As Exile ( Latin ExiliuM to ex (s) ul weilend = abroad, banned) is defined as the absence of a human or an ethnic group from their own home , by virtue of expulsion , exile , expulsion , expatriation , forced resettlement , religious or political Persecution as well as unbearable conditions in the home country with subsequent emigration . Exile is therefore mostly justified by restrictions on the free development of the individual or a threat at home. In contrast to deportation , however, no further restrictions on freedom can take place at the newly chosen destination by the state responsible for the exile . Since exile is typically based on involuntary behavior, exiles usually find their condition undesirable and depressing. As a rule, they therefore aim to return to their home country as soon as the original reason for going into exile has been eliminated, for example through a change of government.
Forms of forced exile already existed in antiquity . Nebuchadnezzar II had the Israelites settle in Babylon in exile in Babylonia , but the same practices were often used in Assyria . The background to these actions was the intention to calm down the rebel areas politically by either mixing the local population with foreign cultures or by exiling parts of the local residents in distant areas.
In ancient Rome , the Roman Senate had the power to declare exile on individuals, families, or even entire territories. A famous Roman in exile was the poet Ovid . He was forced to leave Rome and move to the city of Tomis on the Black Sea, today's Constanța . There he wrote his famous work Tristia about his feelings in exile. Other famous, at least temporary exiles are z. B. Du Fu , Dante Alighieri and Napoléon Bonaparte .
During the period of National Socialism , in the first years after 1933, many Jews and a considerable number of German artists and intellectuals went into exile, such as the writers Thomas Mann , Klaus Mann , Bertolt Brecht and Anna Seghers . Even Albert Einstein and numerous other Jewish origins, scientists emigrated. Initially, neighboring countries such as the Netherlands and France were often chosen as exiles. After many of these countries were occupied by Germany at the beginning of the Second World War , the exiles had to flee again, many went to the USA . This also resulted in his own exile literature , such as the novel Der Vulkan by Klaus Mann, in which the German exile scene in Paris is described, or The Seventh Cross by Anna Seghers.
Argentina also experienced a significant exodus after the military dictatorship came to power in 1976 , which waged a self-declared “dirty war” against left-wing people as part of the “ fight against terrorism” . Up to 30,000 people were murdered, most of which " disappeared " without a trace and became known as Desaparecidos . Something similar happened as early as 1973 after the putsch in Chile by Augusto Pinochet , after which a considerable number of the state-persecuted Chileans found refuge in the GDR , but also in West Germany.
Since the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 and the subsequent occupation of the country , the situation of Iraqi Christians has worsened massively, which has led to massive emigration into exile in neighboring countries. Since 2005, increasing fighting between Shiites , Sunnis and Kurds as well as Islamist terrorism make the situation of Christians ever more threatening. In 2010, out of several million Christians, only 600,000 were still living in Iraq. Around 1.5 million fled into exile in Syria or Jordan over the ten years . Many others fled to the neighboring countries Turkey and Lebanon , Europe or the USA. Some observers even assume that the almost 2000-year history of Christians in what is now Iraq is threatening to end.
Forms of exile
The plural terms exiles and exiles ( singular exiles / exiles) refer to people who are in exile, with the form exiles being used for a state-ordered exile. The paraphrases are also used in connection with nationality designations, for example exiled Iranians , exiled Russians or exiled Cubans . The Dalai Lama is currently one of the world's most famous exiles. The terms exile, on the other hand, are new word creations that are derived from the Latin term exsilium , although, based on the Latin expression, the common form exul is used.
In many countries, including Germany, exiles can apply for political asylum under certain conditions , i.e. a legal status that corresponds to a residence permit and legally protects against being deported to their homeland and extradited to the abovementioned reasons for fleeing. In Great Britain , citizens from Commonwealth countries have the same legal status as the natives (British), which is why political asylum is not necessary for exiles from these countries.
The situation can arise that a person who has resided legally in one country for a long time, possibly even their entire life, but is a citizen of another country, is deported to their official home country for various reasons, although they are Has no relationship (any more) with this country and may not even speak the language of this country.
The emigration is sometimes called voluntary exile called.
During the Nazi era , many Jews were only able to escape the Holocaust through exile . After the November pogrom of 1938, the National Socialists forced such emigrations as a precondition for release from concentration camp imprisonment. The process was repeated shortly after the occupation of Austria by the Nazi state. The route initially led her to the neighboring countries of Czechoslovakia, Great Britain and France. Large communities in exile of Jews who had fled Germany formed in Istanbul , São Paulo , New York , London , Shanghai (temporarily interned by Japan), Buenos Aires and Israel . In some cases, they initially organized mutual support and maintained contacts there for decades.
Aquae et ignis interdictio (lat. The community of fire and water prohibition ) was the Roman Empire that the person concerned is a form of banishment, which was associated with it for outlaws explained and confiscated his property ( see. Ostracism ).
Exile as a secret word
The transfer of criminals or tsar - or subversive persons to Siberia ordered by the judiciary was described in the Russian Empire and later in the Soviet Union with the word "exile". This euphemistic term was also used by those affected and their relatives. The “exile” sentence was not necessarily associated with being detained in a labor camp , but forced the convict to live exclusively in an assigned area or in a specific city in Siberia. Examples from the 1980s are the judgments against Oles Berdnyk and Andrei Sakharov .
- German exile during the Nazi era
- German-language exile press (1933–1945)
- Exile in Turkey 1933–1945
- Exile literature
- Government in exile
- Kindertransport (1938–1939)
- Arts in exile
- List of well-known German-speaking emigrants and exiles (1933–1945)
- Option in South Tyrol
- Schools in exile
- US universities and research institutions heavily influenced by employees living in exile:
- Documentation archive of the Austrian Resistance (Ed.): Austrians in exile. Soviet Union. 1934-1945. A documentation. Introduction, selection, editing: Barry McLoughlin and Hans Schafranek . Deuticke, Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-901142-43-6 .
- Jour fixe initiative berlin (ed.): Fluchtlinien des Exile. Unrast, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-89771-431-0 .
- Georg Kleinfeller : Exile . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume VI, 2, Stuttgart 1909, Sp. 1683-1685.
- Claus-Dieter Krohn , Patrik von zur Mühlen , Gerhard Paul , Lutz Winckler (eds.): Handbook of German-speaking Emigration 1933–1945. Primus Verlag, Darmstadt 1998, ISBN 3-89678-086-7 .
- Werner Röder, Herbert A. Strauss (Red.): Biographical handbook of German-speaking emigration after 1933. = International Biographical Dictionary of Central European Émigrés 1933–1945. 3 volumes. Saur, Munich 1980–1983, ISBN 3-598-10087-6 (Unchanged reprint, ibid 1999, ISBN 3-598-11420-6 ):
- Hans Schafranek (ed.): The betrayed. Austrians as victims of Stalinist terror in the Soviet Union. Picus Verlag, Vienna 1991, ISBN 3-85452-219-3 .
- Hans Schafranek: Children's Home No. 6. Austrian and German children in exile in the Soviet Union. Döcker, Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-85115-265-4 .
- Hans Schafranek: Between the NKVD and the Gestapo. The extradition of German and Austrian anti-fascists from the Soviet Union to Nazi Germany 1937–1941. ISP-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1990, ISBN 3-88332-181-8 .
- Juliane Sucker: “Longing for the Kurfürstendamm”: Gabriele Tergit - Literature and Journalism in the Weimar Republic and in Exile (= Epistemata , Series Literary Studies , Volume 833). Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-8260-5661-1 ( dissertation Humboldt University Berlin 2014).
- Sandra Wiesinger-Stock, Erika Weinzierl , Konstantin Kaiser (eds.): From going away. On the exile of art and science (= exile research today. Volume 1). Mandelbaum Verlag, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-85476-182-1 .
- Wolfgang Büscher: The voices of New York . They were Germans until Hitler drove them out . In: Die Zeit , No. 1/2008
- The history of foreign Jewish refugees in Europe. At Traces et empreintes - An ordinary exile
- Silent voices. The expulsion of the 'Jews' from the opera 1933 to 1945. An exhibition project since 2006.
- Oliver Diggelmann : Asad's exile as a way out of the Syria crisis? Völkerrecht In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , July 26, 2012 (Analysis of the limited possibilities for dictators to choose exile)
- Claus-Dieter Krohn: Exile Research . Version: 1.0, in: Docupedia-Zeitgeschichte , December 20, 2012.
- Claus-Dieter Krohn: Emigration 1933–1945 / 1950 , in: European History Online (EGO), ed. from the Institute for European History (IEG), Mainz, May 31, 2011.
- Christians in Iraq: The days are numbered . In: taz
- Otmar Oehring: On the current situation of Christians in the Middle East. (PDF) KAS international information , 4/2010
- Information on Iraq. CIA World Fact Book
- Oles Berdnyk: a visionary behind bars. In: The Ukrainian Weekly. November 28, 1982, accessed on June 9, 2019 (English): "internal exile for 'anti-Soviet' agit-prop"