships and members of the New Right combine issues such as environmental protection , attachment to nature and homeland with a völkisch blood-and-soil ideology .

The “Specialist Information Center for Right-Wing Extremism” in Munich rated young people with a migration background who were characterized by “love of their homeland, national pride and racism” as a problem group. The problem is the idealization and glorification of the country of origin of the young people's ancestors in connection with arrogance and intolerance.

Rejection of the concept of home

Martin Walser coined the bon mot in 1967 : “Home, that's certainly the most beautiful name for backwardness.” With the word “backwardness”, Walser alludes to both the alleged lack of spatial mobility and the alleged mental limitation of those who love their homeland. According to Jakob Augstein , the “H-Word” is “contaminated” from the perspective of the left, a “burnt” word that is no longer usable.

At the conference "The concept of home in sustainable development - content, opportunities and risks", which took place in November 2004 at the University of Hanover, the concept of home was criticized. Against the use of the concept of home, it was argued that the Nature Conservation Act with its demand for “preservation of the diversity, uniqueness and beauty of the landscape and its recreational value for people” already offers sufficient opportunities to represent the sensual, emotional and cultural content in nature conservation . The concept of home is also not operationalized due to its barely comprehensible ambiguity, especially since many people no longer define it spatially in times of globalization. Furthermore, for many people, “home” is not generally viewed positively, but also associated with negative feelings such as tightness and a lack of development opportunities. In particular, however, the concept of home cannot be used separately from its history and is always associated with the anti-democratic and ethnic tendencies in the early days of nature and homeland protection as well as the racist interpretation under National Socialism. The majority of the participants therefore spoke out against the use of the term home in planning law and in the official administrative language.

The notion that people are “rooted in their homeland” is also criticized: trees and other plants are really prevented by their roots from changing their location or their local reference by themselves; but that does not apply to people, animals and abstractions. In nomadic peoples, for example, there is a long tradition of constant change of location. The Federal Agency for Civic Education , according to corresponds not the "Nesthocker" the ideal image of a globalized economy, but the mobile job nomad who is available and can be used without restriction for economic purposes. It is characteristic of job nomads that they have to be "rejected" by their clients when it is "most beautiful", that is, when they become familiar with the environment. According to this point of view, it would be ideal if people would develop into "global souls" to whom "homeland" and "sedentariness" mean nothing. However, whether this type of person really exists is controversial.

A statement that Hartmut Mitzlaff made in 1985 in his extensive scientific study on the history of local history and the concept of home in the German-speaking area warns about skepticism towards the term Heimat and its inflatory use:

“The awareness of the idea of ​​home at the turn of the nineteenth century is an expression of a broken relationship between humans and the environment and indicates a corresponding experience of loss and deprivation . [...] With an almost regular regularity, which seems to allow the preparation of forecasts, the home idea in the German-speaking area has always experienced a journalistic and mass psychological boom when the 'homeland and familiar' objectively or subjectively got into a crisis A group capable of public articulation experienced an identity and relationship crisis when (their own or someone else's) homeland was destroyed or lost, when things were more scary than homely in German countries, in short: when fear, insecurity and economic depression prevailed instead of security . The frequent and often inflationary use of the term 'homeland' has in German-speaking far less the realization of human and environmental contemporaries rather than a specific deficiency and crisis situation and its associated mental health of those affected signals . This fact alone [...] urges skepticism towards the word and its all too impartial use. "

Defense of the concept of home and the need for closeness and familiarity

Displaced persons monument on the Pöstlingberg in Linz

The Bavarian countryside -Politiker Sepp Dürr criticized in the " Time printed" argument with the Bavarian Environment Minister Marcel Huber ( CSU ) 2,012 outdated notions of "home": "The old concept of home was a disaster, no question. First the Nazis abused it, then after the war came the funny homeland films and homeland novels. This kind of homeland care was unbearable. ”However, he then stated:“ But that says nothing about the need for many people to want to identify themselves regionally. You have to comply with this politically, without blinkers. ”He went on:“ The old concept of home only worked by defining and excluding minorities in one's own population: foreigners, homosexuals, unmarried, and for a long time women too. But today these minorities are often the majority, also in Bavaria. The best example is the election of a young, openly gay, Protestant SPD district administrator in the Bavarian Forest . That is why a new, open concept of home is needed. ”However, within the Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen party, the thesis that the Greens are allowed to use the term home without prejudice (in the sense of Dürr) is controversial .

There are also efforts in popular culture to interpret the concept of home in a modern and liberal way. The activist and Black Forest - drag queen Betty BBQ from Freiburg wants with its motto "Home is not just black and white" break up the often national-conservative and right politically occupied notion of "home" and the compatibility between the concept of home and a diverse and modern society Culture Point out and establish: This is how she combines her work as a drag queen with the Bollenhut - part of a Black Forest costume -, her commitment to the Alemannic carnival and her city ​​tours and her motto.

The willingness to move far away from the place of growing up for professional reasons is limited across Europe: According to a survey carried out in 2004, 86 percent of all German employees did not want to work abroad. According to this survey, the proportion of those who are willing to do so among the residents of countries in the European Union was 17 percent. Many Germans even feel uncomfortable when they are supposed to leave the room in which "their" dialect is spoken for a longer period of time, when they speak High German for work or when they use the usual formulations there after moving to another part of Germany (e . "Grüß Gott!") Should use. The Research Center Deutscher Sprachatlas sums it up: "Even within a geographical proximity, people on average seem unwilling [sic!] To move to a culturally unfamiliar environment." This thesis is confirmed by a survey carried out in 2013, according to which 77 percent of all respondents in Germany stated that they had never changed their place of residence for a new job.

"Home" in other languages

If you try to translate the German word Heimat into other languages, important parts of its very comprehensive meaning are easily lost. However, the phenomenon of "Heimattümelei" is also known outside of the German-speaking area. For example, the song Sweet Home Alabama is understood by many as the transfiguration of life in the southern United States .

The best way to translate the word into English is homeland or native land .

In French you can say lieu d'origine or pays natal . If you want to address your own homeland, the simple phrase mon pays is best .

The Czech word domov appears just as intimate as the German word Heimat , it contains the same root as dům "house" and domek " little house". In Hungarian , “home” means “szülőföld” (“parent earth”).

See also


  • Celia Applegate: A Nation of Provincials: The German Idea of ​​Heimat . University of California Press, Berkeley 1990.
  • Hermann Bausinger , Konrad Köstlin (ed.): Home and identity. Problems of regional culture. Wachholtz, Neumünster 1980, ISBN 3-529-02456-2 (22nd German Folklore Congress in Kiel from June 16-21, 1979).
  • Mathias Beer: Das Heimatbuch: history, methodology, effect . V&R Unipress; Göttingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-89971-788-4 .
  • Wilfried Belschner , a. a. (Ed.): Who does the home belong to? Contributions of Political Psychology to a Controversial Phenomenon. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1995.
  • Horst Bienek (ed.): Home: new explorations of an old topic. Hanser, Munich 1985.
  • Ernst Bloch : The principle of hope . Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-518-28154-2 (= Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch Wissenschaft , Volume 554).
  • Egbert Daum: make home! About connections between place and self. In: Home care in Westphalia. 20, Issue 2, 2007, pp. 1–10, lwl.org (PDF).
  • Simone Egger: Heimat: How we keep reinventing our place of longing. Riemann, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-570-50162-7 .
  • Hartmut Frerichs, Engelbert Beckermann (ed.): Home - building block of the future. In: The Blue Series (Ed .: Heimatbund for the Oldenburger Münsterland). Volume 9. 2002.
  • W. Gössmann, K.-H. Roth (ed.): Literary writing from regional experience. Paderborn 1996.
  • J. Jäger: home. Version 1.0 In: Docupedia-Zeitgeschichte [1] 2017.
  • Karen Joisten: Philosophy of Homeland. Home of philosophy. 2003.
  • Edeltraud Klueting (Ed.): Antimodernism and Reform. Contributions to the history of the German homeland movement. Knowledge Book Society, Darmstadt 1991.
  • Gerd Koch : Home . In: Bloch dictionary. Key concepts of Ernst Bloch's philosophy . De Gruyter, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-020572-5 .
  • Norbert Mecklenburg: The green islands: to the criticism of the literary home complex. Iudicum-Verlag, Munich 1987.
  • Christoph M. Michael (Ed.): Local customers . Main topic in: Berliner Debatte Initial , 30th year (2019), Issue 3, ISBN 978-3-947802-25-8 .
  • Hartmut Mitzlaff: Heimatkunde and Sachunterricht - historical and systematic studies on the development of general theory - at the same time a critical development history of the homeland ideal in the German-speaking area. 3 volumes. Dortmund 1985.
  • Beate Mitzscherlich: Home is something I do. Springer, 1997, ISBN 978-3-8255-0127-3 .
  • Elisabeth Moosmann (Ed.): Heimat. Longing for identity. Aesthetics and Communication, Berlin 1980, ISBN 3-88245-005-3 .
  • Arie Nabrings: Heimat: an ingenious invention. In: Home book of the district of Viersen. 2001, pp. 12-46.
  • Michael Neumeyer: Home. On the history and concept of a phenomenon. Geographical Institute of the University of Kiel 1992, ISBN 3-923887-26-4 (also a dissertation at the University of Kiel 1991 under the title: Between Idylle and Lifeworld ).
  • Rolf Petri: German homeland 1850–1950. In: Comparativ. Leipzig contributions to universal history and comparative social research. Vol. 11 (2001), No. 1, pp. 77-127.
  • Alexander Ritter (Ed.): Literati in the Province - Provincial Literature? Westholsteinische Verlags-Anstalt Boyens, Heide in Holstein 1991, ISBN 3-8042-0548-8 .
  • Susanne Scharnowski: Home: History of a Misunderstanding. wbg academic / Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2019, ISBN 978-3-534-27073-6 .
  • V. Schmitt-Roschmann: Home. Rediscovery of a frowned upon feeling. Gütersloh 2010, ISBN 978-3-579-06764-3 .
  • Lothar Schultes: From the cradle to the grave - home in art . In: home? Lecture series. Published by the Upper Austria. Landesarchiv, Linz 2018, pp. 191–260.
  • Manfred Seifert (Ed.): Between emotion and calculation. “Home” as an argument in the process of modernity. Leipzig 2010, ISBN 978-3-86583-508-6 .
  • Hartmut Sommer: Philosophy of Home. In: Universitas. 73, issue 7, 2018.
  • Eduard Spranger : The educational value of local history . 1923 (7th edition. Stuttgart 1967).
  • Ingeborg Szöllösi (Ed.): Heimat. Demolition - departure - arrival. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle (Saale) 2014, ISBN 978-3-95462-128-6 .
  • Wolfgang Thuene: Home as a sociological and geopolitical category. Creator, Würzburg 1987, ISBN 3-89247-006-5 (at the same time: Dissertation at the University of Würzburg , 1985/86 under the title: Home as a sociological and geopolitical category and as an identity impulse in modern industrial society ; New Würzburg studies on sociology , Volume 4).
  • Corinna Waffender (Ed.): Heimat. Konkursbuch-Verlag Gehrke, Tübingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-88769-249-0 (=  bankruptcy book 49).
  • Klaus Weigelt (Ed.): Home, Tradition, Historical Consciousness. von Hase and Koehler, Mainz 1986, ISBN 3-7758-1127-3 .
  • Longing for home . In: Der Spiegel . No. 40 , 1984 ( online - cover story).
  • Home . In: Historical-Critical Dictionary of Marxism . Vol. 6.1, Hamburg 2004.

Web links

Wiktionary: Heimat  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikiquote: Heimat  - Quotes
Commons : home  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Hunter , 2017
  2. Bausinger, 1980, p. 20
  3. ^ Hasse, 1985
  4. Brockhaus, 1989, p. 617 f.
  5. Piepmeier, 1990, p. 106
  6. Mitzscherlich, 1997
  7. ^ Cremer and Klein, 1990
  8. Bausinger, 1980, p. 21
  9. Waldenfels, 1990, p. 113
  10. ^ Greverus, 1979
  11. Brepohl, 1957, p. 348f., Quoted from Dürrmann, 1985, p. 91, Was ist Heimat? - definitions . Federal Agency for Civic Education , accessed on April 12, 2018.
  12. ^ Klaus Giel: Heimatkunde - today. Experiment on the topic of lived life ( memento from October 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 208 kB). P. 8.
  13. Living with Dementia: A Journey into Homelessness . ( Memento from December 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Diakonie Deutschland, January 9, 2013.
  14. ^ Gundolf Keil : Home - domestic - uncanny. Early observations on the indigenous nature of health. In: Technical prose research - Crossing borders. Volume 10, 2014, pp. 165–178, here: p. 172.
  15. Gerhard Handschuh: Customs - Between Change and Tradition. In: Federal Center for Political Education (Hrsg.): Heimat . Bonn. 1990, p. 635.
  16. ^ Friedrich Wilhelm Weber: Dreizehnlinden. Epic in 25 songs. Singing XVII (Des Prior's Lehrsprüche) in the Gutenberg-DE project
  17. ^ Parish of St. Pankratius Emsdetten: St. Pankratius 1848–1948. Published unchanged on September 9, 2007.
  18. cf. the text of the Lower Saxony song
  19. Marcus Tullius Cicero: Tusculanae disputationes, 5, 108.
  20. ^ Liane Dirks: Emigration to your own homeland. Lea Fleischmann and Chaim Noll write about their life in Israel . Deutschlandfunk, May 22, 2006.
  21. ^ Heinrich Heine: The Silesian weavers in the Gutenberg-DE project
  22. Daniel Steinvorth: Kültürschock in Istanbul. In: Der Spiegel , issue 26/2010. June 28, 2010, p. 97.
  23. Hartmut Sommer: Philosophy of Home. In: Universitas , issue 7/2018, pp. 74–99.
  24. Bernhard Waldenfels: Home in a foreign country . In: In the networks of the lifeworld . Frankfurt aM, 1985, p. 199.
  25. ^ Philipp Ther: The Outsiders: Flight, Refugees and Integration in Modern Europe. Frankfurt aM, 2017.
  26. ^ Christian Graf von Krockow : On the right and wrong on home (PDF; 65 kB); Trade union monthly issues , issue 4/1988.
  27. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Nathan the Wise in the Gutenberg-DE project
  28. Paul Gerhardt: Guest on Earth (lyrics).
  29. Psalm 119
  30. Ernst Bloch: The principle of hope p. 334.
  31. Supporting program Augsburg High Peace Festival 2014. 18/07 - 08/08 (PDF) City of Augsburg.
  32. ^ Joseph von Eichendorff: Farewell. In the forest near Lubowitz
  33. ^ Achim Frohnhofen: Space - Region - Place. Socio-spatial perspectives of young people from a landscape between restructuring and dismantling. Dissertation 2001, p. 126 ( PDF ).
  34. The fear of losing a home . Interview on Stuttgart 21. In: Stuttgarter Zeitung . March 6, 2010.
  35. Manfred Treml: On the value of the regional. An educated civic commitment ( memento of the original from August 15, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Lecture. May 12, 2006. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.verband-bayerischer-geschichtsvereine.de
  36. ^ Oskar Negt : Science in the cultural crisis and the problem of home. In: home . Federal Agency for Civic Education , Bonn 1990, p. 185.
  37. Reimar v. Alvensleben: Consumer preferences for regional products: consumer theory basics . University of Kiel . November 26, 1999, p. 6
  38. ^ Christian Kirchner: Dear and dear . Capital . Issue 6/2018, p. 108
  39. Daniel Dettling: The sentence “Merkel has to go!” Is the peak of impotence. welt.de. August 6, 2018, accessed April 27, 2019.
  40. ^ David Goodhart: The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics . C. Hurst & Co, 2017, ISBN 9781849047999 .
  41. David Goodhart: The "Anywheres" and the "Somewheres". The growing gap between the broad middle of society and the liberal upper class. Rotary magazine. May 1, 2017, accessed May 5, 2019.
  42. German Trachtenverband. In: www.deutscher-trachtenverband.de. Retrieved December 13, 2016 .
  43. Oliver Kontny: Home? I've never been there! . (PDF) In: City of Augsburg: Framework program Augsburger Hohes Friedensfest 2014 , pp. 6–9.
  44. quoted from: Hugo Loetscher: Schweizstunde . The time . April 22, 2009
  45. Saša Stanišić on "Origin": Beware of the "belonging kitsch". Interview with Jörg Plath . deutschlandfunkkultur.de. 23 March 2019
  46. Dagmar Wilde: From local history to subject teaching. Specialist seminar for advanced teaching, Berlin 2001.
  47. Educational goals in the German state constitutions ( memento of the original from October 31, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Time questions. Newspaper for freedom of opinion, ethics and responsibility for the affirmation and compliance with international law, human rights and humanitarian law; Zurich. Educational goals in the German state constitutions. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.zeit-fragen.ch
  48. Michael Bothe, Armin Dittmann, Wolfgang Mantl, Yvo Hangartner: Educational mandate and educational standard in the liberal constitutional state. Reports and discussions at the conference on German constitutional law in Halle / Saale from October 5th to 8th, 1994 . Berlin / New York 1995. p. 119.
  49. Love of one's homeland by law - patriotism is a duty for everyone in Slovakia. welt.de. March 3, 2010
  50. Erich Mühsam: The liberation of society from the state. Fanal-Verlag, Berlin 1933, p. 30 ( digitized from lernhelfer.de ).
  51. ^ Kurt Tucholsky: Heimat. In: Stephan Reinhardt (ed.): The writers and the Weimar Republic. A reader. Verlag Klaus Wagenbach, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-8031-2208-2 , pp. 170f.
  52. Karin Nink , Johanna Schmeller: You cannot prescribe home. Interview with Andrea Nahles . Forward . Issue 7-8 / 2018
  53. ^ The American Dream - US Green Card Service GmbH: US Department of Homeland Security - Advisory system against terrorist attacks. info-usa.de.
  54. Defense Policy Guidelines: VI. Duties performed by the Bundeswehr , homeland security section and long-term security precautions
  55. Armed forces base: New structure of the reserve - prelude for the Bavarian state regiment
  56. Conception of the Bundeswehr from 2018
  57. see U. Linse: "Fundamentalist" Heimatschutz. Reinhard Falter's “natural philosophy” . In: U. Puschner, G. Ulrich Großmann (Ed.): Völkisch und national. On the topicality of old thought patterns in the 21st century. Knowledge Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2009, ISBN 978-3-534-20040-5 , pp. 156-159.
  58. ^ A b W. Kaschuba: Introduction to European Ethnology. 2nd updated edition. Munich 2003, ISBN 978-3-406-50462-4 , p. 140.
  59. ^ National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) (Ed.): Work. Family. Fatherland. The party program of the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD). Decided at the federal party congress on June 4-5, 2010 in Bamberg. o, O. 2010, p. 12.
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  66. ^ Christoph Franceschini: Rediscovered home. salto.bz. August 16, 2018.
  67. Alexandra Hildebrandt: Heimat 2.0: Six reasons why we need a culture of closeness ( Memento of the original from September 27, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . huffingtonpost.de . May 20, 2014 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.huffingtonpost.de
  68. Johannes Schneider: Help is very much at home . zeit.de . October 9, 2017
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  70. Alfred de Zayas: Who is entitled to the right of home? Speech of October 9, 2004
  71. Ralf Dahrendorf : Only people have rights . The right of peoples to self-determination is a barbaric instrument . In: Die Zeit , No. 18/1989
  72. ^ Judgment of the Federal Administrative Court of September 29, 2008 in the Garzweiler II case ( Memento of September 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  73. Peter Carstens: Climate Impacts: Here people have to flee from climate change . geo.de . May 11, 2017
  74. ↑ culture of welcome (and culture of recognition). Background, discussion and recommendations for action . ( Memento from December 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF) IQ Diversity Management, 2013, p. 7.
  75. Georg Dahm, Jost Delbrück, Rüdiger Wolfrum: Völkerrecht, Volume I / 2. De Gruyter, 2002, § 98: The foreigner and his home state.
  76. Kai Detlev Sievers: Power rebirth of the people: Joachim Kurd Niedlich and the national homeland security. Verlag Königshausen & Neumann, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8260-3377-3 ( books.google.de )
  77. Ulrich Linse: "Fundamentalist" Heimatschutz. Reinhard Falter's “natural philosophy”. In: Uwe Puschner , G. Ulrich Großmann (Ed.): Völkisch und national. On the topicality of old thought patterns in the 21st century. Knowledge Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2009, ISBN 978-3-534-20040-5 , pp. 156-159.
  78. https://www.bpb.de/politik/extremismus/rechtsextremismus/211922/gruene-braune
  79. Martina Susanne Ortner: Love of home, national pride and racism - individual opinions or trend? Federal Agency for Civic Education. November 24, 2017.
  80. Martin Walser: Local history. Essays and speeches . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt / Main 1972, p. 40.
  81. Jakob Augstein: Katrin Göring-Eckardt: She said home. Spiegel Online, October 9, 2017.
  82. ^ Leibniz Universität Hannover: Symposium "The concept of home in sustainable development - content, opportunities and risks", Hannover November 5th and 6th, 2004.
  83. Annamaria Rucktäschel: Job nomads - desired subjects of the economy . Federal Agency for Civic Education. April 24, 2006.
  84. Sven Gabor Janszky: Trend analysis: Patchwork identities 2020 - job nomads and project work. ( Memento of July 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) p. 6.
  85. ^ Pico Iyer: The Global Soul: Jet Lag, Shopping Malls, and the Search for Home. Santa Barbara 2001.
  86. Brigitte Hild: Young, dynamic, on the move - modern job nomads. ( Memento of July 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: Personal.Manager International 02/2006.
  87. Hartmut Mitzlaff: Heimatkunde und Sachunterricht - historical and systematic studies on the development of general studies - at the same time a critical development history of the homeland ideal in the German-speaking area. 3 volumes. Dortmund 1985. p. 384 f.
  88. Georg Etscheit: When the black home turns green. Die Zeit , February 15, 2012.
  89. Green Twitter dispute about "home" - How cozy can it be? taz.de, October 4, 2017.
  90. Sandra Helmeke: Dragqueen BBQ shows with Bollenhut that home is there for everyone. SWR Heimat, August 27, 2019.
  91. ^ Daniel Zwick: Modern work nomads: The restless . Spiegel Online, July 14, 2004.
  92. ↑ Dialect speakers are persistent. Linguists and economists study mobility . Philipps University of Marburg. Research Center for the German Language Atlas. February 15, 2010.
  93. Miriam Hoffmeyer: Dialect at work? Reinschter Bogmischt. Süddeutsche Zeitung . 2nd November 2014
  94. Impulse Medien GmbH: More and more professional nomads in Germany. January 2, 2013.