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A banishment (also expulsion from the country , derived from the king's power of ban in legal history ) is the expulsion of a person from their familiar surroundings or ancestral home . In contrast to exile , exile is never voluntary, but rather the result of an ongoing authoritative coercion that prevents the person concerned from returning or restricts his or her freedom of movement .

Exile appears in the earliest German legal records as a means of recourse for defaulting debtors or accused, as well as a means of ending feuds . It later emerged in the form of expulsion from the city (“ solidification ”) and was also used as a police measure against unwanted strangers such as travelers or Jews . In the early European penal codifications of the 15th and 16th centuries, banishment was often envisaged as a pardon instead of the death penalty . Those punished with exile had to take an oath not to return.

Sometimes the exiled person remains within the sphere of power or influence of those who have pronounced the exile, for example in a penal colony or a remote area of ​​the country. Throughout history, various powers such as Russia and, from 1920, the Soviet Union , Great Britain and France, practiced the exile of delinquents on a large scale, often for the purpose of colonizing remote or distant areas ( Siberia , Australia , French Guiana ). As a criminal punishment, banishment has disappeared from the legal systems of the German-speaking area since the end of the 17th century. In France it was not officially abolished until 1994, although it was no longer imposed because of a violation of Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights .

Well-known examples

See also


  • Wolfgang Althof: Convict Islands: Places of Exile . Mittler, Hamburg / Berlin / Bonn 2005, ISBN 3-8132-0843-5 .
  • Hermann Schreiber: Love, Power, Exile - The Fate of Women in the Tsarist Empire: The Fate of Women at the Tsar's Court . Katz, Gernsbach 2009, ISBN 978-3-938047-45-3 .
  • Ernst Gerhard Jacob, Willy Schulz-Weidner: Colonies. In: Staatslexikon. (Fourth volume). Herder Verlag, Freiburg 1959, pp. 1130-1137.

Web links

Wiktionary: banishment  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations