Ladin language

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ladin, Dolomite Ladin

Spoken in

ItalyItaly Italy
speaker approx. 30,000 (in the core area)
Official status
Official language in Italy Officially recognized as a minority language in Italy
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2

- (roa for other Romance languages)

ISO 639-3


Story by Adele Moroder-Lenert about her grandparents in Val Gardena-Ladin - from the sound archive: Archive Radio Ladin Alex Moroder

As Ladin within the meaning of Dolomitenladinisch refers to a group of Roman dialects in several Alpine valleys of northern Italy are spoken. The main areas of distribution are Val Gardena and the Gadertal in South Tyrol , the Fassa Valley in Trentino and Buchenstein and Cortina d'Ampezzo in the province of Belluno ( Veneto ). In addition, there are a number of other dialects in Trentino and in the province of Belluno, some of which are classified in research as semi-Ladin transitional or hybrid forms, and some of which are still assigned to Ladin itself. With regard to the position for the Italian is debatable whether the Ladin is to integrate the northern Italian dialects, or together with the Romansh in Graubünden and the Furlanischen in Friuli is a linguistic unit (see QUESTIONE LADINA ) made by proponents of this view also collectively as Ladin or as Rhaeto-Romanic , and within which, due to its geographical central position, it is then used as a central-Ladin or Central- Romansh dialect group.

Sociolinguistically , the situation of the Ladin speakers, whose number in the core area is around 30,000 people, is strongly characterized by multilingualism (in South Tyrol) or diglossia (in Trentino and Veneto). In South Tyrol and Trentino, Ladin enjoys the status of an official and school language (partly territorially limited). Attempts to codify a uniform standard language resulted in the elaboration of the Ladin Dolomitan .


Ladinia : the five Ladin-speaking valleys in northern Italy, whose dialects are summarized under the term Sellaladin .

Various language names appear in publications on Ladin, some of which have different scopes of terms depending on the author and the context.

  • Sellaladin is a narrow term that was coined after the Sella mountain , around which the Fassa and Gadertal, Val Gardena and Buchenstein are grouped. Accordingly, only the dialects spoken in these valleys are summarized under this term, sometimes Ampezzan is also included.
  • Dolomite Ladin (after the Dolomites mountain range ) can be understood a little further than Sellaladin and include neighboring dialects from Cadore .
  • Central Aladdin or Central Romansh is used in the context of an assumed Romansh language group, as the dialects discussed in this article occupy a geographical middle position between the Graubünden Romansh spoken in the west of Graubünden and the Furlanic in the east of Friuli. Graziadio Ascoli subsumed under this term, in addition to the Dolomite Ladin, the Ladino-Anaunic dialects.

External and internal structure

With regard to the position for the Italian is debatable whether the Ladin the northern Italian dialects is to integrate or together with the Romansh in Graubünden and the Furlanischen in Friuli is a linguistic unit (see QUESTIONE LADINA ) made by proponents of this view also collectively as Ladin or as Rhaeto-Romanic , and within which, due to its geographical central position, it is then used as a central-Ladin or Central- Romansh dialect group.

In the Ladin core area (also called Ladinien ) six dialects can be distinguished:

  • Maréo (Ennebergisch)
  • Badiot (Gader Valley / Abbot Valley)
  • Gherdëina (Val Gardena)
  • Fascian (Fassan)
  • Anpezan (Ampezzan)
  • Fodom (Buchensteinisch)

In addition, several other dialects in Trentino and Veneto are classified as more or less Ladin or Ladin because of their affinity to the narrowly defined Sellaladin in terms of their lexicon, phonetic volume or morphology. In overview presentations on Ladin, reference is made to their marginal position, because on the one hand they have only a reduced share of their grammar in common with Sella Ladin, on the other hand they are ethno- and sociolinguistically clearly separated from the core areas. In detail, it concerns the following dialect groups:

There are various attempts at structuring, which in turn combine individual dialects into larger groups.

Number of speakers

Minority languages ​​in Trentino,
2011 census

On the occasion of the census, which takes place every ten years, the citizens of South Tyrol and Trentino (not in the Province of Belluno ) are asked to declare their language group. In 2011, 4.1% of the population in South Tyrol and 3.5% in Trentino declared themselves to be Ladin speakers, including residents of the Non Valley and Val di Sole. In the 2011 census, 23.19% of Nonstalers declared themselves to be Ladin speakers; in 2001 it was 17.54%. In South Tyrol, language group affiliation is relevant for purposes of ethnic proportionality .

province 2001 2011
South-Tirol 18,736 20,548
Trentino 16,462 18,550

There is no language group membership declaration in the province of Belluno. Therefore, the stated number of 30,000 Ladin speakers in the Ladin core area is only possible on the basis of estimates.


Trilingual road sign

In some municipalities with a Ladin population, Ladin is recognized as the regional official and school language. These communities include Wolkenstein (Sëlva) , Ortisei (Urtijëi) , St. Christina (Santa Cristina) , Abtei (Badia) , Kurfar ( Corvara ) , Enneberg (Maréo) , St. Martin in Thurn (San Martin de Tor) , Wengen (La Val) , Canazei (Cianacèi) and San Giovanni di Fassa (Sèn Jan) , all of which are in the Trentino-Alto Adige region. Until today there are no minority rights for the Ladins in the Veneto region. That is why the Ladins in Cortina d'Ampezzo , Livinallongo del Col di Lana and Colle Santa Lucia are striving to reorganize the administrative boundaries. That would add the places that previously belonged to Tyrol or the diocese of Bressanone to the autonomous province of Bolzano- South Tyrol .

Many children in Cortina d'Ampezzo understand Ladin because their parents or grandparents still speak it, but only communicate with each other in Italian. Since teachers are hired nationwide according to priority, those without knowledge of Ladin are usually given a chance. Ladin is not the language of instruction in Cortina.

The following table shows the regional differences in the daily use of the Ladin language according to a study from 2006:

valley Share of the population (%) who ...
feels that he belongs to the Ladin language group Mastered Ladin best Speaking Ladin with his own parents Speaks Ladin with her own children Speaks Ladin with foreign children Ladin used by authorities
Val Badia 95 87 91 96 97 93
Val Gardena 79 64 73 78 84 75
Fassa Valley 66 59 70 76 73 63
Buchenstein 78 79 91 93 89 88
Ampezzo 33 33 53 50 42 27


Curate Josef Anton Vian , author of the first Ladin-Val Gardena grammar, 1864

With the successful campaign of the Roman general Nero Drusus , the area of ​​the Alpine peoples was divided into various Roman provinces . As a result, citizens of the Roman Empire also settled. The name is therefore derived from Latin , since Ladin is a vulgar Latin language variant of the Romanised Alpine region . As a remnant of Vulgar Latin dialects, Ladin is often attributed to Romansh . However, whether there was a supra-regional Rhaeto-Romanic original language is disputed among scholars and was discussed as Questione Ladina . The Bavarians , which had been advancing from the north since the 6th century, displaced the Rhaeto-Romanic idiom from large parts of its former area of ​​distribution.

Based on ancient textual sources and the analysis of the family , court , hallway and place names and the settlements (Romanesque Haufendorf) can be reconstructed well this however. The Eisack valley between Bozen and Brixen , the outer Villnöß valley , the Lüsner valley and the area around Castelrotto were Germanized in the course of the late Middle Ages . During this time, the Ladin language also disappeared from the settlements on the northern slope of the Plan de Corones as well as the fractions in the Val Badia , which today belong to the municipality of St. Lorenzen . In the early modern period it also came out of use in the inner Villnößtal and Eggental ( Welschnofen ). The extinct Eggental variety was its own dialect, which was closely related to the Val Gardena dialect.

Later this language area gradually receded in the south in favor of Italian. This process progressed so far that the language is only spoken in a few valleys today. With the end of the First World War and the annexation of the southern part of Tyrol to Italy, the Ladin-speaking areas of the dissolved Austria-Hungary fell to Italy.

The Italian national movement of the 19th and 20th centuries saw Ladin almost always as an Italian dialect, which was rejected by most of the Ladins. The Gruber-De-Gasperi Agreement of 1946 did not provide for any protection for the Ladins. It was not until the 2nd Statute of Autonomy for South Tyrol in 1972 that the Ladins obtained minority rights in this area.

In 1988, the Ladin cultural institutes “ Micurà de Rü ” and “Majon di Fascegn” commissioned Zurich university professor Heinrich Schmid to create a common standard language . In the summer of 1998, the guidelines for the development of a common written language for the Dolomite Ladins were finally published , with which the Ladin Dolomitan or Ladin Standard was launched. The language codification found only limited approval among the population (see also Rumantsch Grischun ).

Linguistic peculiarities

The demarcation of Ladin and dialects of Italian is controversial and in some cases seems to be more political than linguistic. However, from a geographical point of view, this primarily affects the transition areas that are located outside the valleys around the Sella Group and are therefore not part of the undisputed Ladin valleys Val Gardena , Gadertal / Enneberg , Fodom and Fassa , in which variants of the Atesin Ladin are spoken. The Ladin spoken to the east of it belongs to the Cadorin Ladin, which also includes the Ampezzan, although this is often referred to as Dolomite Ladin for historical reasons, together with the Atesin variants of Ladin.

Whether in the past there was a language continuum to the west to Graubünden Roman and to the east to Furlan , i.e. a Rhaeto-Romanic linguistic unit, is controversial and represents the substance of the Questione Ladina . In terms of linguistic history, the reference to a Rhaetian substrate, which for Furlanic is not true. The Ladin dialects do in fact share some traits with the Bünderomanischen and the Friulian, which in turn distinguish all three from Italian and its dialects; the most characteristic of these is probably the palatalization of an initial Latin ca -, so Latin casa > gadertal ćiasa ([ ˈʨaza ]), Grödnisch cësa ([ ˈʧəza ]). Not represented in all Ladin dialects - - phonetic realization as well here which is [⁠ ʨ ⁠] to note that in Furlanischen and Bünderromanischen also occurs (as in Rumantsch Grischun chasa and Friulian cjase ).

From a morphological point of view, another characteristic is the existence of a mixed plural system of s - and i -plurals, like in Grödnisch l di 'the day', i dis 'the days', on the other hand l ciavël 'the hair', i ciavëi 'the hair' .

To distinguish it from Italian, further features can be named:

  • (partly) Rhotazism from -l-, for example through the characteristic Ampezzan feminine article ra (in the other dialects la ); gadertalisch: in single words occasionally in other dialects Sorëdl, grödnisch Surëdl sun '(<late Latin. soliculum <Latin sol )
  • (partial) conversion of the Latin sound sequences cl and gl (anlautend and zwischenvokalisch): clamare > gadertalisch tlamè, grödnisch tlamé call '; glacies > late lat. glacia > Gadertal / Grödnisch dlacia 'ice'
  • Not halbvokalisierung of l of Latin cl, pl: clamare > gadertalisch tlamè, grödnisch tlamé call ', while Italian chiamare (in northern Italian dialects even palatalised to Venetic ciamare, Lombard ciamà ), plus > gadertalisch plue, grödnisch plu, however, Italian più .
  • (partial) coincidence of singular and plural of the third person in the verb: Grödnisch (ël) vën 'he comes', (ëi) vën 'they come';
  • (partially) identical feminine article for singular and plural (so in Val Gardena and Ampezzan): Grödnisch la cësa, Pl. la cëses, Ampezzanisch ra ciaśa, Pl. ra ciaśes .

Spelling, pronunciation

The various written languages ​​of Ladin and Ladin Dolomitan use a spelling, the principles of which are largely identical. This usually allows the pronunciation to be derived from the script with some certainty.

Consonants (South Tyrolean variants)

Letter (s) pronunciation Remarks Examples (gr.gherdëina, ba. Badiot, fa. Fascian, fo. Fodom, am. Anpezan, LD Ladin dolomitan)
c [⁠ k ⁠]   gr. cont [ cont ] ("invoice")
c [⁠ ʧ ⁠] if before e, ë, i; in the combinations cia, cio, ciu i is mute: [ ʧa ], [ ʧo ], [ ʧu ] gr. cësa [ ˈʧəza ] ("house")
-c [⁠ ʧ ⁠] only at the end of the word gr. brac [ bʀaʧ ] ("arm")
ch [⁠ k ⁠] only precedes e, i gr. che [ ] ("that")
ć [⁠ ʨ ⁠] only in the Maréo and Badiot ba. ćiasa [ ˈʨaza ] ("house")
G [⁠ g ⁠]   gr. grisc [ gʀiʃ ] ("gray")
G [⁠ ʤ ⁠] if before e, ë, i; in the combinations gia, gio, giu i is mute: [ ʤa ], [ ʤo ], [ ʤu ] gr. giat [ ʤat ] ("cat")
gh [⁠ g ⁠] only precedes e, i gr. eghes [ ˈegəs ] ("waters")
gn [⁠ ɲ ⁠]   LD vegnì [ vəˈɲi ] ("come")
j [⁠ ʒ ⁠]   gr. [ ʒi ] ("to go")
-n [⁠ ŋ ⁠] at the end of the word gr. ladin [ laˈdiŋ ] ("Ladin")
-nn [⁠ n ⁠] at the end of the word gr. ann [ an ] ("year")
r [⁠ r ⁠] , [⁠ ʀ ⁠] (Gherdeina)   LD ruvé [ ruˈve ] (“to arrive”), Greek ruvé [ ʀuˈve ] that.
s [⁠ s ⁠] Exception: intervowel [⁠ z ⁠] gr. sas [ sas ] ("stone"), gr. cësa [ ˈʧəza ] ("house")
š [⁠ ʃ ⁠] only in Ampezzo  
ss [⁠ s ⁠]   gr. cossa [ ˈkosa ] ("thing")
sc [ ʃk ]   gr. scola [ ˈʃkola ] ("school")
sc [⁠ ʃ ⁠] if before e, i; in the combinations scia, scio, sciö, sciu i is mute: [ ʃa ], [ ʃo ], [ ʃœ ], [ ʃu ] gr. scela [ ˈʃela ] ("head")
-sc [⁠ ʃ ⁠] at the end of the word gr. pësc [ pəʃ ] ("fish")
sch [ ʃk ] only precedes e, i gr. schedra [ ˈʃkedʀa ] ("ruler")
-sch [ ʃk ] at the end of the word gr. bosch [ ˈbɔʃk ] ("forest")
ś- [⁠ z ⁠] only at the beginning of the word gr. śën [ zəŋ ] ("now")
ṣ- [⁠ z ⁠] only in Ampezzo as an alternative to ś- in the other idioms  
sb [ ʒb ]   ba. desboschè [ dəʒbɔˈʃkɛ ] ("cut down")
sd [ ʒd ]   ba. sdramè [ ʒdraˈmɛ ] ("heavily raining")
sp [ ʃp ]   LD respet [ rəˈʃpɛt ] ("respect")
st [ ʃt ]   ba. strada [ ˈʃtrada ] ("street")
-sć [ ʃʧ ]; [ ʃʨ ] (badiot) only at the end of the word gr. turisć [ tuˈʀiʃʧ ] ("tourists")
z [⁠ ʦ ⁠]   ba. zifra [ ˈʦifra ] ("digit")
ź- [⁠ ʣ ⁠] , only at the beginning of the word gr. źupel [ dzuˈpɛl ] ("rock")

Vowels (South Tyrolean variants)

Letter (s) pronunciation Remarks
a [⁠ a ⁠]  
e [⁠ e ⁠] , [⁠ ɛ ⁠] , [⁠ ə ⁠]  
ë [⁠ ə ⁠] only stressed; unstressed [⁠ ə ⁠] is with e reproduced
i [⁠ i ⁠]  
O [⁠ o ⁠] , [⁠ ɔ ⁠]  
ö [⁠ œ ⁠] , [⁠ ø ⁠] only occurs in Badiot / Maréo
u [⁠ u ⁠]  
ü [⁠ y ⁠] only occurs in Badiot / Maréo
y [⁠ i ⁠] only as word y ("and")

Accent and length characters

The word accent for words ending in a vowel is usually on the penultimate syllable (penultima) and for words ending in a consonant (except -s) on the last syllable. Exceptional cases are marked with an acute (é, ó) or a grave accent (à, è, ì, ò, ù) . A different pronunciation is indicated for e and o through the use of acute and grave accents: é [ ˈe ], è [ ˈɛ ], ó [ ˈo ], ò [ ˈɔ ]. Sometimes acute or grave accents are also used to graphically differentiate homonyms . The letter ë always indicates stress. Lengths are only used in Badiot / Maréo - e.g. T. - particularly by circumflex in (a, e, i, o, u), as they are important distinctive only there.

Language examples

As a language example, a part of the Our Father in the various idioms as well as in German, Italian and Latin is given here.

Ennebergisch / Gadertalisch (Maréo / Badiot)
Nosc Pere dal cí,
al sii santifiché to enom,
al vëgni to rëgn,
töa orenté sii fata,
desco sö al cí ensciö söla tera.
Val Gardena (Gherdëina)
Pere nost, che t'ies tl ciel,
sibe santificà ti inuem,
vënie ti rëni,
sibe fata ti ulentà,
coche en ciel enscì en tiera.
Fassan (Fascian)
Père nosc che te es sun ciel, sie
fat sent to inom,
fa che vegne to regn,
to voler sie semper respetà,
tant sun ciel che su la tera.
Buchensteinisch (Fodom)
Père nòst che t'es sun paradíš,
benedât lé l tuo inóm,
resta con nos,
che sará fat ci che te vòs
sun ciél e su la tièra.
Ampezzan (Anpezan)
Pare nosc, che te stas su inzielo,
sée fato santo el to gnon,
viene el to regno,
sée fato chel che te vos tu,
tanto inzielo che su ra tera.
Nortades (Låger)
Pare noss qe ses ntej cjej,
l sia santificà'l to nom,
l vegna'l to rejgn,
sia faata la to volontà,
lijstös ntèra e ntel cjel.
Ladin Dolomitan
Pere nost, che t'ies en ciel,
al sie santifiché ti inom,
al vegne ti regn,
sia fata tia volonté,
coche en ciel enscì en tera.
Padre nostro che sei nei cieli,
sia santificato il tuo nome,
venga il tuo regno,
sia fatta la tua volontà
come in cielo, so in terra.
Our Father who are in heaven,
hallowed be your name.
Your kingdom come.
Your will be done
on earth as it is in heaven.
Vallader (Graubünden Romanesque dialect)
Bap nos, tü chi est in tschêl,
fat sonch vegna teis nom,
teis reginam vegna nanpro,
tia vöglia dvainta sco in tschêl eir sün terra.
Sursilvan (Graubünden Romanesque dialect)
Bab nos, qual che ti eis en tschiel,
sogns vegni fatgs il tiu num,
tiu reginavel vegni tier nus,
tia veglia daventi sin tiara sco en tschiel.
Pater noster, qui es in caelis,
sanctificetur nomen tuum.
Adveniat regnum tuum.
Fiat voluntas tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra.

Ladin media

Ladin is used in various media. Rai Ladinia is a public radio broadcaster that produces radio and television programs in Ladin every day. With Radio Gherdëina Dolomites there is also a private radio station. In the print area, there is a weekly newspaper La Usc di Ladins , and a small number of Ladin articles are also published in the daily newspaper Dolomiten .


  • Rut Bernardi : Curs de gherdëina - Trëdesc lezions per mparé la rujeneda de Gherdëina / Thirteen lessons for learning the Val Gardena language. Istitut Ladin "Micurà de Rü", St. Martin in Thurn 1999, ISBN 88-8171-012-9 .
  • Vittorio Dell'Aquila, Gabriele Iannàccaro: Survey Ladins: Usi linguistici nelle Valli Ladine. Autonomous Region Trentino-South Tyrol, Trento 2006, ISBN 88-86053-69-X ( [with registration]).
  • Marco Forni : Dictionary German – Val Gardena-Ladin. Vocabulary tudësch – ladin de Gherdëina. Istitut Ladin "Micurà de Rü", St. Martin in Thurn 2002, ISBN 88-8171-033-1 .
  • Giovanni Mischí: Dictionary German-Gadertalisch. Vocabolar Todësch – Ladin (Val Badia). Istitut Ladin "Micurà de Rü", St. Martin in Thurn 2000, ISBN 88-8171-022-6 .
  • Giovanni Mischí: The vocabulary in today's Ladin and the dilemma with its expansion: Free run or targeted planning? In: Ladinia . XXVI-XXVII (2002/2003), pp. 357-365.
  • Günter Holtus , Michael Metzeltin , Christian Schmitt (Hrsg.): Lexicon of Romance Linguistics . 12 volumes. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1988-2005; Volume III: The individual Romance languages ​​and language areas from the Renaissance to the present. Romanian, Dalmatian  / Istra Romansh , Friulian, Ladin, Grisons Romansh. 1989, pp. 646-763.
  • Theodor Gartner : Ladin words from the Dolomite valleys (= supplements to the magazine for Romance philology . Issue 73). Niemeyer, Halle 1913 ( digitized version ).
  • Maria Giacin Chiades (Ed.): Lingua e cultura ladina. Canova, Treviso 2004, ISBN 88-8409-123-3 ( [PDF; 38 kB; table of contents]).
  • Constanze Kindel: Ladin for beginners. In: The time . 4/2006, January 17, 2006 ( ).
  • Heinrich Schmid : Guidelines for the development of a common written language for the Dolomite Ladins. Istitut Ladin "Micurà de Rü", St. Martin in Thurn / Istitut Cultural Ladin Majon di Fascegn, San Giovanni 1994 ( ( Memento from December 3, 2003 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 711 kB]).
  • Servisc de Planificazion y Elaborazion dl Lingaz Ladin (SPELL): Gramatica dl Ladin Standard. Istitut Ladin "Micurà de Rü", St. Martin in Thurn u. a. 2001, ISBN 88-8171-029-3 ( ( Memento of November 27, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 457 kB]).

Web links

Commons : Ladin language  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b The presentation follows Dieter Kattenbusch : Romansh or Ladin? Dolomite Ladin = Sella Ladin = Central Ladin = Central Council Romansh? A few remarks on a terminological dispute. In: Ladinia . 12, ISSN  1124-1004 , pp. 5-16 (1988) .
  2. Luigi Heilmann, Guntram A. Plangg : Ladinisch: External language history. In: Lexicon of Romance Linguistics . III. Tape. Tübingen, Niemeyer 1989, ISBN 3-484-50250-9 , pp. 720-733.
  3. ^ A b Guntram A. Plangg : Ladin: Internal Language History I. Grammar. In: Lexicon of Romance Linguistics. Volume III. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1989, ISBN 3-484-50250-9 , pp. 646-667.
  4. ^ Hans Goebl : External language history of the Romance languages ​​in the central and eastern Alps. In: Gerhard Ernst, Martin-Dietrich Gleßgen, Christian Schmitt, Wolfgang Schweickard (eds.): Romance language history. An international handbook on the history of the Romance languages. 1st subband. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York 2003, ISBN 978-3-11-019412-8 , pp. 747-773.
  5. The representation follows Roland Bauer: Ladin (Dolomite Ladin, Central Ladin, Central Council Romansh). In: Nina Janich , Albrecht Greule (Ed.): Language cultures in Europe. Narr, Tübingen 2002, ISBN 3-8233-5873-1 , pp. 144-149.
  6. Ladini: i nonesi superano i fassani. (No longer available online.) Trentino , June 30, 2012, archived from the original on February 3, 2014 ; Retrieved October 4, 2012 (Italian).
  7. 2001 census . In: National Institute for Statistics of the Autonomous Province of Bozen-Südtirol (Ed.): Information / informazioni . No. August 17 , 2002 ( ( Memento from September 28, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 914 kB ; accessed on October 4, 2012]).
  8. 2011 census . In: Regional Institute for Statistics of the Autonomous Province of Bozen-Südtirol (Ed.): Astatinfo . No. 38 , June 2012 ( ( Memento from July 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 368 kB ; accessed on October 4, 2012]).
  9. Appartenenza alla popolazione di lingua ladina, mochena e cimbra, per comune ed area di residenza (censimento 2001). (PDF; 26 kB) Website “Minoranze Linguistiche” of the Autonomous Province of Trento, accessed on October 4, 2012 (Italian, source: Annuario Statistico 2006. Provincia autonoma di Trento [2007]).
  10. 15 ° Censimento della popolazione e delle abitazioni. Rilevazione sulla consistenza e la dislocazione territoriale degli appartenenti alle popolazioni di lingua ladina, mòchena e cimbra (dati provvisori). (PDF; 197 kB) Servizio Statistica della Provincia Autonoma di Trento, June 2012, accessed on October 4, 2012 (Italian).
  11. Ampezan, l ladin che an ne vuel nia plu rejonè . In: La Usc di Ladins . No. 44 , September 11, 2011, ZDB -ID 1352020-9 .
  12. Vittorio Dell'Aquila and Gabriele Iannàccaro: Survey Laden. Usi linguistici nelle Valli Ladine . Region Trentino-South Tyrol / Istitut Cultural Ladin "Majon di Fascegn", Trient / Vigo di Fassa 2006.
  13. The beginnings of Ladin literature. In: Istitut Ladin “Micurà de Rü” , accessed on January 4, 2016.
  14. Roger Schöntag: Formation of language areas depending on geofactors and socio-political changes . A new perspective of geolinguistics: The sketching of a geofactorial linguistics based on the case studies of Cornish, Sater Frisian and Ladin. In: Neuhausener Academy of Sciences (ed.): Contributions to Bavarian history, language and culture . tape 2 . Ibykos, 2019, ISBN 978-3-00-063895-4 , ISSN  2569-6912 , pp. 5–74 , here pp. 53–59 ( preview in Google Book Search [accessed April 16, 2020]).
  15. ^ Daniel Perathoner: Multilingualism in South Tyrol from the perspective of Ladin-speaking children. Diploma thesis 08/2010, pp. 6–10, doi: 10.25365 / thesis.10834 ( [PDF; 1656 kB; online library of the University of Vienna, accessed on March 15, 2016]).
  16. Literal translation; see. the various official versions of the Our Father in German .