|( Italian Bolzano , Ladin Bulsan / Balsan )|
|coat of arms||map|
|Region :||Trentino-South Tyrol|
|Province :||Bolzano - South Tyrol|
|District community :||Bolzano|
(VZ 2011 / 31.12.2019)
|102.869 / 107.407|
Language groups :
(according to 2011 census )
|Altitude :||232–(center: )|
|Permanent settlement area:||28.0 km²|
|District :||Center-Bozner Boden-Rentsch , Oberau-Haslach , Europa-Neustift , Don Bosco , Gries-Quirein|
|Neighboring municipalities:||Deutschnofen , Eppan , Jenesien , Karneid , Leifers , Pfatten , Ritten , Terlan|
|Partnership with :||Ödenburg ( Sopron ), Erlangen|
|Postal code :||39100|
|Area code :||0471|
|Mayor (2020):||Renzo Caramaschi|
Bozen ( Italian Bolzano , Ladin Bulsan or Balsan ) is the state capital of South Tyrol , an autonomous province in Italy , and as such the seat of the state government and the state parliament . Since 1948 the city has been a supraregional trade fair location , since 1964 the seat of the bishopric of the newly created diocese of Bozen-Brixen , and since 1997 with the Free University of Bozen also a university town .
Bolzano is one of the major urban centers in the Alpine region and, due to its bicultural nature, is an important meeting place between the German and Italian-speaking cultural and economic areas. With over 107,000 inhabitants, Bolzano is the largest city in South Tyrol and, after Innsbruck and Trento, the third largest in the European region of Tyrol – South Tyrol – Trentino . Around 250,000 people live in its metropolitan area.
The official names of the city are the German Bozen [ ˈboˑtsn̩ ] and the Italian Bolzano [ bolˈtsano ]. The Ladin variants Bulsan [ bʊlzaŋ ] ( Grödnerisch ) or Balsan ( Gadertalisch ) are likewise to be found in official documents, but enjoy no official status. In the German South Tyrolean dialects , the place name Bozen [ poutsn̩ ] or [ pɔatsn̩ ] is pronounced. The Latin name of the city is Bauzanum .
The urban area of Bolzano is located in the middle of the Alps in the center of the south of South Tyrol and covers an area of 52.3 km², of which only 28 km² are used as permanent settlement area. Dense urban development has the largest share of this settlement area. Bolzano is located in the Adige Valley in a valley basin that is framed on three sides by high mountain groups: in the north by the Sarntal Alps ( Ritten and Tschögglberg ), in the southeast by the Fleimstal Alps ( Regglberg ) and in the west by the Nonsberg group ( Mendelkamm ). In the Bolzano valley basin, the Etschtal (coming from the northwest and striking south from Bolzano) meets the Eisack valley , which flows in from the northeast, and the Sarntal, which flows in from the north . Accordingly, the valley basin is traversed by the Etsch , Eisack and Talfer rivers. At this point, the alpine transversals of the upper Etschtal and Eisack valley furrows, which lead via historical trade routes to the Reschen and the Brenner Pass , place the city at the center of a national network of paths. Until 1911, the Bolzano urban area was limited to a comparatively small area east of the Talfer, which is why the city is still referred to as Talferstadt by the local population .
The old town lies at an altitude of Titschen above Kohlern am Regglberg, is The lowest point at is on the banks of the on the southern border of the city. Bozen's neighboring communities are Laives and Pfatten in the south in the Unterland , Eppan in the west towards Überetsch and Terlan in the northwest in the Etschtal; on the north side, Bozen borders on Tschögglberg and Guntschnaberg on Jenesien and on Renon on the eponymous municipality of Renon ; in the east, the Eisack in the lower Eisack valley, then the Eggentaler Bach in the lower Eggental valley, form the border to Karneid ; in the southeast pushes Bolzano on the Regglberg to the municipality German furnace . The nearest large cities are Trento 51 km south and Innsbruck 85 km north. The distance to the capital Rome is 520 km.The highest elevation in the Bozen city area, the
The historic city area lies on an alluvial fan of the Talfer, while the majority of the Adige Valley in the area of the Bozen valley basin remained an uninhabitable marshland for a long time, exposed to frequent flooding . The subsoil of the valley floor consists of fluvial deposits and is rich in groundwater , the water level of which averages two to five meters below the surface.
Lithostratographically , the Bozen area is embedded in the Etschtal volcanic group , which is why the majority of the mountain ranges surrounding the city ( Regglberg , Ritten , Tschögglberg ) are made up of ignimbrites . In the basin, too, gravel and sands, which have a coarse stratification or a concave oblique stratification , are the predominant lithofacies . The maximum size of the stones and boulders varies between 35 and 50 cm. In the north-eastern urban area near St. Magdalena and in the south near Haselburg, there are also moraines and gravel surfaces that formed during the Würm glacial period .
Bolzano is divided into five city quarters, which in turn comprise several historical quarters and formerly independent municipalities. Until 1910, the historic town of Bolzano was limited to a limited area in the gusset between Talfer and Eisack in the northeast of the Bolzano basin, with around 45% of the total population living in the spatially cramped old town area. This area has emerged in the Zentrum-Bozner Boden-Rentsch district, which occupies the east of the municipality within the current city limits. The majority of this quarter consists of areas of the formerly independent rural community of Twelve Malgree , which was incorporated in 1911. The former rural community of Gries west of the Talfer, which was incorporated into Bolzano in 1925 and which gave its name to today's district of Gries-Quirein in the north of the urban area, had a similar experience . Both Twelve Malgrei and Gries have remained separate cadastral communities up to the present .
Europa-Neustift , the smallest of the Bolzano districts, is located in the center of what is now Bozen's urban area. To the west of it extends the Don Bosco district , which, like Europa-Neustift, arose in the area of the old municipality of Gries and also extends to the orographically right bank of the Adige with the northern end of the Mitterberg . On the orographic left side of the Eisack vom Virgl towards the south, the Oberau-Haslach district extends , which formerly belonged to the municipality of Zwölfmalgrei and includes the districts of Haslach, Oberau and St. Jakob-Unterau with the so-called "Grutzen".
Almost three quarters of the Bolzano urban area consists of undeveloped land, but more than a third of which is used for agriculture. 1,320.9 hectares are currently used as building area, which is divided into several types of use or development . In the city center the development is very dense. The older settlement areas in the old town center and Zwölfmalgrei are characterized by narrow streets and tall old buildings, while in the old Gries a rural structure has been preserved, especially towards the west. In the Quireiner part of the district, however, monument buildings and symbols of power from Italian fascism, as well as apartment blocks and monumental arcades, which represent the rationalist current within Italian architecture of the 1920s and 1930s, dominate the picture. A similar style can also be found in the Europa-Neustift quarter. In the districts of Oberau-Haslach and Don Bosco, on the other hand, there is an increasing number of high-rise housing estates of post-war modernism . In the south is the extensive industrial area of Bolzano , which was created in 1935 to encourage the influx of Italian workers from the south. Upstream of the Eisack between the Brenner autobahn and the station area, in the Bozner Boden district, there is another industrial area, which also houses a customs yard . Water bodies make up less than 3%, as there are no lakes in the urban area and the flowing waters are all pushed into narrow river beds .
|Type of use||Area
|Industrial and commercial space||341.67||6.53%|
|Public institutions (including cemetery)||172.94||3.30%|
|Areas for railway systems||42.60||0.81%|
|Airport, lifts, cable cars and accessory areas||29.43||0.56%|
|Landfills, spoil heaps and disposal facilities||16.72||0.32%|
|Green and open spaces (including forest)||2,335.77||44.63%|
|Wet and water surfaces||139.75||2.67%|
|Other or unclassifiable areas||5.70||0.10%|
The average daily maximum temperature in the summer months is between 28 and 31 ° C, the average nighttime minimum temperature in the winter months is −1 to −4 ° C. The average air temperature in Bolzano is 13 ° C, the annual precipitation 667.2 mm. On average, the highest amount of precipitation results in July with 100.5 mm, while February is the driest month with 19.9 mm. July has the longest amount of sunshine with around seven and a half hours a day. December still has an average of three hours a day.
The urban climate of Bolzano is influenced by both the location in the basin and the dense development. During the warmer months of the year, the heat load and humidity increase because the air exchange in the city center is severely restricted. The main problem is air pollution in urban areas, which is currently mainly due to inner-city motorway traffic (and in the past also to industry). The exposure to the classic pollutants sulfur dioxide , carbon monoxide , benzene and heavy metals has been within the framework of all limit values since the turn of the millennium at the latest . In terms of fine dust , the pollution was halved between 2000 and 2009, but the values still exceed the WHO annual mean guidelines of 20 µg / m³ for PM 10 and 10 µg / m³ for PM 2.5 Particles. With regard to nitrogen oxides ( NO , NO 2 ), the situation has remained unchanged for several years. In the city of Bolzano, the annual mean limit value of 40 μg / m³ is still exceeded. Finally, the high ozone values at higher altitudes are particularly problematic , as there are sometimes no solutions, especially since local measures alone would hardly be effective.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Bolzano
The later city of Bolzano was built around 1170–1180 as a planned market settlement with a central lane lined with arbors and a market square ( Kornplatz ). Around 1195 there is already evidence of a pastor named Rudolf , who used the late antique St. Mary's Church, which was expanded in 1180 (today's cathedral ), which at that time was outside the city walls. The medieval market was given city-like privileges in the late 13th century, but it was not until 1437 that Bolzano was officially chartered with 104 articles. The city boundary has been expanded several times over the centuries, first to include the episcopal Neustadt ( Obstplatz ), then to the Wanger'sche Vorstadt (see Bindergasse ), and finally, after various other expansions, in 1911 by the extensive rural community of Zwölfmalgiegen and in 1925/26 the former market town of Gries .
Several annual markets ( trade fairs ) have been held in Bolzano since it was founded , and in 1635 the Tyrolean princess Claudia de 'Medici granted the Bolzano mercantile magistrate ( commercial court ).
The industrialization of South Tyrol began in Bolzano, where the Herrmann-Kofler cotton spinning mill was founded in 1848 (actually in St. Anton, near St. Peter ). Even before the incorporation of 1911, other important structures for Bozen, such as the Bozen- Gries train station (1859), the Kardaun electrical works (1901) and the Kohlerer Bahn (1908), were built in Zwölfmalgrei .
Tourism, which has flourished since the 19th century, had its focus in the spa town of Gries, but several hotels were also built near the train station (such as the Parkhotel Laurin , which still exists today , in 1910).
The era of Italian fascism changed the city permanently: In the context of the Italianization program planned by the regime , the city's population grew considerably thanks to a massive influx of Italian-speaking people. New city quarters emerged, especially in the Gries-Quirein area , and industrialization was also promoted by the establishment of a large-scale industrial district of Bozen from 1935/36 in the south of the city. The time of the German occupation in 1943/45 was marked by war events and extensive destruction in the old town area in the course of the aerial warfare - Bozen's own Nazi transit camp with a total of 10,000 prisoners went into operation in 1944/45.
The post-war period only gradually led, largely triggered by the Second Statute of Autonomy of 1972, to the city's new prosperity, which gradually became the administrative, political and economic pacemaker of the region.
Bolzano was the Alpine Convention to the Alpine town of 2009 explained.
The oldest surviving Bozen list of houses from 1288 counts 48 houses, but does not refer to the inner old town, but to Weintrauben- and Bindergasse in the east and the street around it in the north, today's Vintlerstraße and Wangergasse. In addition to this, however, the interest register of the gentlemen von Wangen from 1290 can be used, which represents a market law register of the whole Laubengasse, part of the fruit square and the Neustadt (today's Silbergasse and Dr.-Streiter-Gasse ) and in which another 106 houses are listed. Against this background, a total urban population of around 1500 to 2000 people is assumed for the period around 1300.
According to a list of houses in the city center from 1497, it was divided into eight quarters and comprised around 160 houses. The list contains the tax payments of the house owners and was probably created in connection with the nationwide Turkish tax . The urban population is believed to have been around 3,000 to 4,000 in the late 15th century.
In 1900 Bozen including the garrison had 13,904 mostly German residents (1,493 Italians ). The incorporation of Twelve Malgrei and Gries as well as the construction of new city quarters in the inter-war period promoted the strong population growth in the first half of the 20th century, especially in the context of the Italianization that was strongly promoted by Italian fascism . In 1966 the population of Bolzano exceeded the 100,000 mark for the first time, after having been 59,951 in 1940. The highest population in the city's history was recorded in 1975 at 107,112. After a subsequent decline well below the 100,000 mark, the population increased again significantly at the beginning of the new millennium.
As of December 31, 2011, 104,841 people were resident in Bolzano, of which 54,742 women (52.2%) and 50,099 men (47.8%). Despite a positive migration balance of +883 people (2011), the trend can be observed that numerous Bolzano residents are moving from the city to the immediate vicinity, but still keeping their main interests (work, central services) in the city area. The birth balance has been mostly negative in recent years. The average age of the citizens is 44.1 years and 23% of the population are older than 65 years.
At the end of 2011, 14,511 foreign nationals lived in Bolzano. This corresponds to a share of 13.8% of the total population. This makes it the municipality of residence of a third of all foreigners living in South Tyrol. The largest groups of foreigners legally registered in Bolzano on December 31, 2011 came from Albania (2575), Morocco (1695), Pakistan (969), Romania (889), Moldova (650), Germany (641), Ukraine (639) and Peru (617). In 2004 the first advisory council for foreigners was founded to support the municipal council in matters relating to foreigners.
According to the Austrian census in 1910 lived in the then independent municipalities Bolzano, Gries and Zwölfmalgreien aggregated 29,241 inhabitants, of which only 1,605 Italian , while 26,558 German as their everyday language declared. The influx of Italian immigrants, which was promoted under fascism as part of the Italianization efforts , led to a change in the linguistic majority. The city had an Italian-speaking majority as early as the 1940s.
According to the 2011 census , 73.80% of the inhabitants belonged to the Italian , 25.52% to the German and 0.68% to the Ladin language group . Due to its bicultural nature, Bozen is an important meeting place between the German and Italian-speaking cultural and economic areas. More and more residents speak more than just their own mother tongue.
In the 2020 municipal council elections, the South Tyrolean People's Party , the Lega Nord and the Partito Democratico with seven councilors each became the strongest parliamentary groups. Nine different parties and groups were elected to the 45-member municipal council.
In 1922, the German-speaking Julius Perathoner was forcibly removed as mayor by the fascists during the march on Bolzano and replaced by a fascist mayor. After the Second World War, the representatives of the now Italian-speaking majority of the population appointed the mayor; Vice Mayor is always a representative of the German language group.
coat of arms
The Bolzano city coat of arms in use today is based on a privilege granted by Duke Leopold III. von Habsburg from the year 1381. It programmatically uses the tinging of the Austrian shield , but with an exchange of colors (white-red-white). The six-pointed star, a reference to the Marian Stella maris and thus to the main patroness of the municipal parish church , was transformed into a five-pointed star as a symbol of the Savoyard royal family during the fascist administration, but was restored to its original form after the end of Nazi fascism .
The bilingual Hungarian city of Sopron / Sopron since 1990 Bolzano sister city . On May 4, 2010, the city council named a previously unnamed short street in the east of the city, Via Sopron . According to the city council resolution of August 17, 2010, the street is called Ödenburger Straße in German.
The Middle Franconian city of Erlangen has been Bozen's new twin city since 2018.
In addition to Mary , the main patroness of the parish church (cathedral), the traditional city patrons of St. George and St. Margaretha , to whom Johannes Nepomuk and the blessed Heinrich von Bozen were added in the first half of the 17th century .
Urban development, renovation and monument protection
Castles, palaces and mansions
- Runkelstein Castle
- Maretsch Castle
- Sigmundskron Castle
- Ruin Rafenstein
- Ried Castle
- Weineck ruins
- Residence Compil
- Klebenstein residence
- Residence Kollegg
- Thurn residence
- Gerstburg residence
- Hörtenberg residence
- Rundenstein residence
- Schrofenstein residence
- Stillendorf residence
- Waldgries residence
More buildings in the city center
- Walther monument by Heinrich Natter
- Laurin fountain by Andrä Kompatscher
- Princely office building
- Weighing house
- Talfer Bridge
- Marian column
- Anton Schiestl memorial plaque (reconstructed by Sandra Heidenwolf)
- Fountain of Neptune
- Old Town Hall
- Bolzano City Hall : built in 1907 by Munich architect Carl Hocheder
- Goetheschule (Bozen) : former Kaiser-Franz-Joseph girls' school
- Parkhotel Laurin by the Ludwig brothers, 1910
- Museion : Museum of modern and contemporary art
- Frog fountain by Ignaz Gabloner
- Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin (Bozen) : the city's Gothic cathedral
- Franciscan Church : monastery with cloister
- Dominican Church
- Old parish church Gries : with the Michael-Pacher- Altar
- Muri-Gries Abbey
- Capuchin Church and Monastery
- Holy Grave Church on the Virgl
- St. George in Wangg
- St. Georg in Weggenstein
- St. Gertraud in Haslach
- St. Johann in the village
- St. Justina in Prazöll
- St. Lorenz in Rentsch
- St. Magdalena in Prazöll
- St. Martin in Kampill
- former St. Nicholas Church : destroyed in 1943
- former St. Oswald Church : destroyed in 1943
- St. Peter on Karnol
- St. Vigil under Weineck am Virgl
- St. Quirin
- St. Georgen (Gries)
- St. Jakob am Sand
- St. Mauritius in Moritzing
- Evangelical Christ Church (Bozen) : built in 1908
- Carmelite Church Bolzano
- Christ the King's Church: built in 1938/40
Streets, squares and memorials
Streets and alleys
- Bozner Lauben (also called Bozner Laubengasse)
- Liberty Street
- Dominican Square
- Court place
- Grieser Platz
- Sample place
- Fruit market (also called fruit square)
- Parish square
- Town Hall Square
- Inch rod
Architectural evidence from the fascist era
- Victory Monument
- former Casa Littoria
- Palace of Justice
- Christ the King Church
- Eurac Research : former building of the fascist youth organization GIL
Architectural evidence from the National Socialist period
- Transit camp Bolzano (camp wall and memorial)
Cable cars, promenades and cycle art trails
- Kohlerer Bahn
- Jenesien cable car
- Renon cable car
- Bolzano water wall (Talfer promenade)
- St. Oswald Promenade
- Artistic cycle path " Augenreise " via Kardaun to Blumau
Cinema and theater
- Bolzano City Theater
- Bolzano Concert Hall
- Bolzano Film Club : a 3-room cinema
- House of Culture Walther von der Vogelweide
- Theater in the courtyard: Children's and youth theater
- Carambolage : cabaret
- Cineplexx : a 7-room cinema
- UCI Cinema: 6-screen cinema in the Twenty shopping center
There are also several cinemas in Bolzano that show films in Italian, German and, in some cases, in the original language with subtitles. With the Concordia-Kino 2005 and the Eden-Kino 2010, however, long-established cinemas closed. A well-known alternative cinema in Bolzano is the well-known arthouse cinema Filmclub Bozen with three halls, founded in 1978 , which organizes the Bolzano Film Festival every April . On May 12, 2009 the new multiplex cinema " Cineplexx " of the operating company Constantin Film was opened in Bolzano . It has seven cinema halls and is therefore the largest cinema in South Tyrol.
- South Tyrol Museum of Archeology : in the former building of the Austro-Hungarian National Bank (built 1912/13)
- Runkelstein Castle
- city Museum
- South Tyrol Museum of Nature
- Museion - Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art
- Mercantile Museum
- School museum
- Messner Mountain Museum Firmian
- Bolzano Cathedral Treasury
Bolzano has four brass bands, three of which are German as their mother tongue (Stadtkapelle Bozen, Burgerkapelle Gries , Musikkapelle Zwölfmalgrei) and an Italian-speaking band (Corpo Musicale M. Mascagni).
In 2008 the city band of Bozen represented the state of South Tyrol at the Austrian brass music competition in Feldkirchen in Carinthia and placed first, thus becoming the Austrian national winner.
For professional music education there is the conservatory "Claudio Monteverdi" in Bolzano , which emerged from the music school of the Bolzano Music Association.
From July 21 to 25, 2010, Bolzano was the venue for the 47th Europeade .
International piano competition
The Ferruccio Busoni International Piano Competition has been held in Bolzano since 1949. The competition is programmatically named after the Italian-born pianist Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924), who worked mainly in Leipzig and Berlin and personally linked the Italian and German musical culture very closely.
Economy and Infrastructure
As of October 22, 2001, there were 61,376 employees in 11,672 workplaces in Bolzano. With 315 workplaces and 13,835 employees, public corporations have a not insignificant share. 2,308 employees work for non-profit organizations . Bolzano is the largest employment location in South Tyrol , ahead of Merano (35,000), Brixen (20,000) and Bruneck (10,700). The main focus of the manufacturing industry is in the industrial district of Bolzano .
In addition, Bozen is one of the largest wine-growing regions in South Tyrol . Bolzano's wines are particularly produced in St. Magdalena , St. Justina and Leitach , on Guntschnaberg and in Gries-Moritzing. The largest company is the Bolzano winery .
The Bolzano International Trade Fair is located in Bolzano South , with its exhibition grounds, congress center and exhibition hotel.
With the NOI Techpark Südtirol / Alto Adige , there has been its own technology park since 2017 , which, located in the south of the city, is dedicated to the establishment of a company, the innovation process as well as cooperation and technology transfer in four areas (Green, Alpine, Food and Automation). Its forerunner or initiator was the former Techno Innovation Park South Tyrol (TIS) ( IDM Innovation since 2016 ).
The largest companies based in Bolzano include the retail chain ASPIAG (Austria SPAR International AG), the Acciaierie Valbruna SPA stainless steel works , the transport and logistics company Fercam AG and Alperia, which is active in the energy sector . The internationally active companies Salewa (Oberalp SpA, products for mountain sports), Thun AG (collector's items), as well as branches of the companies FRI-EL Green Power (renewable energies) and Iveco (commercial vehicle manufacturer) are also based in Bolzano . The regionally significant companies also include Bergmilch Südtirol (dairy product manufacturer), the manufacturer of multifunction glass Glas Müller Vetri Spa , the medical technology company Health Robotics GmbH , the snowmaking system manufacturer TechnoAlpin and the electronics manufacturer Microgate GmbH .
Radio and television companies
Bolzano has Radiotelevisione Italiana (public broadcaster of Italy) is a radio station where with Rai South Tyrol , Rai Ladinia and Rai Alto Adige operate editorially independent three departments. These produce programs in German, Ladin and Italian.
The Rundfunk-Anstalt Südtirol (RAS), a public broadcaster based in Bolzano, is responsible for the transmission of radio and television programs from Germany, Austria and Switzerland .
The following daily and weekly newspapers appear in Bolzano:
- Dolomiten - the oldest German-language daily newspaper still published and most widely read in South Tyrol, published by the publishing house Athesia , Bozen
- Neue Südtiroler Tageszeitung - the second German-language daily newspaper in South Tyrol
- Alto Adige - headquarters of the main editorial office of the South Tyrol edition of the Italian daily newspaper
- Zett - Sunday newspaper of the Athesia publishing house
- ff - South Tyrolean weekly magazine
- Der Schlern - monthly magazine for South Tyrolean regional studies
Bolzano is crossed by the Brenner motorway and the Brenner State Road, both of which are important roads between Northern Italy and Central Europe . To the northwest, the MeBo expressway connects Bozen with Merano, the second largest city in South Tyrol.
The Bolzano station is located on the Brenner railway , the Innsbruck to Verona combines, and thus on the railway axis Berlin-Palermo . The Bolzano – Meran railway also begins in Bolzano and opens up the Burggrafenamt to the north-west of the city .
Local public transport
The old town is closed to private traffic. The inner-city public transport is now handled with mostly methane gas-powered buses from SASA AG . Regional bus routes go to all districts and valleys of South Tyrol. Local public transport in the city of Bolzano and the surrounding area used to be carried out with environmentally friendly trams and local trains (e.g. Überetscher Bahn ), with the Bolzano tram opened in 1909 and discontinued in 1948. Only the former valley section of the Renon Railway survived until its cogwheel operation was discontinued in 1966. Three cable cars connect two communities and a fraction of Bolzano with the city ( Kohlerer Bahn , Jenesien cable car , Rittner cable car ). Also worth mentioning are two former funicular railways, the Virglbahn and the Guntschnabahn , which connected the city with the local recreation areas.
The new construction of the Rittner cable car achieved particular success in local public transport . In that year, the old aerial tramway was replaced by a modern 3S cableway from the South Tyrolean Leitner AG . Since then, the railway has experienced an annual increase in passengers; Initially, it was primarily intended for the transport of tourists between Bolzano and Renon , but it was increasingly used by commuters as a means of local public transport.
Due to the constant commuter traffic jams , various extensions of local public transport in and around Bolzano are being discussed. Originally, Bozen was to get a tram and the Überetsch was to be connected via a reactivated Überetscher Bahn (either as a tram or MiniMetro ). However, high implementation costs prevented implementation.
The commissioning of a Metrobus line between Bolzano and the Überetsch is currently being discussed. On October 19, 2018, the city signed an agreement with the South Tyrolean provincial government as well as the city and a regional bus company for the construction and operation of a first seven-kilometer tram line .
Since the 1990s, the cycle paths have also been systematically expanded into a functioning network. The two-lane bicycle lanes with central reservation and oncoming traffic, which are structurally separated from car traffic, can be considered as trademarks. As a result, the proportion of bicycles is now 30 percent.
In Bolzano there is a public hospital, the Bolzano Central Hospital of the South Tyrolean medical company . There are also four private clinics: the “Marienklinik”, the “Bonvicini” clinic, the “Villa Melitta” and the “City Clinic Bozen”. The oldest old people's home is the former poor house in Rauschertorgasse; like another, it is privately run, but has agreements with the municipal social services, which run four old people's homes and several day care centers for the elderly. The Firmian long-term care home run by the Bolzano Health District is located on the outskirts of Bozen. The former sanatorium Grieserhof has been offering age-appropriate living since its renovation, which was completed in 2017.
The cemetery in Oberau has served as the main public cemetery for the municipality of Bolzano since the 1930s, following the older central cemetery located south of the Dompfarrkirche and now abandoned. It is characterized by a park-like character and is located at the foot of the slope of the Kohlerer Berg in the Oberau-Haslach district . The two other cemeteries in Gries and Sankt Jakob are also under the control of the community, but they are managed directly by the local parishes. The Austrian military cemetery in St. Jakob is looked after by the Bolzano Military Veterans Association, founded in 1874 (in the Austrian Black Cross ).
Education and Research
Primary and secondary schools
In Bolzano there are numerous educational institutions which - as is usual in South Tyrol - are broken down into language groups in the public primary and secondary levels.
German-speaking schools : There are eight German-speaking public primary schools in Bolzano, three of which are in the Zentrum-Bozner Boden-Rentsch district , two in Gries-Quirein and one each in Oberau-Haslach , Europa-Neustift and Don Bosco . The four secondary schools are divided between Zentrum-Bozner Boden-Rentsch, Gries-Quirein, Oberau-Haslach and Europa-Neustift.
The range of German-speaking secondary schools is the most extensive in South Tyrol and also serves students from numerous other communities in the area with various grammar schools , technical colleges , business schools and vocational schools . Particular mention should be made of the classical, language and art high school "Walther von der Vogelweide", the Realgymnasium Bozen with the connected technical college for construction "Peter Anich", the technological college "Max Valier", the business college "Heinrich Kunter" and the social science grammar school with the affiliated technical college for tourism "Robert Gasteiner". The state vocational school for trade and graphics "Johannes Gutenberg", the state vocational school for handicrafts and industry, the state vocational school for social professions "Hannah Arendt" and the technical school for home economics and nutrition provide vocational school offers . The Franziskanergymnasium Bolzano and the social science high school "Maria Hueber ”.
Italian- speaking schools : The Italian language group has twelve public primary schools, two of which are in the Zentrum-Bozner Boden-Rentsch district, three in Gries-Quirein, two in Oberau-Haslach, two in Europa-Neustift and three in Don Bosco. The eight middle schools are distributed as follows: one in Center-Bozner Boden-Rentsch, two in Gries-Quirein, one in Oberau-Haslach, two in Europa-Neustift and two in Don Bosco.
The numerous secondary schools include the classical and language high school "Giosuè Carducci", the high school "Evangelista Torricelli", the social science and art high school "Giovanni Pascoli", the business school "Cesare Battisti", the high school center "Galileo Galilei", which consists of a high school and a technical college. , the technical high school for construction "Andrea e Pietro Delai", the high school center "Claudia de 'Medici", which includes various school types, and the state vocational schools "Luigi Einaudi" and "Emmanuel Lèvinas". Well-known private schools are the "Istituto Marcelline", the "Istituto Sandro Pertini", the "Istituto Rainerum" and the "Istituto Walther".
Since 1998 Bozen has been the seat of the Free University of Bozen (FUB) and thus a university city. The Free University of Bozen offers trilingual courses in German, Italian and English. In addition to the university, the State College for Health Professions "Claudiana" and the Conservatory "Claudio Monteverdi" Bolzano offer subject-specific higher education courses.
Libraries and other educational institutions
In 1954 the South Tyrolean cultural institute was founded. It maintains contacts with the German cultural area and organizes guest theater performances, guest concerts, exhibitions, author readings and scientific conferences.
The ZeLIG film school offers training in documentary film, television and new media.
With the Free University of Bolzano and Eurac Research , the most important research institutions in South Tyrol are located in Bolzano . The university is mainly involved in the departments of its faculties, i.e. economics , computer science , natural , engineering and educational sciences , but also houses the center for regional history . The eleven institutes of the Eurac Research research center, founded in 1992, work on an interdisciplinary basis on the topics of autonomy, health, mountains and technologies.
The city of Bolzano hosts several sporting events every year and is the birthplace of many athletes. According to some studies, compared to the other Italian cities, Bolzano is the one where the population is most active in sports. Bolzano is also the seat of the Italian Fistball Association .
- Eiswelle / Palaonda - hockey stadium: Until the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, it was the largest hockey stadium in Italy with 7220 seats.
- Drusus Stadium : Football stadium with a capacity of 3000 spectators
- Europastadion - American football stadium: with artificial turf and a capacity of 3000 seats (also used for rugby ).
- Tiziano Lazzarini baseball field
- Stadthalle / Palasport: With its 2608 seats it houses most sporting events, concerts and performances (including TV shows)
- Sports Palace
- Swimming pool: with a 50-meter pool and a 10-meter tower
- Two indoor pools with short lanes: are also used for competitions, one of them ( Karl Dibiasi indoor pool ) also has a 10-meter tower
Together with Milan and Canazei , Bolzano hosted the 1994 men's ice hockey world championship . The local ice hockey team, HC Bozen Foxes , is the most successful team in Italy with 19 championship titles, 3 Coppa Italia, 4 Supercoppa Italiana, 1 Alpine league , 1 European Supercup title and 2 EBEL victories.
The second team from Bolzano is EV Bozen 84 , which has been playing in Serie A2 again since 2010 . Bolzano was also the leader in Italy for women; the Hockey Club Eagles Bolzano, dissolved in 2008, won a total of seven championship titles. The successor team EV Bozen 84 Eagles has won six of the seven championships in which they participated.
After more than 30 years of abstinence, FC Südtirol - Alto Adige will again be a South Tyrolean club in the third division from the 2010/11 season . In the summer, a large number of top-class friendship games are played in Bolzano, but they are also very popular every year, such as the “SüdtirolCup” and the 5-a-side football “City Tournament”.
Bolzano was often the stage of the Giro d'Italia and other cycling events. On May 25, 2003 the individual time trial of the Giro d'Italia of the 15th stage ended with a victory for Spaniard Aitor González Jiménez in Bolzano. The 14th stage of the Giro d'Italia 2010 also led through Bolzano.
The whole of South Tyrol has a dense network of cycle paths, which has numerous branches and intersections, especially in the Bolzano area.
Every year on December 31st, since 1975 the BOclassic , a road race over a distance of 10 km (for women 5 km) with an international team, has been held in Bolzano . The record winners are Serhij Lebid and Berhane Adere . Before the elite race, a fun run over 5 km takes place on the same course, a 1250 m long lap through the old town .
Bolzano has been the destination of the South Tyrol Marathon, which has been held in Neumarkt up to now, since 2010 .
In Bolzano there is a women's basketball team, the Basket Club Bozen Iveco Lenzi , which is registered in the A2 series. From the 2003/04 season to the 2005/06 she played in the top division of Serie A1. The game will be played in the Palazzetto Paola Mazzali, the stadium dedicated to the team's great captain after they were killed in a traffic accident in August 2006.
There are also two men's teams:
- Bozen Basket (plays in Serie D)
- US Bozner Boden Electrogroup TEC (plays in Serie C)
The SSV Bozen Loacker is the only handball team of the city and plays in Serie A (Circle North). In 2012 and 2015 SSV Bozen was both cup winners and Italian champions, and in 2012 also Supercup winners.
Rugby has also been played in Bolzano for a number of years . The Sudtirolo Rugby Cavaliers are the only rugby team in South Tyrol and play in the Italian Serie C. There is also a women's rugby team, the Red Queens . The home games are played in the Pfarrhof sports zone.
Bolzano is Italy's only city that has a fistball team . The team that belongs to the SSV Bozen sports club is also the Italian national team . At times she played in the 1st Austrian Bundesliga (FBL).
Personalities associated with Bolzano
- List of municipalities in South Tyrol
- Historical newspapers: Alpenzeitung , Bozner Nachrichten , Bozner Zeitung
- Franz Huter : Contributions to the population history of Bolzano in the 16th – 18th centuries. Century. Athesia, Bozen 1948.
- Heimatpflegeverband Bozen (Ed.): Bozner Bürgerbuch 1551–1806. 2 vols. Wagner, Innsbruck 1956.
- Karl Theodor Hoeniger : Altbozner picture book. 3rd edition, Ferrari-Auer, Bozen 1968.
- Südtiroler Kulturinstitut (Ed.): City in transition. Articles about Bolzano since 1900 (Yearbook of the South Tyrolean Cultural Institute 8). Athesia, Bolzano 1970.
- Hermann Achenbach: Bolzano. Population dynamics and spatial structure of a bilingual city. In: The Earth. 106, 1975.
- Bruno Klammer (Ed.): PJ Ladurner's Chronicle of Bozen 1844. Athesia, Bozen 1982.
- Josef Rampold : Bozen: the center of the country on the Adige and in the mountains. The town and hikes in the areas of Salten, Sarntal, Renon, Eggental (= South Tyrolean regional studies . Volume 7). 4th edition. Athesia, Bozen 1985, ISBN 88-7014-050-4 .
- Rolf Petri: Storia di Bolzano. Il Poligrafo, Padova 1989, ISBN 88-7115-007-4 (with bibliography p. 265ff).
- Oswald Trapp (Ed.): Tiroler Burgenbuch. Volume VIII: Bolzano area . Athesia publishing house, Bozen 1989, ISBN 978-88-7014-495-6 .
- Norbert Mumelter: Bolzano history on the roadside. Streets and squares of Bolzano. Athesia, Bolzano 1990.
- Oswald Egger , Hermann Gummerer: Walther. Poet and monument. Edition Procura, Vienna / Lana 1990, ISBN 3-901118-00-4 .
- Bolzano from the beginning to the demolition of the city walls / Bolzano dalle Origini alla Distruzione della Mura. Athesia, Bozen 1991, ISBN 88-7014-559-X .
- Gaetano Sessa: Bolzano in cartolina - The city of Bozen in the picture postcards, 1890-1940. Arca, Trento 1994.
- Bozen from the Counts of Tirol to the Habsburgs / Bolzano fra i Tirolo e gli Asburgo. City of Bozen, Bozen 1999, ISBN 88-7014-986-2 .
- Siglinde Clementi, Martha Verdorfer: Women - City - History (s): Bozen / Bolzano from the Middle Ages to today. Vienna-Bozen: Folio 2000. ISBN 3-85256-134-5 .
- Hans Heiss : Successful pacification? The city of Bozen / Bolzano in the field of tension between national and cultural conflicts 1919–1999 . In: Roland Marti (ed.): Border culture - mixed culture? Saarbrücken 2000, pp. 209-241.
- Gabriele Rath et al. (Ed.): Bozen - Innsbruck: historical city tours. Vienna-Bozen: Folio 2000. ISBN 3-85256-125-6 .
- Helmut Stampfer (Ed.): Farms in South Tyrol. Volume 5: Bozner Weinleiten, Überetsch and Etschtal . Athesia, Bozen 2004, ISBN 88-8266-229-2 .
- Bruno Mahlknecht : Bozen through the centuries. Bolzano: Athesia 2005-2007. Volume 1: ISBN 978-88-6011-020-6 ; Volume 2: ISBN 978-88-6011-021-3 ; Volume 3: ISBN 978-88-6011-027-5 ; Volume 4: ISBN 978-88-6011-077-0 .
- Hannes Obermair : Bozen South - Bolzano North. Written form and documents from the city of Bozen up to 1500. 2 vols., Bozen: Stadtgemeinde Bozen 2005–2008. ISBN 88-901870-0-X and ISBN 978-88-901870-1-8 .
- Andrea Bonoldi, Markus A. Denzel : Bozen in the trade fair network of Europe (17th – 19th centuries) / Bolzano nel sistema fieristico europeo (secc. XVII – XIX) . Bolzano: Athesia 2007. ISBN 978-88-8266-311-7 .
- Renate Brenn-Rammlmair: City architect Gustav Nolte. The Heimatstil in Bolzano 1908–1924. Bolzano: Athesia 2007. ISBN 978-88-8266-361-2 .
- Gotthard Andergassen, Ettore Frangipane: Two hundred years of Bozner Waltherplatz in pictures / 200 anni piazza Walther a Bolzano in immagini 1808–2008. Bolzano: Raetia 2008. ISBN 978-88-7283-330-8 .
- Helmut Stampfer (Ed.): The Prince's Office in Bozen: from the Maximilian office building to the nature museum. Vienna-Bozen: Folio 2008. ISBN 978-3-85256-373-2 .
- Hubert Stuppner : Music and Society in South Tyrol. Volume 1: Bozen 1800-2000. Bolzano: Raetia 2009. ISBN 978-88-7283-337-7 .
- Stefan Stabler: Castles and residences - Bozen and surroundings. Bolzano: Athesia 2009. ISBN 978-88-8266-544-9 .
- Hannes Obermair: Bozen / Bolzano 1850–1950 (series of archive images). 2nd edition Erfurt: Sutton 2010. ISBN 978-3-86680-489-0 .
- Adolph Stiller (Ed.): Stadt.Bebeispiel.Bozen_Projektentwicklung Bahnhofsareal . Architecture in the Ringturm XXIV. Salzburg: Müry Salzmann Verlag 2011. ISBN 978-3-99014-048-2 .
- Oswald Stimpfl: Bozen compact. Sights, hospitality, culture. Vienna-Bozen: Folio Verlag 2014. ISBN 978-3-85256-645-0 .
- Heinz Tiefenbrunner, Hubert Seidner, Gerald Mair: History of the houses of Altbozen. Bolzano: Athesia Verlag 2016. ISBN 978-88-6839-217-8
- Hannes Obermair, Fabrizio Miori, Maurizio Pacchiani (eds.): Lavori in Corso - The Bozner Freiheitsstraße . La Fabbrica del Tempo - The Time Factory, Bozen 2020, ISBN 978-88-943205-2-7 .
- Older descriptions
- Beda Weber : The city of Bozen and its surroundings , Bozen 1849, Eberle ( e-copy ).
- Andrä Johann Bergmeister: Physical-medical-statistical topography of the city of Bozen with the three rural communities twelve Malgrei, Gries and Leifers, or the former municipal district of Bozen. Self-published, Bozen 1854. ( E-copy ).
- Andreas Simeoner: The city of Bozen. Wohlgemuth, Bozen 1890 ( e-copy ).
- Lexicon entry on Bozen , in: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition, Volume 3, Leipzig / Vienna 1905, pp. 294–295 ( Zeno.org ).
Further content in the
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- Internet presence of the city of Bolzano
- Historic address books of Bozen and Gries 1903–1923 (digital copies of the LB Friedrich Teßmann)
- BOhisto: Bozen-Bolzano's History Online
- Landscape plan of the municipality of Bolzano . Office for Landscape Ecology, Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (PDF file)
- Entry in the Tirol Atlas of the Institute for Geography at the University of Innsbruck
- History-Tyrol: Bolzano
- Demographic Handbook for South Tyrol 2017, accessed on January 9, 2019.
- From Isonzo to Talferstadt. Article on the homepage of the city of Bolzano. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Talferstadt (città del Talvera) , on rete comuni italiani , accessed on 18 December 2012 found.
- www.luftlinie.org : Bolzano – Trento: 51 km.
- www.luftlinie.org : Bozen – Innsbruck: 85 km.
- www.luftlinie.org : Bolzano – Rome 520 km.
- Explanations of the geological map of Italy on a scale of 1: 50,000 (sheet 026 - Eppan) (PDF; 5.1 MB), pp. 169–170 , on isprambiente.gov.it , accessed on December 19, 2012.
- Explanations of the geological map of Italy on a scale of 1: 50,000 (sheet 026 - Eppan) (PDF; 5.1 MB), p. 136 , on isprambiente.gov.it , accessed on December 19, 2012.
- Geological map of Italy on a scale of 1: 50,000 (sheet 027 - Bozen) , on isprambiente.gov.it , accessed on December 19, 2012.
- industrial zone. (No longer available online.) My Bozen (Sixpol Electronics OHG), archived from the original on November 7, 2016 ; accessed on November 7, 2016 .
- Area statistics of the province of Bolzano at municipality and district level ( MS Excel ; 157 kB) , on provinz.bz.it , accessed on December 20, 2012.
- Assessment of air quality 2005–2015 , on provinz.bz.it , accessed on December 22, 2012.
- measures to reduce and prevent air pollution , on provinz.bz.it , accessed on December 22, 2012.
- Hannes Obermair : Church and urban development . In: The Sciliar . 69th year, issue 8/9, 1995, p. 449-474 ( bozen.it [PDF]).
- Mahlknecht, Bruno: Bozen through the centuries . tape 1 . Athesia Spectrum, Bozen 2005, ISBN 88-6011-020-3 , From the episcopal market to the city magistrate, p. 41 ff .
- Cathedral, parish church "Maria Himmelfahrt". In: Atlas. Tr3cento. Gothic painters in Bolzano. Office for Culture of the City of Bolzano, accessed on February 23, 2011 .
- Hannes Obermair: Bozen South - Bolzano North. Written form and documentary tradition of the city of Bozen up to 1500. Volume 2: 1401–1500 . Bozen: Stadtgemeinde 2008. ISBN 978-88-901870-1-8 , pp. 79–83, no. 996.
- Hans Heiss : 800 years of trade fairs and markets in Bolzano. Freshline GmbH, October 28, 2002, accessed November 7, 2016 .
- 4. Archives of the economy. South Tyrolean Provincial Archives, accessed on February 24, 2011 .
- Technology Mile. Kuratorium für Technische Kulturgüter, 2006, accessed on February 24, 2011 .
- the art of lodging. Parkhotel Laurin, accessed November 7, 2016 .
- Hannes Obermair: "City in Transition" - the Bolzano example "revisited" . In: La Fabbrica del Tempo / Die Zeitfabrik (Ed.): Razionalismi. Percorsi dell'abitare - Living appropriately, Bolzano / Bozen 1930–40 . Bolzano 2015, p. 35-40 , doi : 10.13140 / RG.2.1.2831.5927 .
- Historisches Ortlexikon Südtirol, pp. 16–18 ( Memento of March 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 615 kB) . In: oeaw.ac.at . Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Karl Theodor Hoeniger: A list of houses in the old town of Bozen from 1497. In: Publications of the Tyrolean State Museum Ferdinandeum. Volume 31, Innsbruck 1951, pp. 309-310 ( PDF (3.8 MB) on ZOBODAT , accessed on December 24, 2012).
- Oswald Zingerle (Ed.): Meinhards II. Urbare der Grafschaft Tirol . In: Austrian historical sources (Fontes rerum Austriacarum), Volume 45, Part 1, Vienna 1890, pp. 116–128.
- Leo Santifaller : An interest list of the Lords of Wanga in Bozen from the time around 1300. Innsbruck 1924, p. 9.
- Hannes Obermair: 'Bastard Urbanism'? Past Forms of Cities in the Alpine Area of Tyrol-Trentino. In: Concilium Medii Aevi . 10, 2007, pp. 53–76, reference p. 67. ( PDF ).
- Karl Theodor Hoeniger: A list of houses in the old town of Bolzano from 1497 . In: Publications of the Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Vol. 31. Innsbruck 1951, pp. 309-310; Hannes Obermair: Bozen South - Bolzano North. Written form and documentary tradition of the city of Bozen up to 1500. Volume 2, Bozen 2008, p. 230f. No. 1319 (with explanations).
- Hannes Obermair: Bozen South - Bolzano North. Written form and documentary tradition of the city of Bozen up to 1500. Volume 2, Bozen 2008, p. 231.
- So the source-based estimate at Hannes Obermair: The old tailoring trade in Bozen. In: The Sciliar . 85, issue 1, 2011, p. 32.
- Encyclopedia entry on Bozen , in: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon , 6th edition, Volume 3, Leipzig / Vienna 1905, pp. 294–295.
- Population development and structure of the city of Bolzano and its districts - 2012 (PDF; 2.7 MB).
- 100 years of union between the municipality of Zwölfmalgrei and the city of Bozen City of Bolzano, January 4, 2011, accessed on September 28, 2016 .
- Oskar Peterlini : Autonomy and protection of minorities in South Tyrol and in Trentino . Region Trentino-South Tyrol, Bozen-Trient 2000, ISBN 88-900077-4-5 , p. 60.
- Hannes Obermair: Multiple Pasts - Collecting for the City? The Bolzano City Archives 3.0 . In: Philipp Tolloi (Ed.): Archives in South Tyrol: History and Perspectives / Archivi in Provincia di Bolzano: storia e prospettive (= publications of the South Tyrolean Provincial Archives 45 ). Universitätsverlag Wagner, Innsbruck 2018, ISBN 978-3-7030-0992-1 , p. 211-224, here p. 224 .
- Hannes Obermair: Bozen South - Bolzano North. Written form and documentary tradition of the city of Bozen up to 1500 . tape 1 . City of Bozen, Bozen 2005, ISBN 88-901870-0-X , p. 397-398, No. 838 .
- City council May 4, 2010 on Gemeinde.Bozen.it.
- Ideas exchange Erlangen-Bozen. Retrieved April 10, 2018 .
- Anton Dörrer : Tyrolean games. Regulations and spoken texts of the Bolzano Corpus Christi games and related figural processions from the end of the Middle Ages to the decline of enlightened absolutism (Schlern-Schriften 160). Innsbruck: Wagner 1957, p. 368, note 8.
- Website of the technology park NOI Techpark Südtirol / Alto Adige
- Top 50 of the South Tyrolean economy: Aspiag-Despar remains number one. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 15, 2014 ; Retrieved January 21, 2013 .
- Rittner cable car remains a crowd puller. Retrieved August 23, 2016 .
- Transport solution for Überetsch: State government discusses Metrobus on Provinz.bz.it.
- Connection Überetsch-Bozen: Metrobus convinces on Provinz.bz.it.
- Blickpunkt Tram 6/2018, p. 153.
- City of Bolzano: Bike-friendly Bolzano ( Memento from May 8, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Download Bozen Süd - Bolzano Nord, Volume 1 (PDF; 6 MB).
- Download Bozen Süd - Bolzano Nord, Volume 2 (PDF; 10.1 MB).