|(Italian: Bressanone , lad .: Porsenù ( gad. ), Persenon ( Gröd. ) )|
|coat of arms||map|
|Region :||Trentino-South Tyrol|
|Province :||Bolzano - South Tyrol|
|District community :||Eisack Valley|
(VZ 2011 / 31.12.2019)
|20.713 / 22.572|
Language groups :
(according to 2011 census )
|Altitude :||538–(center: )|
|Permanent settlement area:||22.3 km²|
|Parliamentary groups :||Afers , Albeins , Brixen , Elvas , Gereuth , Karnol , Klerant , Kranebitt , Mahr , Mairdorf , Mellaun , Pairdorf , Pinzagen , Plabach , Rutzenberg , Sarns , St. Andrä , St. Leonhard , Tils , Tötschling , Tschötsch , Untereben|
|Neighboring municipalities:||Feldthurns , Lüsen , Natz-Schabs , St. Martin in Thurn , Vahrn , Villnöß|
|Partnership with :||Regensburg ( DE ), Bled / Veldes ( SI ), Havlíčkův Brod / Deutschbrod ( CZ )|
|Postal code :||39042|
|Area code :||0472|
|Mayor (2015):||Peter Brunner ( SVP )|
Brixen ([ ˈbrɪksn̩ ]; Italian Bressanone , Ladin Persenon or Porsenù , Latin Brixina , until 1919 officially Brixen am Eisack ) is a town and municipality in the South Tyrolean Eisack Valley in Italy . Brixen is one of the oldest cities in the Tyrol region , the capital of the Eisack Valley and with 22,572 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019) the third largest city in South Tyrol. It is the seat of the Eisacktal district community , a local business center and the location of several secondary schools and a hospital.
The municipality of Brixen is located about 40 kilometers northeast of Bolzano and 45 kilometers south of the Brenner Pass at the confluence of the Eisack and Rienz rivers in the Eisack Valley . The Brixner valley basin marks the beginning of the Eisack Valley, which is created here from the meeting of the Wipptal (from the northwest) and the Pustertal (from the northeast). It is surrounded by the Sarntal Alps in the west, the Zillertal Alps in the north and the Lüsner Mountains , a sub-group of the Dolomites , in the east. Smaller side valleys that open up here in the Eisack Valley are the Schalderer Valley coming from the west and the Lüsner and Aferer Valley coming from the east .
The municipality of Brixen occupies the central and southern parts of the valley basin. The northern neighboring communities of the basin are Vahrn and Natz-Schabs ; in the south, where the Eisack valley is increasingly narrowing, Brixen borders on Feldthurns and Villnöß .
To the west, the municipality rises over the slopes of the Pfeffersberg to the Hundskopf ( ). On the east side it reaches up to the three peaks of the Plose (Telegraph, ; Pfannspitze, ; Gabler, ). On the south side of the Plose, Brixen is bounded by the Sade , which means that the municipality encompasses the orographically right flank of the Afer Valley and, behind the Kofeljoch ( ), even extends a bit into the Lüsner valley head to the Lasanke . In the Plose area, Brixen borders on Lüsen , St. Martin in Thurn and Villnöß.
The historic center of Brixen, was built at the confluence of the Rienza in the Eisack . The old town ( ) and the majority of today's urban settlement core with the districts Burgfrieden, Zinggen and Rosslauf are on the orographic right, western side of the Eisack. The district of Stufels , probably the oldest settlement center, occupies the mouth gusset between Eisack and Rienz; the quarter that extends over the slopes that rise behind Stufels is called Kranebitt . The immediate urban area also includes Milland , which is located slightly offset to the southeast on the orographic left, eastern side of the Eisack. In addition, the municipality also includes numerous rural villages, hamlets and scattered settlements , which form 20 further fractions .
The plateau bordered by Eisack and Rienz in the north of the municipality offers space for the village of Elvas ( ). South of the city center, in the valley floor west of the Eisack, the Mahr ( ) and a little offset opposite to the east of the Sarns river ( ) are located. The southernmost settlement of the basin is the village of Albeins ( ) at the exit of the Afer Valley. Numerous villages are scattered across the slopes that accompany the Eisack Valley on both sides in low mountain ranges . On Pfefferberg on the west side are Gereuth (1100- ), Pairdorf ( ), Pinzagen ( ), Til ( ), Tötschling ( ), Tschötsch ( ) and lower level ( ) . On the slopes of Plose located on the east Karnol (850 ), Cleran ( ), Mairdorf ( ), Mellaun ( ), Plabach (900 ), Rutzenberg (1200- ) , St. Andrä ( ) and St. Leonhard ( ). The Afers fraction with its main town St. Georg ( ) occupies the southern slopes of the Plose in the Afer Valley.
The average rainfall is 700 mm, which is spread over about 85 days, with winter usually being the season with the lowest rainfall. These are usually expressed in the form of snow . The highest amount of precipitation is measured in summer , whereby the frequency of thunderstorms is greatest due to the clash of different air masses, favored by the proximity to the main Alpine ridge .
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Brixen
Various prehistoric settlements have been found in the Brixner valley basin, for example in Stufels . Brixen is probably already mentioned in a document on July 4th 828 AD under the name "Pressena". Brixen was mentioned for the first time in a document in 901 as Meierhof "Prihsna" in a deed of gift from Carolingian Ludwig IV to Bishop Zacharias von Säben . For centuries Bressanone was an influential seat of prince-bishops , who were German imperial princes from 1027 to 1803, far beyond the Tyrolean borders .
In 1080 a council took place in Brixen , which Wibert of Ravenna called Clemens III. Elected Pope against Gregory VII . Bishop Poppo , who was elected Pope in 1048 (Damasus II), Nikolaus von Kues (1450–1464), called Cusanus, and Georg Golser (1464–1488) were also significant in church history . Today Brixen shares the bishopric with the provincial capital Bozen ( diocese Bozen-Brixen ).
In the immediate vicinity of the city, conflicts arose between the prince-bishops and local nobles in the Middle Ages. In the 13th century, the Voitsbergers, ministerials at the court of the prince-bishop, tried to place parts of what is now the Burgfrieden district under their jurisdiction. So they built the Pfefferburg on the so-called burger hill to hold dishes there. Only Prince-Bishop Bruno von Kirchberg was able to prevail in feuds that had lasted for years against the Voitsbergers, the ancestral castle in Vahrn and the Pfefferburg were razed in 1270 and the separate judicial district Pfeffersberg / Salern was created.
In 1802 Brixen fell to Austria, 1805 to Bavaria ( Brixen Regional Court ), and again to Austria in 1814 . In the 19th century, the urban area expanded westwards towards Burgfrieden, which until then was still dominated by agriculture and where many citizens maintained goods for food supplies.
In the years 1912/13 the city built a barracks complex of 18 buildings. The barracks was named after Archduke Karl . The 8th Mountain Artillery Regiment of the 8th Army Corps was housed in the barracks. After the First World War , the Italian army took over the barracks. In 1920 Brixen became part of Italy when the Treaty of Saint-Germain came into force .
In the 1960s , the South Tyrolean children's village was built on the slope of the Oberraggengerhof am Pfeffersberg, according to the plans of the Brixen architect Othmar Barth .
The name probably goes back to a pre-Roman, perhaps Raetian name. It possibly originated from Rhaetian * Prikse-na (possibly German "area of the Prikse"). The Räter had probably acquired this name from an even earlier wording and rätisiert. The Old High German form recorded in 901 is Prihsna , which then became Prixina (935–955) and Bricsina (952). In the High Middle Ages , the Brixen sound finally caught on.
The city's 1908 workplaces (including the public sector and NPOs ) employed 10,453 people as of October 22, 2001. One company employed over 250 people, eleven others over 100 each. Bressanone is therefore the second largest business location in South Tyrol after Bolzano in terms of the number of workplaces. In terms of the number of employees, however, it was only the third largest location in South Tyrol in 2001, as 239 more people were employed in Bruneck on the reporting date. The Stadtwerke Brixen AG are for electricity supply , drinking water , waste water , district heating , methane gas , fiber optics , environmental services and the geographic information system in charge in the field Brixen and surroundings. The A. Weger publishing house was first mentioned in 1555 as the “Prince Bishop's Court Book Printing” and is still in possession of a wooden printing press from that time. In the industrial zone of Bressanone there are mainly companies producing building materials. The Durst AG company located there sells its photo technology products worldwide. The first wood scanner worldwide comes from the Microtec company , which is also based in Brixen. The print shop and the registered office of Athesia , however, have been based in Bolzano since 2004 . The Brixner Milchhof (Brimi) is located across the municipal border in the Vahrn industrial area . The Forum Brixen conference and congress center comprises six halls, two foyers, a kitchen and a bar on 2,000 m².
Brixen is the location of a hospital of the South Tyrolean medical company .
For road traffic , Brixen is primarily opened up by the SS 12 , which passes close to the city center. In addition, the A22 and the Brennerbahn cross the municipality. Access to the motorway is provided by the Brixen- Pustertal entry and exit , which is, however, located in the northern neighboring municipality of Vahrn , and the Brixen industrial zone exit . The Brennerbahn has an access point at Bressanone station .
In Brixen there are the following upper and vocational schools : the Upper School Center "Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer" , the Classical Gymnasium "Vinzentinum" , the Social Science School Josef Gasser , the Technical School of Economics, Graphic and Communication "Julius and Gilbert Durst," the vocational school for the Hospitality and food industry "Emma Hellenstainer" and the state vocational school for trade, craft and industry "Christian Josef Tschuggmall". The Philosophical-Theological University of Brixen , founded in 1607 as the Brixen seminary , is the oldest university institution in historical Tyrol . The University of Padua has a branch in Bressanone with a student residence. As the headquarters of the Free University of Bozen (FUB), Bressanone has been a university town since 2001.
Culture and sights
In the historic old town are the Brixen Cathedral with the adjacent cathedral cloister , the Frauenkirche and the Johanneskapelle , the Hofburg (the former prince-bishops), the seminary , the two arbor lanes , the motherhouse of the Brixen Tertiary Sisters, the Poor Clare monastery , the Capuchin monastery , the parish church of St. Michael and the Protestant Church of St. Gotthard and St. Erhard .
In Brixen's old town, at the intersection between Säbenertorgasse, the Kleiner Lauben and the Großer Lauben on the facade of the Schwarzer Adler inn, the “three-headed man” (also known as the “wild man”) is located; its three heads are turned towards the respective alleys. According to legend, he spits out coins with all three heads on Good Friday when it rings twelve o'clock.
Art and music
The Music and Church Initiative organizes concerts and symposia on all aspects of art, music and church. In the Forum Brixen events take place all kinds, including projections of film clubs Bolzano ; the Stella cinema offers the latest mainstream films . The Anreiterkeller is used as a cellar theater , the Dekadenz group offers cabaret as well as other cabaret forms, and guest performances and concerts take place in the Anreiterkeller. Church concerts often take place in the cathedral or in the church of the seminary .
The Theater Education Center has existed since 1989.
The Trametsch descent in the Plose ski area, marked as a black slope, is the longest descent in South Tyrol. The Brixen sports club SSV Brixen is particularly successful in the handball , football , gymnastics , Yoseikan Budo, swimming and athletics sections . The FC Südtirol , South Tyrol's only professional football team, which has been playing since its promotion to the professional league in Bolzano , was founded in Brixen. In November 2002 the combined outdoor and indoor pool with restaurant, sauna and fitness area Acquarena was opened on the site of the old Bressanone outdoor pool. 2009 Brixen hosted the sixth U18 Athletics World Youth Championship the IAAF . In 2010 the Brixen Marathon took place for the first time, leading from Domplatz to the summit of the Plose. The international South Tyrolean mountain gymnastics festival, founded in 1961 as the Brixen mountain gymnastics festival, took place in Brixen until 2010 . The Caidom , a mass start downhill mountain bike race that leads from the summit to the cathedral square, has taken place every year since 2005 . In 2010, the final of the first Gibbon Slackline Contest was held in Brixen , which also ended the first overall World Cup in slackline. At the football championships of the secondary schools from September 20 to 25, 2010 in Riccione , the women's football team of the Brixen commercial college won the Italian title. The International Mountain Summit in Brixen is a meeting of mountaineers. 2012, 16 were unicycle - World Championships the Unicon held in Brixen 16th
Mayor since 1952:
- Valerius Dejaco : 1952-1968
- Zeno Giacomuzzi : 1969-1988
- Klaus Seebacher: 1988-2005
- Albert Pürgstaller : 2005–2015
- Peter Brunner: since 2015
- Regensburg (Germany), since 1969
- Bled (Slovenia), since 2004
- Havlíčkův Brod (Czech Republic), since 2007
- Marquartstein (Germany)
- Bernkastel-Kues (Germany)
- Hall in Tirol (Austria)
- Terracina (Italy)
- Mantua (Italy)
- Ingo Dejaco: Discover Bressanone. Out and about in and around the city . Brixen: Verlag A. Weger 2003.
- Helmut Flachenecker , Hans Heiss , Hannes Obermair (eds.): City and Hochstift: Brixen, Bruneck and Klausen up to secularization 1803 - Città e Principato: Bressanone, Brunico e Chiusa fino alla secolarizzazione 1803 (= publications of the South Tyrolean Provincial Archives 12). Bolzano: Athesia 2000 publishing house. ISBN 88-8266-084-2
- Barbara Fuchs, Hans Heiss, Carlo Milesi, Gustav Pfeifer: Brixen. The story . Bozen: Athesia / Tappeiner 2004 (on the development of the city, see correcting Irmtraut Heitmeier: The old market in Brixen: a change of perspective. With an annex by Martin Bitschnau . In: Der Schlern 82, 2008, H. 2. P. 7-19)
- Josef Gelmi : History of the City of Brixen . Brixen: Verlag A. Weger 2000.
- Hans Heiss, Carlo Milesi, Christine Roilo : Brixen. Art, culture, society . Bolzano: Athesia / Tappeiner 2006.
- Erika Kustatscher : The cities of the Brixen monastery in the late Middle Ages: Constitutional and social history of Brixen, Bruneck and Klausen as reflected in the history of people (1200–1550) . Studien-Verlag, Innsbruck / Vienna / Bozen 2007, ISBN 978-3-7065-4402-3 .
- Ignaz Mader , Anselm Sparber: Brixner House History (= Schlern-Schriften 224). Innsbruck: Wagner 1963.
- Josef Mutschlechner: Old Brixen city rights (= Schlern-Schriften 26). Innsbruck: Wagner 1935.
- Norbert Parschalk: Brixen 1918–1939: from the First World War to the option . Brixen: Verlag A. Weger 2003. ISBN 88-85831-93-1
- Bressanone municipality
- Landscape plan of the municipality of Brixen . Office for Landscape Ecology, Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (PDF file)
- Entry in the Tirol Atlas of the Institute for Geography at the University of Innsbruck
- History-Tyrol: Brixen
- Bressanone Varna - Brixen Vahrn Temperatures (PDF; 39 kB), data from the Autonomous Province of Bolzano.
- Bressanone Varna - Brixen Vahrn precipitation (PDF; 26 kB), data from the autonomous province of Bozen.
- Martin Bitschnau , Hannes Obermair : Tiroler Urkundenbuch, II. Department: The documents on the history of the Inn, Eisack and Pustertal valleys. Vol. 1: Up to the year 1140 . Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 2009, ISBN 978-3-7030-0469-8 , p. 62 .
- The Burgfrieden district extends over the area rising immediately west of the old town towards Pfeffersberg. In the Middle Ages, the term Burgfrieden or Burgfriede referred to the episcopal sovereignty outside the city walls, in which feuds, i.e. hostile acts between private individuals, were forbidden under threat of eight.
- District Community of Eisacktal: History Parcours, pages 10–11
- Diether Schürr: What language does the place name Brixen come from? In: Giampaolo Borghello; Vincenzo Orioles (Ed.): Per Roberto Gusmani 1. Linguaggi, culture, letterature 2. Linguistica storica e teorica. Studi in ricordo . Forum, Udine 2012, ISBN 978-88-8420-974-0 , p. 435-450 ( forumeditrice.it ).
- Cristian Kollmann: Old and new considerations on the name Brixen. In: Barbara Fuchs, Hans Heiss, Carlo Milesi and Gustav Pfeifer (eds.): Brixen. I. The story. Commissioned by the “Prichsna 901-2001” association . Bolzano 2004, p. 13-27 .
- The official number of citizens and the language groups in South Tyrol by municipality and district - 1981 census, p. 23
- South Tyrol in Numbers (Bozen 1994), p. 14
- "THE THREE-HEADED MAN IN BRIXEN", Sagen.at 
- IAAF: World Youth Championships 2009 ( Memento from November 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Gibbon Slackline Contest: 
- The mayors of the South Tyrolean municipalities since 1952. (PDF; 15 MB) In: Festschrift 50 Years of the South Tyrolean Association of Municipalities 1954–2004. Association of South Tyrolean municipalities, pp. 139–159 , accessed on November 16, 2015 .