|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Office :||Kappeln country|
|Height :||2 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||0.45 km 2|
|Residents:||281 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||624 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||24399|
|Area code :||04642|
|License plate :||SL|
|Community key :||01 0 59 002|
|LOCODE :||DE 4AV|
|Office administration address:||Reeperbahn 2
|Mayor :||Marina Bruges (SSW)|
|Location of the city of Arnis in the Schleswig-Flensburg district|
Arnis ( Danish : Arnæs) is with fewer than 300 inhabitants the smallest city in Germany in terms of population and with 0.45 km² also in terms of area . It is located in Schleswig-Holstein on a peninsula in the Schlei in the fishing region in the Schleswig-Flensburg district . The community has no other districts.
Arnis was founded in 1667 by 65 families from the nearby town of Kappeln on the then uninhabited island in the Schlei. This "move to Arnis" was an act of resistance against Detlef von Rumohr , who wanted to force the residents of Kappeln into serfdom at the end of 1666 . The town experienced its economic heyday in the middle of the 19th century with 88 merchant ships and over 1000 inhabitants. The original layout of today's city, given by a surveyor by Duke Christian Albrecht of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , still defines the townscape and contributes to the fact that Arnis is a popular tourist destination.
At the time the town was founded, Arnis was an artificial island in the Schlei , 800 meters long and 200 meters wide , which was created 200 years earlier when it was separated from the mainland . The 220 m to the Schwansener Ufer have been passable with a motor ferry since the 1960s. This ferry connection has existed since 1826, although the right to do so was granted as early as 1667.
Until 1796 there was no road connection to Arnis. The first dam was raised from the church square to the Grödersbyer Ufer; the material used for this was obtained by removing the former ski jump on the Kirchberg. The Chausseedamm, which faces the center of the island, was built in 1866/69 and the area between the two dams was then drained. The island became the Arnis peninsula, which is part of the fishing landscape today .
The eponymous headland (“Nis”) on the “Aar”, which borders the Arnisser Noor , has lost some of its characteristic shape since the 1970s as part of a new development.
The city of Arnis only shares a land border with the municipality of Grödersby ( Schleswig-Flensburg district ). On the other bank of the Schlei, the second neighboring commune is Winnemark ( Rendsburg-Eckernförde district ).
First traces of human settlement
Arnis was originally a peninsula in the Schlei. At its northern tip, the Aar , stone tools and flint cuts from the Neolithic Age (approx. 4300–2300 BC) were found. The place was mentioned for the first time in 1472 in a "Dingeswinde" (a judicial certificate) of the Schliesharde ( Vogtei "Schleiharde") as "Arnytze". This name is derived from the old Germanic aro , arn for "eagle" and the Danish næs for "nose" and therefore means "promontory where eagles are".
The oval elevation of today's cemetery is fortified with a dry stone wall in the eastern half and an earth wall in the western half. These are the remains of a late medieval fortification, from which, together with the Schwonsburg on the southern bank of the Schlei, the Schlei-Enge near Arnis-Sundsacker could be monitored. The complex was built around 1415 by King Erich von Pomerania , who, as a so-called Union King, ruled over the three northern kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden until his deposition in 1439. In the process - after a laborious cut through the land connection to Angling - the Schlei became the natural moat of the fortress; from then on it was easier to defend. Arnis became an island. The fortifications, together with the Schwonsburg, were part of a larger system with which King Erich von Pomerania wanted to keep the city of Schleswig from its allies by sea in his conflict with the Holstein counts (see also Adolf VIII. (Holstein) ). It is unclear until when these defenses were used.
In the 17th century, the lords of Rumohr on Gut Roest (after a controversial purchase from 1533) were the court and church lords of the nearby patch of Kappeln . In 1666 Detlef von Rumohr demanded the homagial oath from the approximately 750 inhabitants of the Fleckens , in which they had to promise allegiance and loyalty to their liege lords. 65 families refused to give up their freedom. They turned to the sovereign, Duke Christian Albrecht of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , who assigned them to the island of Arnis, south of Kappeln in the Schlei, which is no longer used as a defense system. On the morning of May 11, 1667, 64 heads of household swore the duke's oath of homage on site, thereby withdrawing from the threat of serfdom . Among them were two women, Birrit Wulfs and Cathrin Petersen. One of the people wishing to leave the country was in Copenhagen that day and had previously taken the oath in writing. Duke Christian Albrecht made the island of Arnis available to the rebellious Kappelnern with ulterior motives. His actions were integrated into the policy of the separation of the duchy from the Danish kingdom. The opponent Detlef von Rumohr, who wanted to force the Kappelner into serfdom and forced them to emigrate to Arnis, had been in the service of the Danish army and belonged to the "Danish" party. With the establishment of a new shipping location in the ducal area, Kappeln was to be economically dried up. At the same time, the Duke and his Chancellor, Johann Adolph Kielmann von Kielmannsegg , hoped to gain an additional source of income for the dismembered duchy through this foundation, similar to the founding of Friedrichstadt by Christian Albrecht's father. Kappeln, in turn, was part of the area ruled jointly with the Danish king, the income of which the firm in Gottorf Castle could not freely dispose of.
The construction of the future skipper location was much more difficult than planned. In view of the impending desertification of Kappeln, Detlef von Rumohr reacted with a double strategy. On the one hand, he put the emigrants under great pressure. B. not take their houses (half-timbered houses could be dismantled), on the other hand he presented himself to the Kappelnern willing to stay as a mild gentleman who renounced the feudal oath. As a result, only 30 houses were built on the island of Arnis instead of the planned 65. Duke Christian Albrecht, in turn , was forced to revoke the sovereignty of the duchy by his brother-in-law, the young Danish King Christian V , a short time later in the Rendsburg Recess . He had to flee to Hamburg in exile and the re-establishment of Arnis threatened to fail in the Swedish-Brandenburg War . Houses were empty, more people died than were born. Despite these adversities, the church of the new parish was completed in 1673 . The change for the better was achieved when, in the last years of the Duke's reign, another ten-year tax exemption was issued for new settlers on the island. New settlers came and shipping developed. The first new settler was probably Andreas Odefeyd, who donated a large painting to the church in 1693, the erection of the cross. In 1698 Odefeyd was registered as a resident with a tax exemption in a tax roll of the ducal administration that is still preserved today.
Economy in the 18th and 19th centuries
The new settlers on the island of Arnis began trading in the western Baltic Sea with increasing success from 1700 onwards. Arnis is said to have had more ships than Eckernförde or Flensburg in a few years . The richly decorated gravestones of the captain's families in the Arniss cemetery still bear witness to the prosperity of this time. The success of shipping also gave impetus to the city's handicrafts; Ships were also built for merchants from Hamburg and Bremen. In the 18th century, today's ferry route provided access to a shipyard that could be used by every resident. A Dutch windmill was built in 1786 by a milling company of the most important shipowners . (It was demolished in the 1970s; the associated granary is still used as a holiday apartment house today.) There was a guild house and a dairy . At the beginning of the 19th century, the development changed significantly, smokehouse and storage buildings were built on many lots . The majority of the Arnisser skippers, the hacking skippers (see below), began to produce the meat and sausage products that they had previously bought in Kappeln and elsewhere. Arnis changed from a pure trading place to a small port with a specialized production. Fishing did not play a major role in economic life until the early 19th century.
The shipping village of Arnis had major problems during the Napoleonic continental blockade against England, when the traditional trade routes were closed. A whole series of Arnisser ships indeed were sailing under the Danish flag were of the English navy applied - in response to the Continental System. After the end of the war, Arnis soon overtook the larger town of Kappeln in the number and tonnage of ships. From the 1840s the place experienced its economic peak. In 1860 Arnis had over 1000 inhabitants and 88 merchant ships. In addition, Arnis had meanwhile become an important market place. The annual multi-day market began with a cattle market. After the construction of the old dam (1796), Arnis became the most popular Schleiquerung in the east. As a result, a number of inns emerged. Before 1870 there should have been at least 11. Problems arose with the German-Danish War in 1866. The separation from Danish rule was also desired in Arnis, but as a result the separation from Denmark resulted in the loss of some sales areas in the Scandinavian region, although new ships were still laid down in 1873. The Arniss sailing fleet began to shrink from the 1870s as a result of the advent of steam shipping . At the same time, the position as the best Schleiquerung in the eastern part of the fjord was lost when a pontoon bridge was built in Kappeln in 1867 . Its importance as a regional market place diminished when, after the construction of the regional railways, grocery stores opened in the countryside and the farmers in the surrounding villages no longer went to Arnis to go shopping. To compensate for this, many Arnissers tried their hand at grinding and there were conflicts with the Holmer fishermen. Since in Arnis in 1805, when shipping was still flourishing, no seine fishing had been declared in a “proclamation” by the state government , this was forbidden to the Arnissern. Only small-scale fishing remained. As a result of the economic changes, the population halved by the turn of the century. Arnis experienced a structural economic crisis.
Self-organization of the seafarers
Like Kappeln, Arnis was dependent on unhindered access to the Baltic Sea , which was not always the case from the beginning of the 18th century, as the mucus estuary increasingly silted up. After the Arnisser and Kappelner skippers had appealed to the state government for years, the actually responsible city of Schleswig was asked in 1770 to buy the piece of land north of the former fortress of Oldenburg from the owner of the Olpenitz estate at the time. The purchase was not completed until 1780, in the same year the first puncture took place at the site of today's mucous mouth, which expanded in the winter storms. The first fortification with piles was built in 1782 under the direction of the city of Schleswig. However, this did not last, and the boatmen from Arnis and Kappeln had to ask the state government for help again. Since Schleswig did not want to give any more money, the other fortifications had to be built from 1795 to 1796 under the direction of a newly founded "Combined Schiffergesellschaft zu Kappeln und Arnis". The financing was taken over by the Schiffergesellschaft zu Kappeln und Arnis, which was allowed to collect customs duties from the passing ships. In Arnis, such pre-financing was quite controversial, but ultimately the proponents prevailed. After completion of the construction, the Kappelner founded their own shipping company and the "Combinierte" was renamed on February 19, 1806 in "Arnisser Schiffergesellschaft". One of the tasks of the society was to support members or relatives of members in need - very often, after a shipwreck, widows were left alone with their children. The company raised a contribution for this purpose. Another task was the implementation of an annual "Societät" (a big festival) in the Arnisser Schifferhaus. There were precise rules of conduct for this festival. B. no unmarried women are brought along.
A peculiarity of the skipper's place Arnis was the existence of a sailor society. This was founded on January 17, 1798. The tasks of the society were similar to those of the Schiffergesellschaft, above all relatives in need should be supported. A merriment was also held in the “sailor house” at the “lower end” in Arnis. Members had to pay dues to raise capital. There was also a code of conduct for amusement - anyone who violated it had to pay a fine. In this way additional income was generated. In contrast to the Schiffergesellschaft, unmarried women were also allowed to accompany them to the festivities. Since the sailors had little money at their disposal, the philanthropic shipping couple Rosenau donated a large amount of money to establish the company. According to Prof. Jochen Bracker, Arnis was the only port in the early 19th century, at least in Schleswig-Holstein, that had an association of sailors.
In Arnis, shipping was operated according to two different business models, there were the tramp drivers and the hacking boatmen . The former were in the larger sailing ships, the latter were numerically in the majority. In spring, as soon as the ice on the Schlei and the Baltic Sea allowed this, the tramp drivers sailed from Arnis to a port where experience has shown that they would most likely receive a transport order. This could be Christiania (today: Oslo ), Copenhagen , Koenigsberg or another port in the western Baltic Sea. All kinds of goods were loaded, grain, wood, general cargo. In the port of destination it was hoped to get a new order. If this was not possible, empty trips had to be made. In early winter, the last voyage from a Scandinavian port made of timber was transported to Arnis, which could be sold well in fishing and swans .
In the ports from Schleswig-Holstein to southern Norway and western Sweden, the hawking boatmen sold goods from their ships directly to end consumers or local innkeepers. Mostly these were meat and sausage products that had been preserved by curing or smoking, or cheese and butter. Initially, these goods were bought in Kappeln or the surrounding area. After 1800, the boatmen only bought raw products from the farmers in the surrounding area and produced the meat themselves. This happened mainly in the winter months, when one could not be out due to the weather anyway.
When, after 1873, the trampers got more and more problems from the rapidly spreading steamers, the booming boatmen, with the exception of the Danish ports, were initially able to continue their business for a few years in Norway and Sweden. From around 1880, people began to insist on customs borders in these countries as well, and the Arniss boatmen were also banned from selling freely in Sweden and Norway. The number of ships in Arnis decreased.
The shipbuilding and shipyards were early for typical Arnisser mixture of living and working. On a piece of land that was left free when the village was built (today's ferry passage), every resident could pull his ship ashore and rework it. The oldest verifiable shipbuilding was the Galliot Die Hoffnung in 1728. However, ships have certainly been built on the former island before that. At the end of the 18th century, in addition to the yachts typical of Arnis , many larger ships such as schooners were built. In the 1780s, 50 to 60 ship carpenters are said to have been employed in the Fleckens shipyards.
There must have been a decline in construction activity in the period up to the 1840s, at least that is what the then sexton and chronicler of the place, Christopher Scharf , reports . Shipbuilding experienced its second peak in the middle of the 19th century. There are a total of four shipyards in the period 1804 to 1880, from 1853 to 1870 there were three shipyards that simultaneously laid ships in Arnis. The most productive boat builder was F. Johannsen, who built at least 45 ships. When the steamships prevailed on the Baltic Sea, Johannsen was still able to build sailing ships for clients in Altona and Blankenese , which were also competitive in the East Asian voyage in the 1870s - for example, there were no bunker stations for steamships in Southeast Asia for a long time. His last ship, the Bark Sibirien , was with 382 GRT the largest ship ever built in Arnis. Johannsen built it in 1880 for the HA Jensen shipping company in Flensburg . At the turn of the century there was no longer any shipyard on site. The establishment of the Otto Eberhardt shipyard, which still exists today, marked the beginning of the third shipyard era in Arnis in 1909. (see below)
Ambitions as a bathing and health resort
After the decline of shipping, the idea arose around 1900 to follow the example of the seaside resorts of Ahlbeck and Cuxhaven and to turn Arnis into a “climatic health and spa resort”. Brochures were printed showing Venetian gondolas on the Schlei in front of a palatial building on the site of today's “Schleiperle”. Efforts to be recognized as a bathing or health resort were unsuccessful until the 1920s. In 1927 a changing house was built on the beach and a lifeguard was employed. The municipal council hoped that the Offa source, which rises here at the “old dam” near the bank, would have healing properties. However, an analysis of the spring water only revealed a high iron content. Despite this setback, Mayor Frahm soon succeeded in establishing the self-designation "Bad" Arnis in Schleswig's administration. Although the place had never met the criteria of a spa , this designation was still shown on the town sign until 2009, although there had not even been a bathing place for a few years. Since 1988 it has been possible to bathe at the historic location again. The Offa spring rises today in shallow water; Another attempt, together with the municipality of Grödersby , to turn this into a small tourist attraction with the help of EU funds, was unsuccessful.
Economic reorientation in the 20th century
In the first decade of the 20th century, the foundations were laid for Arnis to redefine itself economically. The emigration of the population could be stopped, the population leveled off at 450 to 500 until the 1940s. The recruitment of summer guests began to bear fruit, at least in the summer months tourism became an important economic factor. The organization of the first spontaneous sailing regatta from Arnis in 1901 gave a decisive boost . At that time regattas were only known on the Wannsee in Berlin and - organized by the imperial yacht club - in Kiel. The first regatta was organized by Heinrich Thedsen from Hamburg, who also took the initiative to found the Arniss sailing club ASC. From the 1910s onwards, Arnis developed into a small “Mecca of sailing” in the north. Prince Heinrich also took part in the Schlei Week from the 1920s on with his ocean-going yacht.
At the same time, shipyards were re-established in Arnis, first the Otto Eberhardt shipyard in 1909 and then the Matthiessen and Paulsen shipyard in 1919. Both shipyards initially built a wide range from rowing boats to fishing cutters to passenger ships for inland navigation. With the advent of sailing in Arnis, yacht building became more and more important. Throughout the 20th century, the shipyards always had larger numbers of people employed.
As the third factor in the economic recovery, the company "Hania", founded in 1905 by the businessman Hans Nissen, who was born in Tønder, developed very quickly. With the capital of his wife Frieda Löbner, Nissen bought a house with a grocery store and at the same time started a coal trade. He imported cheap coal from England on Danish sailing ships, which sailed at the lowest tariffs under competition from steamers. Hans Nissen earned so much money from the coal trade that as early as 1909 he was able to build the “Arnis department store” at the entrance to Arnis, a two-story building in the metropolitan style. In the course of the 20th century, Nissen's company developed into the largest coal trader in Schleswig-Holstein. He supplied power plants and hospitals - but then from other company locations. With the profits he first expanded the small department store, which again attracted farmers from the surrounding villages to go shopping in Arnis. From the 1920s onwards, he bought a considerable number of properties in Arnis. The houses he owned could be recognized by the fact that the window sashes were painted in "Hania blue", a special shade of blue. Hans Nissen was an early advocate of corporate identity : his truck fleet was painted in "Hania blue", the annual "Hania calendar", which hung in many living rooms all over the country, was also distinguished by this color. Next to the shipyards, Nissens “Hania” was the largest employer in town.
After 1866, Arnis, like 24 other communities in Schleswig-Holstein, had the status of a patch . According to the 1885 census , Arnis had 572 inhabitants. By 1920 all other municipalities lost their market town status or became towns, only Arnis retained it. In the course of the 1934 change of the progressive Prussian municipal constitution law that had been in effect until then , the town of Arnis became the town of Arnis , which resulted from the fact that initially all towns were granted town charter on probation. This had to be confirmed by the district president, who also did it in the case of Arnis with reference to the urban structure of the place. In this way, Arnis benefited from a law that was an element of National Socialist conformity . Among other things, the municipal right to vote was abolished. The first freely elected city representatives could not be elected until 1946 under the British military government.
Arnis in National Socialism
In the 1920s there were an unusually large number of elderly people in Arnis. Young families had left the place in times of crisis, pensioners who had reached modest prosperity (former captains e.g. at Hapag ) had returned and lived on the savings they had invested. These assets became worthless during the period of inflation . Renting out rooms to summer guests helped until the economic crisis broke out in 1929 . The number of summer guests fell sharply. It was thought here, as in the entire southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig, cf. also the referendums in 1920 and the annexation of the northern part to Denmark, decidedly national, and the NSDAP was very popular early on. Already in 1930 the vote for the NSDAP in Arnis was very high with 40.3% in the Reichstag election . Like the northern districts of Schleswig, Flensburg and Tønder, Arnis became a National Socialist stronghold within Germany.
When the Nazis " seized power " in Berlin in 1933 , the then Pastor Arnis welcomed it. At that time there was already a mayor in Arnis who was a member of the NSDAP. Some important NSDAP party members were involved in petty criminal matters: alcohol smuggling with fishing boats across the Baltic Sea. In 1927, the then mayor Frahm, also a member of the NSDAP, had to resign from his position because, as an innkeeper, he had sold the alcohol smuggled by fishermen for a profit. Despite the conviction, his inn, the “Angling Schwansener Hof”, became a party venue - Frahm's son was the party's cell keeper. The other convicts were treated differently. After returning from custody, a fisherman no longer received a fishing license from Mayor Peter Holstein (NSDAP), which amounted to a professional ban. Since Holstein also refused to give him winter aid, his house was threatened with foreclosure. A total of 59 Arnissers died out of a population of just under 500 during World War II.
post war period
Even before the end of the Second World War , the city took in a large number of people who had fled the bombings of Hamburg and Kiel . Later refugees came mainly from East Prussia and Samland . Up until the late 1940s, almost every room in the small houses was inhabited by a complete family. The population doubled, and once again over 1000 people lived on the peninsula. Among the refugees were fishing families who stayed in Arnis and still operate cutter fishing today.
In the 1950s, the Leistikow family was also a captain and shipowner family based in Arnis. The Kümo ARN VII of the captain Martin Leistikow had Arnis as its home port from 1944 to 1957. A famous predecessor was the three- master Fridtjof Nansen , who bore the name Gertrud II from 1927 under the owner M. P. F. Leistikow . In 1958 the headquarters of the shipping company was relocated to Rendsburg.
From the 1960s onwards, Arnis lost a large number of residents again. In the late 1960s, the city's two-class school was closed in favor of a “village community school” in Habertwedt . At the time, a number of parents sent their children to protest at the remaining Danish school, which survived in this way until the 1980s.
In the years that followed, the fishing and boatmen village increasingly became a tourist gem . After the sold Arnisser houses were mainly used as holiday homes by their new owners for a while, younger families finally settled in the last two decades of the 20th century and started a new business activity related to sailing. The shipyards continue to play an important role in both economic and daily life. Since the 1960s, the Matthiesen & Paulsen shipyard has been the nucleus for an economic cluster "boat building and sailing" on the eastern Schlei.
The population of this small town is controversial. In 2006, the regional newspaper, the Schleibote , reported in several articles that, according to the residents' registration office in Kappeln, Arnis had 354 residents in 2005, but only 314 residents in the same year, according to the regional statistical office. According to the mayor of Arniss, the data of these two figures cannot be compared due to data protection regulations. But its position as the smallest city in Germany is undisputed. In addition, Arnis has the highest population density of the 100 smallest cities in Germany with 669 inhabitants per square kilometer.
Architecture and urban development
Plant of the settlement
After the originally existing trees had been cleared, the new settlement was laid out in 1667 according to a strict plan. The central axis of the island was planned as a street (today: Lange Straße ), on which the houses were then to be built on the gable side on plots of equal size. The width of the plots was (and is still today) 10 meters, the length resulted from the respective distance to the water. Each family should thus receive a property of almost the same size.
In the first few years the houses were erected incoherently in different places, only gradually did the image we know today with houses standing close together emerged. Exceptions to this rule can still be found today, especially at the ends of Langen Straße and in the area of the local access from the Angelner side. At the western end, or the upper end , as is said in Arnis, there are several houses on the eaves facing the street shortly before the junction to Schulstrasse and Parkstrasse, according to the pastorate.
House construction in Arnis
The houses of the 17th and 18th centuries were half-timbered houses , a few of which are still there today (mostly with later conversions and renovation work). The size of the first houses can now be guessed at at Lange Strasse 13 and 26 . A typical feature of these half-timbered houses are the illuminations , extensions to the living room of the house beyond the actual facade facing the street. In some houses, the Utluchten are both double, on both sides of the entrance door, and on one side, asymmetrical to the axis of the house. Behind the windows of the Utluchten the most coveted places in the living room of the house were, as one could watch the hustle and bustle on the street from here. In the 17th and 18th centuries, a wide corridor remained next to the houses as access to the courtyard and garden, which in houses built in the late 18th and 19th centuries was reduced to extremely narrow, urban walkways.
In the 19th century, the fully brick house on a rock foundation gradually established itself as a building type (e.g. Lange Str. 79 ). Typical of this period are the crescent-shaped, often divided gable windows on the second floor, which was used as an attic for storage purposes, as well as the large entrance doors richly decorated with woodwork in the central axis of the houses. Inside these houses a central corridor led to the rear. The front rooms were mostly used as living rooms, the rear rooms as utility rooms. On the upper floor, at most the part facing the street was used as living space, as there were no suitable insulation techniques for cladding the sloping ceilings at that time. The upper floor was therefore mostly used as a storage space or as a bedroom for the children.
Just like in Maasholm , the townscape, which had survived the Second World War completely, was changed significantly in the town center with the start of renovations in the 1960s and 1970s. Some of the half-timbered houses were completely rebuilt with red brick facades. Since the size and proportions of the windows were also changed, the result of such a renovation hardly differed from a post-war settlement. Far more common than clinker clinkers, however, was the insertion of new, wider windows, the proportions of which were fundamentally different from those of the historical windows. In this way, a large part of the houses was rebuilt in these decades - the use of mahogany wood instead of the mostly two-tone painted old windows led to further deviations from the historical appearance.
In the town center, the redesign went so far that several houses that were important for the appearance were completely demolished and replaced by new buildings that were unsuitable in terms of material and proportions. In the course of these renovations, the historic “Schifferhaus” restaurant was demolished.
From the late 1970s onwards, residents of Neu-Arniss opposed this development, and some of the dilapidated or built-up houses were given back their historical details (including Lange Str. 19 ).
As a result of the economic decline in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the outward appearance of the city has been preserved relatively well to this day. Two residential buildings at the northern end of the peninsula, the Aar, were not integrated into the settlement grid, but are still built in the traditional settlement area. The repair hall of the former Otto Eberhard shipyard, which is very high for Arnis and still exists, caused heated debates at the time of its new construction and even today looks oversized from an angle. At the same time, although this intervention has shifted the focus, it did not destroy the image of the settlement.
An intervention by a number of new residential buildings on the "old dam" was prevented after heated debates in the city council at the end of the 1960s. This change would have finally dissolved the settlement area, which was limited to the area of the former island. A step here already represent the buildings along the access road of fishing from, where the since its construction (1949) Villa house the "coal king" Nissen (company named Hania ) have emerged a number of residential and commercial buildings, u. a. the base at the sailing port of today's WSG on the municipality of the neighboring municipality of Grödersby (see below).
After the construction of jetties protruding far into the Schlei, apart from the WSG facility mentioned in Arnisser Noor, had so far been limited to the area parallel to Langen Straße, a project for a new pier was discussed in Arnis in autumn 2005 that would Would have blown the frame. A private group of investors had intended to build a pier in the loop upstream of the Arniss cemetery, in order to a. to create a landing stage for passenger shipping, which is on the rise again. This project, which is funded 50% from public funds, was supported by Mayor Jan Willi Degen, but was rejected by the city council in November 2005.
As early as the 19th century, Arniss citizens were aware that they lived in a special place. The sexton and school teacher Christopher Scharf was the first Arnisser citizen in 1838 to publish a chronicle of the place as a book. In 1941 Georg Thomsen, born in Arnis in 1872 as the son of a captain, wrote his memoirs, which are now considered to be one of the most important sources on Arnis at the time of the decline of shipping. After this text was previously only available as a typescript, it was published as a book in 2017 together with other articles by Thomsen (see literature). Further chronicles were published by the former doctor of the village, Walther Luth, in 1977 and by the fisher woman Liselotte Wiese in 2000. The autobiography of the captain and temporary emigrant Peter Hansen from Amalienburg in 1859 referred explicitly to Arnis in the subtitle. Arnis-born historian and photographer Nicolaus Schmidt published a comprehensive political, social and economic history in 2017 .
The Arnissers are - based on the founding history - as very stubborn and are known in Schleswig-Holstein for their culture of argument through media coverage, in which neighbors or individual Arnissers or parts of the Arnisser population complain against decisions of their city councils. In the proverbial “poplar dispute” from 2009, the first thing was the felling of large poplars along the hiking trail at the “Noorwiesen”. The poplars should be felled for safety reasons, as they are no longer stable. This was prevented by a group of citizens because, from their point of view, the trees in their particular size are part of the cityscape. A second poplar dispute arose over the costs of the necessary restoration of the poplars. In 2011 it was determined by court order that the costs were to be borne by the city, even though they were on private property. The hiking trail with the more than 90-year-old poplars is to be seen as a public ensemble - the planting before the Second World War was not carried out exactly outside the property boundaries.
Of the nine seats in the city council, the BfA voter community has had five seats since the 2018 local elections, the SSW has four seats. Since May 28th, Arnis has a mayor for the first time, Marina Bruges from SSW. The long-time mayor Bernd Kugler had previously resigned.
coat of arms
Blazon : "Under a golden shield head, inside a blue net needle lying between two upright blue linden leaves, in blue a single-masted golden sailing ship with full sails, flag and pennant."
Today there is only one Danish kindergarten in the city in the building of the former Danish school. The next preschool and elementary school is located in Habertwedt, a district of the neighboring municipality of Grödersby , the secondary schools in Kappeln, about five kilometers away . The nearest Danish school is also in Kappeln.
Arnis has three sailing clubs: the Arnisser Segelclub e. V. (ASC) with headquarters and sailing port in Kappeln , the water sports community Arnis-Grödersby e. V. (WSG Arnis-Grödersby) based at Arnisser Noor (clubhouse belonging to Grödersby ) and the local sailing club Arnis (SVA).
The Arnis Volunteer Fire Brigade was founded in 1886. The Arnisser Turn- und Sportverein only plays a minor role in the village today, but it looks back on a long tradition. The Sydslesvigsk Forening (SSF), the cultural association of the Danish minority was founded in 1945 and meets in the former Danish school.
In 2017, together with citizens from Rabenkirchen and Grödersby, the church building association of the parish Arnis-Rabenkirchen e. V. founded, which has the structural preservation of the Schifferkirche Arnis and the Marienkirche in Rabenkirchen.
Culture and sights
As a densely built-up peninsula in the Schlei, Arnis is a special urban development feature; the development still reflects the planning from the time it was founded. In the natural protection of the Noores there is a sailing harbor, three shipyards, several halls as winter storage areas for sailing boats and a cable ferry over the Schlei. Arnis is shaped by the water. You can walk around the city on a footpath along the banks of the Schlei, across the shipyard and along the Noorwiesen in less than half an hour. The mixture of gardens, shipyards and docks for sailing boats on the southeast side offers an urban penetration of work, living and tourist use, which is rare in this form. The church is worth seeing (the half-timbered wall dates back to the time it was built in 1669) and the cemetery is located on an elevation that is said to be based on the remains of a defensive fortification (see Schwonsburg ) from the time of Erich von Pomerania . In the church, the votive ships , the pulpit from 1573 and the painting “The Raising of the Cross” (see above) are among the most important parts of the furnishings. Long street forms the central axis and at the same time the greatest attraction of the city, with its trimmed linden trees and the remaining fishermen's houses from the 18th century. Special features are the hollyhocks on many houses as well as the Klönbänke , which have been set up in front of the houses for several years. The next bigger city is Kappeln .
In summer the city festival and the summer festival of the DRK take place, on the first weekend in August the festival Musik am Noor in a shipyard hall and in early September the “Speck Regatta”, which is organized by the Arniss sailing club, the ASC.
The Speck Regatta has been held since 1920. Since the economic crisis made regular prizes impossible for the participants, donated food was given as prizes. This tradition has been preserved to this day, the winner receives bacon and a souvenir plate, other prizes are awarded in the form of natural produce. The regatta is now one of the most important on the Schlei, the number of participating boats has risen from 15 in 1920 to more than 100, which drive in different classes.
Celebration of the 350th birthday
On July 8, 2017, the city celebrated its 350th birthday with music, theater, handicrafts and a light show. The 275 residents (as of 2016) spent a year preparing for the ceremony, which began with a German-Danish service in the Schifferkirche , followed by a colorful parade through the city and an anniversary party in the marquee with District Administrator Wolfgang Buschmann and the Danish Consul General from Flensburg , Henrik Becker-Christensen , and guest of honor Hans-Joachim Grote , the new Interior Minister of Schleswig-Holstein , who conveyed the congratulations from Prime Minister Daniel Günther . An exhibition on the history of the city was opened in the town hall, which was created by Nicolaus Schmidt. While Arniss sailors organized an anniversary regatta on the Schlei, the gaff sailor Catarina and the Viking ship Sigyn were open to guests of the festival.
On July 8th and 9th, the play The move to Arnis was performed in the marquee in front of 350 spectators . The first half of the play is based on the Kappelner Heimatspiel written in the 1950s by Hans Bürgin (teacher at the Klaus Harms School in Kappeln) . The revision and addition with a completely new second half was carried out by Hendrik Horn (Arnis) and Nicolaus Schmidt. The Low German texts are from Elke Horn (Arnis), who also directed. In 2019, this theater group performed another play on the Arniss story in the M & P-Halle am Noor, The Battle for Schleimünde , which deals with the difficult construction of today's Schleimünder. The authors of the play are again Hendrik Horn, Nicolaus Schmidt and Elke Horn.
The performance of plays that deal with the founding history has a long tradition in Arnis. On May 15, 1867, in the Gildehaus, in the “Meyerschen Gaststätte” (today's house at Lange Strasse 79 ), such a play was performed on the occasion of the 200th anniversary celebration , The Foundation of Arnis . The names of the actors are recorded, but not the author of the play.
In addition to restaurants, there are several businesses in Arnis that specialize primarily in sailing and shipping. The shopping infrastructure has almost completely dissolved; What is left is a bakery with a café. While groceries could still be bought in six shops in the 1950s, today the offer is reduced to the stalls of a small weekly market. There are also a number of shops for tourist needs and a pottery.
In January 2018, the towns of Arnis and Kappeln, together with nine neighboring municipalities such as Sundsacker on the other side of the Schleis, founded a special purpose association for commercial settlement.
Tourism and sailing are of particular importance for the place, with around 12,000 overnight stays per year. Both on the north side and on the longer side of the Schleis there are smaller and larger jetties for permanent berths for sailing boats.
Boat and shipbuilding, which played the most important role up until the first few years of the 21st century, is continued at a somewhat lower level after the Otto Eberhardt shipyard, founded in 1909, was closed in the meantime. There are a total of four shipyards in Arnis, and a fifth in neighboring Königstein at the Noor exit, which is operated by a boat builder from Arniss. The main focus of work today is the maintenance, care and restoration of historic yachts and ships. The reopening of Schiffswert Otto Eberhardt at the end of 2017 was particularly welcomed by the Schleischifffahrt companies, which in the meantime had to bring their excursion steamers, which were only approved for inland navigation, under difficult conditions to Denmark for repairs. As a future perspective, the shipyard will include the production of floating houses in its program. The yacht and boat yard Matthias Paulsen continues the tradition of building yachts in mahogany from the former Matthiesen & Paulsen shipyard. This was the nucleus for the high density of companies in the area of boat building / boat accessories in the eastern Schlei area, which is unique in Germany today. The shipyard Heinrich Eberhardt is today a mixture of marina and platform for smaller boat building projects. The Balticat shipyard, which produces series catamarans made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic and molded sandwich panels , also operates on this site . A large number of the companies from Arnis to Maasholm have organized themselves today under “schleiboot.de”. The M&P Jachtwerft Paulsen am Arnisser Noor makes its hall available every August for the music festival "Musik am Noor", which has meanwhile become an annual attraction in northern Schleswig-Holstein.
Arnis can be reached via the federal highway 201 from Schleswig to Kappeln or the federal highway 199 from Flensburg to Kappeln. The next train station is in Süderbrarup and the next airfield in Kiel-Holtenau .
There is a bus connection to the Süderbrarup train station, further bus connections exist to Schleswig, Kappeln, Flensburg and Eckernförde.
Over the centuries, many of the male residents were sailors, helmsmen or captains. Some of the shipowners and boatmen are documented on the gravestones preserved in the Arnisser Friedhof or on the donations (paintings) to the church with names and dates of life. Since the end of 2018, some biographies of outstanding personalities in the cemetery have been available as "Talking Stones" via a QR code on the mobile phone as audio files.
Hinrich Klinck was the richest shipowner in the village around 1800 and in 1808 had the then Napoleonic Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte as a guest in his new house, today's town hall. When the latter had changed sides in the Napoleonic Wars in 1813 and led the Prussian-Swedish troops through Schleswig-Holstein against Denmark, Klinck fought his way through the fronts to him and received a license for Kappeln and Arnis. In contrast to other cities, the two spots were spared from destruction and looting during this “Cossack winter”. Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte became King of Sweden as Charles XIV John and is the founder of today's Swedish royal family .
Among the sons of the city, the theologian Jacob Georg Christian Adler (1756-1834) stands out, among other things, was a professor at the University of Copenhagen, was awarded the highest Danish order, the Dannebrogorden , and became known as an orientalist in the Arab world. Adler's father, the theologian and archaeologist Georg Christian Adler (1724–1804), was a pastor in Arnis from 1755 to 1758.
- Friedrich Marquard Meyer (1769–1834), theologian
- Johann Martin Graack (1816–1899), artist
- Gadso Weiland (1869–1915), Art Nouveau artist - Weiland lived in Arnis from 1903 to 1914
- Otto Soltau (1885–1915), artist
- Nicolaus Schmidt (* 1953), artist and historian
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