The lower Eisack valley looking south
|location||South Tyrol , Italy|
The Eisack Valley ( Italian Valle Isarco , Ladin Val dl Isarch ) is an alpine valley through which the Eisack River flows and one of the main valleys of South Tyrol in Italy . The most important city in the Eisack Valley is Brixen .
The term Eisacktal can be used in two different ways:
- Traditionally, only the area from the Franzensfeste or alternatively from the Sachsenklemme down the valley is referred to as the Eisack valley. The Upper Eisack Valley , i.e. the northernmost section of the valley, is counted as part of the Wipptal valley .
- In a broader sense, the Eisack Valley encompasses the entire course of the Eisack from its source at the Brenner Pass to reaching the Adige Valley near Bozen .
In the early and high Middle Ages, the name norital was also used .
The uppermost section of the valley through which the Eisack flows from its origin at the Brenner to the Franzensfeste is usually included in the Wipptal . The Eisack valley thus begins in the broad Brixner valley basin, where the Wipptal and the Pustertal coming from the northeast joins. To the south of Albeins the valley narrows and for the last time there is room for a larger settlement in the valley floor near Klausen . The course of the valley, which stretches towards the southwest, takes on a gorge-like character from Kollmann between the low mountain ranges of the Renon and the Schlern area . The Eisack Valley finally flows into the Adige Valley in the Bozen valley basin .
The Eisack Valley is bordered on the west by the mountains of the Sarntal Alps . From there only relatively small side valleys run to, of which the Schalderer Tal and the Tinnetal are the largest. The Eisack Valley reaches much longer side valleys from the east-facing Dolomites , of which the Lüsner Valley , Afer Valley , Villnöss Valley , Grödner Valley , Tiers Valley and Eggental are the most important.
Important European arteries of the Brenner transit route run through the Eisack Valley . These include the A22 Brenner motorway , the SS 12 ("Brennerstaatsstraße") and the Brenner railway . The area is made accessible to cyclists by the Eisack Valley Cycle Route .
Historically significant is the Kuntersweg from the 14th century, which opened up the Eisack Gorge, which was barely passable until then, for north-south traffic.
Before the Roman conquest in 15 BC In the course of the Augustan Alpine campaigns , the Isarken lived in the southern Eisack Valley and the Breonen further north . They were Rhaetian Alpine peoples whose names are known to us from the inscription on the Tropaeum Alpium . The Romansh language Ladin was created through its Romanization . In the Eisack valley south of Brixen and also in the side valleys ( Lüsner Tal , Villnößtal , Grödner Tal and parts of Eggental ), Ladin was still spoken in the late Middle Ages . This can be seen today in the many ladinischstämmigen family , yard , corridor and place names . At the latest in the early modern period , the use of the German language prevailed in the entire Eisack Valley and its side valleys, only in Val Gardena the Ladin language has been preserved to this day as the official and everyday language. The Italian minority in the Eisack Valley emerged in the course of the 20th century.
- Josef Tarneller : The farm names in the lower Eisack valley I, II, III . In: Archive for Austrian History 106, 1918, pp. 1–118; 109, 1922, pp. 1-152; 110, 1926, pp. 209-370.
- Josef Rampold : Eisacktal: Landscape between firn and vines (= South Tyrolean regional studies . Volume 5). 5th edition. Athesia, Bozen 1996, ISBN 88-7014-166-7 .
- Helmut Stampfer (Ed.): Farms in South Tyrol. Volume 6: Lower Eisack Valley. Part 1: Laion, Villanders, Barbian . Athesia, Bozen 2006, ISBN 978-88-8266-370-4 .
- Helmut Stampfer (Ed.): Farms in South Tyrol. Volume 6: Lower Eisack Valley. Part 2: Kastelruth, Fiè . Athesia, Bozen 2007, ISBN 978-88-8266-418-3 .
- Helmut Stampfer (Ed.): Farms in South Tyrol. Volume 8: Middle Eisack Valley. Part 1: Gufidaun, Villnöss, Albeins, Afers, Milland, St. Andrä, Lüsen . Athesia, Bozen 2012, ISBN 978-88-8266-883-9 .
- Helmut Stampfer (Ed.): Farms in South Tyrol. Volume 8: Middle Eisack Valley. Part 2: Latzfons, Feldthurns, Pfeffersberg, Vahrn, Natz, Spinges, Aicha . Athesia, Bozen 2013, ISBN 978-88-8266-884-6 .
- Oswald Trapp (Ed.): Tiroler Burgenbuch. IV. Volume: Eisacktal . Athesia publishing house, Bolzano 1977.