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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Kiel
Map of Germany, location of the city of Kiel highlighted

Coordinates: 54 ° 19 '  N , 10 ° 8'  E

Basic data
State : Schleswig-Holstein
Height : 5 m above sea level NHN
Area : 118.65 km 2
Residents: 246,794 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 2080 inhabitants per km 2
Postcodes : 24103-24118,
24143-24149, 24159Template: Infobox municipality in Germany / maintenance / zip code contains text
Area code : 0431
License plate : AI
Community key : 01 0 02 000
City structure: 18 districts with 30 districts

City administration address :
Fleethörn 9
24103 Kiel
Website :
Lord Mayor : Ulf fighters ( SPD )
Location of the city of Kiel in Schleswig-Holstein
Bremerhaven (zu Freie Hansestadt Bremen) Niedersachsen Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Helgoland (zu Kreis Pinneberg) Königreich Dänemark Kreis Nordfriesland Flensburg Kiel Neumünster Lübeck Kreis Herzogtum Lauenburg Kreis Stormarn Kreis Segeberg Kreis Ostholstein Kreis Pinneberg Kreis Steinburg Kreis Dithmarschen Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg Kreis Plön Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernfördemap
About this picture
Map of Kiel
Aerial view over Kiel and the Kiel Fjord . Left the west bank, right the east bank, in the background the Baltic Sea. Looking north. Recorded in 2009
Kiel's landmark : the striking Kiel town hall tower ; left in front of it the Kiel Opera House . View from Lorentzendamm in south direction over the Kleiner Kiel , 2008
View over Kiel city center
Kiel Sailing City : The marketing logo of the state capital Kiel

Kiel is the state capital and at the same time the most populous city in Schleswig-Holstein . Founded as Holstenstadt tom Kyle in the 13th century, it became a major city in 1900 . Today Kiel is one of the 30 largest cities in Germany and forms the center of the Kiel region.

Kiel is the northernmost city in Germany . It lies on the Baltic Sea ( Kiel Fjord ) and is the terminus of the busiest artificial waterway in the world of international Kiel Canal called the Kiel Canal . Kiel is traditionally an important base of the German Navy and is known for the annual international sailing event Kieler Woche , the handball club THW Kiel , the football club Holstein Kiel and the culinary specialty of Kiel sprats .

In addition to the service sector, the largest German shipyard ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems and the Kiel Baltic Sea port with ferries to Scandinavia and the Baltic States are of economic importance . The independent city is the seat of three universities: the Christian-Albrechts-Universität , the Fachhochschule and the Muthesius Kunsthochschule .


The regiopolis of Kiel extends in a horseshoe shape around the natural port of Kiel Fjord , which is an important seaport on the Baltic Sea. The northernmost district of Kiel, Schilksee , lies on the open Baltic Sea. The watershed between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea runs through Kiel . The river Eider , which flows into the North Sea, touches the city area just like the Schwentine ; at the end of the Kiel Canal in the Kiel-Holtenau district are the locks to the fjord. The area around Kiel is characterized by moraine hills and merges into Holstein Switzerland in the east .

Neighboring communities

The following communities border the city of Kiel (they are enumerated clockwise, starting in the northeast on the east coast of the Kiel Fjord):

District of Plön : Mönkeberg and Schönkirchen ( Office Schrevenborn ), City of Schwentinental (until February 29, 2008, the municipalities of Klausdorf and Raisdorf which are free of charge ) as well as Pohnsdorf , Honigsee and Boksee (all Office Preetz-Land )

District of Rendsburg-Eckernförde : Flintbek ( Flintbek Office ), Molfsee and Mielkendorf ( Molfsee Office ), Melsdorf and Ottendorf ( Achterwehr Office ), Kronshagen (free municipality), Neuwittenbek and Felm ( Danish Wohld office ), Altenholz (free municipality), Dänischenhagen and Strande ( Office Dänischenhagen )

Around 325,000 people live in the Kiel agglomeration .

City structure

The urban area of ​​Kiel is now divided into 30 districts. Usually one or more districts together form one of the 18 districts, each with a local advisory council . These committees are redefined by the council assembly (municipal council) of the entire city after each municipal election and are to be heard on important matters relating to the district. You can submit applications that concern the district to the council assembly so that they can be discussed or decided there.

The districts with their assigned districts and their official number:

Districts 1–30 (outlined in black) and local council districts (colored)
View of the city center of Kiel towards the southwest in the morning light, aerial photo 2003
By clicking on the picture, explanations appear.
View from the harbor to the western bank of the old town with quays, town hall tower (back), Nikolaikirche (center), Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Sartori & Berger-Speicher (front), shipping museum and Kiel Castle (right). By clicking on the picture, explanations appear.
(with settlement Oppendorf )


Kiel is located in the temperate climate zone . The summer is usually cool to mild (around 17 ° C), and the winter is maritime and, for the northern location, rather mild (around 2 ° C). The greatest amounts of precipitation fall in July (about 90 mm per month). The annual average temperature is around 9 ° C. The temperature record is 35.0 ° C on August 9, 1992 in the time series since 1940.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: DWD
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Kiel
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 4.5 5.2 7.7 11.5 16.2 18.8 21.3 21.3 17.3 12.6 7.1 4.8 O 12.4
Min. Temperature (° C) 0.0 0.4 1.5 3.8 7.1 10.2 12.8 12.6 10.4 6.5 2.5 0.4 O 5.7
Precipitation ( mm ) 72.0 50.3 61.6 42.4 45.5 70.5 87.8 71.6 74.2 72.7 56.8 76.6 Σ 782
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 1.2 2.1 3.4 5.5 7.4 7.6 7.1 7.1 4.9 3.3 1.7 1.1 O 4.4
Rainy days ( d ) 12.4 11.6 11.5 8.7 7.9 11.5 11.4 10.2 11.1 11.1 10.5 11.8 Σ 129.7
Humidity ( % ) 87 84 81 77 74 74 76 78 81 85 68 87 O 79.3
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: DWD

Level, tides, high water, storm surge, low water

Water levels in Kiel (Holtenau gauge)
Water level description last occurred frequency
+297 cm highest water level 1872
+227 cm HW100 every 100 years
+208 cm HW50 every 50 years
over +200 cm very severe storm surge December 31, 1904 every 40 years
+184 cm HW20 every 20 years
+171 cm HW, highest water level in the assessment period
Nov. 1, 2000 to Oct. 31, 2010
November 1, 2006
+165 cm HW10 January 2, 2019 (+167 cm) every 10 years
over +150 cm severe storm surge 2nd January 2019 every 6 years
+145 cm HW5 every 5 years
+126 cm MHW, mean (i.e. average of the highest annual floods) in the assessment period
Nov. 1, 2000 to Oct. 31, 2010
k. A.
over +125 cm medium storm surge k. A. every 2 years
over +100 cm slight storm surge k. A. yearly
0 cm MW, mean water level in the assessment period 504 cm, PNP = NHN-4,995m
Nov. 1, 2000 to Oct. 31, 2010
k. A. almost daily
below −100 cm light storm low water k. A. yearly
−119 cm MNW, mean (i.e. average of the lowest annual) low water in the assessment period
Nov. 1, 2000 to Oct. 31, 2010
k. A.
below −125 cm mean storm low water k. A. every 2 years
under −150 cm pronounced storm low water December 6, 2013 every 6 years
−163 cm NW, lowest water level in the assessment period
Nov. 1, 2000 to Oct. 31, 2010
January 9, 2005
−190 cm second lowest water level November 6, 1911
−229 cm lowest water level October 4, 1860

In the Baltic Sea there are tides whose tidal range in Kiel is only about 10 cm. Due to the wind, there are regular floods in Kiel:

In Kiel, HW5, i.e. a flood that is only expected every 5 years, i.e. with a probability of 80% will not be reached every year, is 145 cm, HW10 165 cm, HW20 184 cm, HW50 208 cm, HW100 ( expected every 100 years, with a probability of 99% not being achieved in every year) is 226–228 cm in Kiel, the HW200 is 236 cm. The calculation of HW1000, i.e. a flood occurring every 1000 years based on various data sets, ends at a 95% interval of 210–360 cm above sea level.

As a millennium event, the Baltic storm flood in 1872 was probably the heaviest storm flood in Kiel with a water level of 2.97 m above sea level at the gauge in Kiel-Holtenau.

A very severe storm surge (over 2 m) lasted 225 cm in Kiel on December 31, 1904. Based on today's conditions and taking into account a secular sea level rise of 15 cm that has occurred since then, this corresponds to a return interval of around 400 years (annual frequency = 0.0025). This is the highest water level ever measured at the Holtenau gauge; data have been collected here since 1901. Before that, as already mentioned above, on November 13, 1872 with 297 cm.

A severe storm surge (over 150 cm) occurred on average every 6 years, most recently with +167 cm on January 2, 2019, before that most recently on January 4, 2017. Historically very difficult in other places in the Baltic Sea, but only difficult in Kiel. were the storm surges of January 9, 1908 and January 4, 1954.

A medium storm surge (125–150 cm) last occurred on January 6, 2012, before that on November 29, 2010, January 9, 2010 and October 14, 2009.

A slight storm surge (1.00–1.25 m above mean water level) last occurred on January 9, 2019, before that most recently on November 22, 2015, January 14, 2012, December 24, 2010, and December 12, 2010.

In the period 1901–1993, 115 storm surges occurred at the Kiel gauge, of which 63 were light, 32 medium and 20 severe.

Particularly low water levels, low storm water, at least 100 cm below sea level, occur again and again, in the last ten years on December 6, 2013 with −168 cm, December 10, 2014 −120 cm, September 14, 2017 −109 cm in each case Measured in Kiel-Holtenau.

The historically lowest water levels were at −229 cm on October 4, 1860, −190 cm on November 6, 1911, −188 cm on December 4, 1999, and −183 cm on November 25, 1981.

In the period 1901–1990, 104 low storm water occurred at the Kiel gauge, 59 of them light (100–125 cm), 30 medium (125–150 cm), 15 pronounced (more than 150 cm below sea level).

A very strong water level fluctuation of around 3 m within 24 hours at the Kiel-Holtenau gauge occurred on December 20, 2001. The fluctuation from a mean storm high water (almost +150 cm) to a mean storm low water (almost -150 cm) was from triggered a change in wind direction in the central Baltic Sea from NE to SW.

Level locations

Gauge at Sartori & Berger-Speicher, Am Wall, Kiel, during the severe storm surge on January 2, 2019. Gauge zero is around five meters below mean water level

The Kiel-Holtenau gauge is the successor to the Kiel (Seegarten) gauge from September 1, 1984. The level at the Friedrichsort lighthouse ceased on November 1, 1987.

There are publicly visible levels (1) at the Sartori & Berger-Speicher in Straße Am Wall, but here the lowest level indicated is 6.25 m and thus 1.25 m above mean sea level; this level shows the water level only every two years; the upper end of the gauge of 8.45 m has never been reached; (2) also at the northern end of Kiel between Kiel-Schilksee and Strande at the outflow of the Fuhlensee into the Baltic Sea, here the level can be read up to 6.45 m, i.e. 1.45 m above mean sea level, this level is approximately every two years completely under water.


Since the subjugation of the Saxons by Charlemagne, the area on the Kiel Fjord first belonged to the Franconian Empire and then to Holstein . Kiel was founded between 1233 and 1242 by Adolf IV (Schauenburg and Holstein) , who had only recently regained control of the county, which had temporarily been lost to Denmark. Presumably there was a merchant settlement at this point a long time before 1233. But only near Kiel did the Franconian-Saxon territory come into contact with the Baltic Sea - north of the Levensau was Schleswig and thus Danish territory, east of the Schwentine behind the Limes Saxoniae was Wagria and thus Slavic territory, which at that time was not yet firmly in the hands of the Holsteiners Count was. Therefore, this place on the fjord was the only possibility for a Saxon or Holstein Baltic port. As such, Kiel was planned as one of the northernmost cities in the Holy Roman Empire . At the same time, Count Adolf founded the Franciscan monastery in which he spent his old age. In 1242, Kiel was granted the town charter of Lübeck. The first city ​​books , which initially spread in northern Germany, date from this time .


The original city name was Holstenstadt tom Kyle (about "Holsteinstadt an der Förde"). The y in the old name is a long / i /. In parlance, the name was shortened to tom Kyle and finally to Kiel . Kiel ( Low German "wedge") in particular most likely means the fjord , a sea bay that cuts far into the country. A Nordic origin is also conceivable (Old Norse kíll "narrow bay").

Historically, Kiel was also called by its Latin name Chilonium (pronounced "Kielonium").

Trading city and member of the Hanseatic League

The Kiel envelope has been an important open market with a folk festival since the 15th century. Depiction on an emergency note from 1921.

In the Middle Ages, Kiel's long-distance trade lagged far behind that of other Baltic ports such as Lübeck , Flensburg , Stralsund , Rostock and Wismar . Although the city entered the Hanseatic League in 1283/1284 , it rarely took part in joint activities and could hardly use the trade privileges: the sovereign influence on trade was stronger here than in the free cities. The castle was pledged to Hans Schackssohn von Rantzau from 1465 to 1469, the town and castle were pledged to the Free Hanseatic City of Lübeck from 1469 to 1496, which limited the city's economic opportunities. All these disadvantages finally led to exclusion from the Hanseatic League in 1554, especially since Kiel was accused of harboring pirates.

Economically more important for the city than membership in the Hanseatic League was the Kieler Umschlag , which was first mentioned in 1469, but presumably had existed for much longer. For a week (from January 6th to 14th), money transactions were carried out here, especially by the nobility and merchants. Interested parties came from all over the country. A folk festival was then celebrated, which has been held once a year since 1975.

In 1301, Kiel was already fortified. The sovereigns, the Schauenburg Counts of Holstein and Stormarn, had built a castle. From 1329 the city was surrounded by a stone city wall. During this time Kiel had nine city gates: Holstentor (Holsteintor), Kütertor (Küter = innards butcher), Hassor, Danish Gate, Kattentor, Fischertor, Flemish Gate, Schumachertor and Pfaffentor. Until the late 16th century, the populated area was largely limited to the small old town . Besides the Franciscan monastery , there was only one church, the Nikolaikirche , which was completed around 1240 .

Early modern age

Historical city view of Kiel by Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg from 1588. Looking north to the Baltic Sea; left the west bank, right the east bank of the Kiel Fjord.
Kiel Castle and former castle garden, depiction around 1900

Since 1460 Kiel has been ruled by the Danish King in his capacity as Duke of Holstein (see personal union ), so it remained a part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, not Denmark. The Reformation began in Kiel in 1526, when the Kiel citizen's son Marquard Schuldorp , who had studied with Martin Luther in Wittenberg , began his service as vicar. In 1527 Friedrich I. invited Melchior Hofmann to Kiel as a lay preacher. Hofmann's doctrine of the Lord's Supper , according to which bread and wine mean only Christ's body , contradicted the Lutheran position according to which Christ is present in the sacrament . Hofmann and Schuldorp are said to have fought in the pulpit. In 1529 Hofmann and his followers were presented to Crown Prince Christian III after the Flensburg disputation . in the Flensburg St. Catherine's Monastery in the country. Kiel received a new church order. The Franciscan monastery was dissolved and the building was given to the city, which used it as a school and later as a hospital.

In the witch hunts in the city of Kiel from 1530 to 1676, 32 people were affected. At least 25 people were executed in witch trials , including Trinke Preetzen and her father Hinrich Busch .

Since the division of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein between the Danish King Christian III. and his brothers, the dukes Adolf and Johann , in 1544 Kiel belonged to the ducal share, the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf . In the course of the 16th century and early 17th century, the dukes succeeded in gradually reducing the older privileges of some cities; so Kiel was forced to come to power of Duke Friedrich III. to take a special oath of homage, which reduced the formerly "privileged city" to the status of an inherited corporation.

In 1665, Duke Christian Albrecht von Gottorf founded the Christian Albrechts University , the northernmost university in the Roman-German Empire, in the building of the former Kiel monastery. The university originally had theological, law, medical and philosophical faculties and soon moved into its own buildings. The citizens of Kiel were initially not very enthusiastic, because the city not only had to provide the buildings, but also to endure the often boisterous students - as early as 1700 there were over 300 with a population of just under 4000 people - who like the other university members not subject to municipal jurisdiction. In addition, the university lecturers did not pay any taxes. Nevertheless, Kiel benefited economically from the university, where important scholars were soon working.

After the Gottorf dukes lost their possessions in Schleswig in 1721, Kiel became the capital and residence of the remaining territory for half a century. In 1728 the future Russian Tsar Peter III was in Kiel Castle . Born as the son of Duke Karl Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf . As Tsar, Peter planned a campaign against Denmark; only his early death saved Kiel and the Elbe duchies from another war.

Kiel as part of the entire Danish state

Kiel around 1855

Peter's widow, the Tsarina Katharina the Great , left the remains of the Gottorf shares in Holstein and thus also Kiel to the Danish king in 1773 . From then on he ruled the city again in his capacity as Duke of Holstein; In terms of constitutional law, Kiel continued to belong to Germany, not Denmark. The university experienced a considerable boom; In 1803 Germany's first botanical garden was opened in Kiel.

After the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Kiel and Holstein became part of Denmark under constitutional law for nine years. As part of the Napoleonic Wars, Kiel was captured by the Swedes in the " Cossack Winter " in 1813; The Peace of Kiel was concluded in 1814 : the Duchy of Holstein continued to be ruled by the Danish king, and in 1815 it became a member of the German Confederation . With that, Kiel formally belonged to Germany again. In 1817, Kiel students took part in the Wartburg Festival. In the years that followed, Kiel University became a center of the fraternity movement . It was not without reason that Uwe Jens Lornsen, a student fraternity member and graduate of Kiel University , chose Kiel in 1830 as the place where he published About the Constitution in Schleswigholstein , one of the most influential pamphlets of the Vormärz . He was supported by Franz Hermann Hegewisch , who later was one of the most important propagators of the railway connection with Altona.

In 1838 the mechanical engineering institute Schweffel und Howaldt was founded ; this was Kiel's first large industrial company, which later became the Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft shipyard . With the construction of the railway line to Altona ( König-Christian-VIII.-Ostseebahn ) , the Baltic port of Kiel was connected with the Elbe and the North Sea as early as 1844. With the fire diver , the world's first submarine was built in Kiel in 1850.

In Kiel, a provisional Schleswig-Holstein government was established in 1848 . The attempt to break away from the Danish crown and become a sovereign member of the German Confederation failed.

Marine port of Kiel

Historical map (around 1888)
1910: Kiel submarine harbor with two-hull deep-sea boats
1921: Germania shipyard

But in 1864 Schleswig-Holstein was conquered by Prussia and Austria in the German-Danish War; Kiel was initially administered jointly by Prussia and Austria. In 1865, the Prussian king ordered the relocation of the Baltic Sea naval station from Danzig to Kiel. In the same year, in the Gastein Convention , Austria and Prussia agreed to build a federal fleet and make Kiel a federal port. This plan did not come into effect because of the German War of 1866; Nevertheless, from this point on Kiel quickly developed into a large city.

1867 Kiel was part of the Province of Schleswig-Holstein in the Kingdom of Prussia and naval port in the of Prussia majorisierten Navy the North German Confederation . The artillery depot (from 1891 Imperial Torpedo Workshop) was set up in Friedrichsort ; here, among other things, overseas and submarine weapons were developed. In the same year, the Norddeutsche Schiffbaugesellschaft ( Germania shipyard from 1882 ) was the second large shipbuilding company in Kiel after Schweffel & Howaldt . The city became the seat of the district of Kiel formed from the offices of Bordesholm , Kronshagen, Kiel and Neumünster .

With the establishment of the German Empire , Kiel, like Wilhelmshaven, became a port of war . Established in 1865, Prussian Navy Depot became the Imperial Shipyard Kiel , in turn, after the founding of the German Empire in 1871 Imperial Shipyard was renamed. The Kiel shipyard workers began to organize in 1873; the General German Ship Carpenters Association was founded .

The first Kiel Week took place in 1882; Since 1885 it has been organized as a combination of ship parade, sailing regattas and folk festival and over time should develop into a world-famous sailing event and, alongside the Oktoberfest and the Cannstatter Volksfest , one of the largest folk festivals in Germany. Kaiser Wilhelm II was a regular guest at the event.

In 1883 Kiel left the district of the same name and became an independent city ; Bordesholm became the new seat of the district of Kiel . Rapid population growth began in the 1880s with the rise in shipbuilding. Its employees quickly organized: The Kiel trade union cartel was founded in 1893 and initially had 2900 members.

Panorama of Kiel, around 1902

In 1895, the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal (today the Kiel Canal ) was opened, and it soon became the world's busiest artificial waterway. As a result, Kiel became the main port of the German navy. In the middle of the First World War, Kiel became the official seat of the President of the Province of Schleswig-Holstein in 1917 and thus the provincial capital. Before that, the high presidium sat in Schleswig .

Emergency money from the city's main office in Kiel from the 1920s

A revolution began with the Kiel sailors' uprising in 1918, which contributed significantly to the end of the First World War. On November 3, 1918, raised there, the sailors, founded after a spontaneous clash with pro-government forces on November 4, the first workers' and soldiers of Germany and thus began the November Revolution , the whole of Germany captured within a few days and the foundations of the Weimar Republic put.

The Kiel-Holtenau civil airfield went into operation in 1928.

Kiel under National Socialism

In Kiel (as in the rest of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein), forces hostile to the republic grew stronger towards the end of the Weimar Republic, especially the National Socialists . Kiel was the capital of the NS-Gau Schleswig-Holstein . Especially after the seizure of power on January 30, 1933, there were attacks by the National Socialists. German Jews were most affected. In addition, mainly communist and social democratic workers leaders and people who, as democrats, had publicly endorsed the existence of the Weimar Republic were persecuted. After the Kiel town hall was illegally occupied by National Socialists on March 11, 1933, the well-known republic-loyal lawyer Wilhelm Spiegel was murdered in his house by several National Socialists (men in SA and SS uniform) the following night . The subsequent investigation served as a pretext to quickly smash the powerful Kiel SPD local association and to send many Social Democrats and Communists to the concentration camp.

Friedrich Schumm's murder

During the boycott of Jewish shops on April 1, the lawyer Friedrich Schumm was murdered on April 1, 1933 in a cell of the police prison on Gartenstrasse in Kiel by a pack of SA and SS people . During the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in front of his father Georg Schumm's furniture store on Kehdenstrasse, Schumm had been beaten by several SS and SA men standing there at around 11 a.m. to prevent him from doing his business Father to enter. He had defended himself against this in self-defense with a pistol. There were also shots from the SS. An SS man by the name of Asthalter, who was also a shooter in the incident, was injured and taken to hospital. Branch holder was operated on because of a shot in the liver and was soon out of danger. After the incident, Schumm himself went to Police Station II and handed in his weapon there. He was taken to the police detention center around 12:30 pm. At the same time, an SS commando had completely devastated his father Georg Schumm's furniture business. This resulted in property damage of 25,000 Reichsmarks. Schumm's father and sister were arrested. Then the SS troops, other SA units and people in civilian clothes went to the police prison and, with the help of the NSDAP district leader Behrens and with the participation of the NSDAP Gauleiter Hinrich Lohse, gained entry to the anti-democratic and anti-Semitic-minded Police President Otto zu Rantzau into jail. SS men received the cell key, attacked the defenseless Friedrich Schumm in his cell and killed him with around 30 shots. Some time later, the wounded Asthalter by Georg Schumm received in a civil case , the large sum of 25,000 RM as pain and suffering - it corresponded to the seven to ten times the annual income of Asthalter. During the trial on May 5, 1934, numerous SS men were present in the courtroom, of whom not only Georg Schumm “showed justified fear”. The commander of this group of thugs had made a commitment to the court that the trial would not be "disturbed". Friedrich Schumm's murderers "perhaps" also sat among the SS men. A preliminary investigation opened by a senior public prosecutor was closed on July 7, 1933 at the behest of the Prussian Ministry of Justice. After the end of National Socialism, there was neither a judicial penalty nor compensation for the murder. After 1945, the Kiel public prosecutor's office did not succeed in breaking the “chum and silence of the surviving witnesses and murderers.” Only three subordinate SS men could be proven wrongdoing in a minor matter. They had persecuted a Jew for “racial reasons and forced the police to hand him over to the SS.” Two of them had also stolen money when Georg Schumm's shop was destroyed. They were sentenced to 12 months and 20 months' imprisonment.


The University of Kiel , under whose students the NSDAP had long been particularly popular, it soon after taking power in 1933 brought into line . With the Kiel School, a strictly regime-loyal and anti-Semitic legal doctrine developed among lawyers, which took over the positions of eminent Jewish or liberal professors from Kiel who had previously been illegally dismissed. In the philosophical seminar, the liberal lecturers Julius Stenzel and Richard Kroner were quickly replaced by the active National Socialists Kurt Hildebrandt and Ferdinand Weinhandl . In May 1933 Weinhandl was the main speaker at the rally on the book burning on Wilhelmplatz in Kiel.

Repression against Jews

When Kiel became the venue for the Olympic sailing competitions in 1936 , the authorities and the Nazi regime tried to keep their anti-Semitic measures in secret, as in the rest of the Reich, in order not to vote negative against Germany in the world. After that, the anti-Jewish measures continued. Jewish entrepreneurs were robbed of their businesses in various ways, a process the Nazis called Aryanization . Jews were disadvantaged in every way in public life. During the Reichspogromnacht on November 9, 1938, Nazi units from the SA and SS destroyed the great Kiel synagogue on Schrevenpark . Later Jewish private property was also stolen. The persecution of the Jews finally culminated in their murder: many of the more than 600 citizens of the Jewish faith residing in Kiel in 1933 were victims of the deportation of Jews from Germany and later murdered in the extermination camps . Only a few managed to escape into exile after being robbed by the German authorities to the point of being destitute in the country of exile.

Forced labor

In June 1944, the Nordmark labor education camp was built mainly to accommodate Soviet and Polish forced laborers , in which over 600 people perished by the beginning of 1945.

War damage

Between 1939 and 1945, the city, an important base of the Navy and the location of three large shipyards, was destroyed to well over 80 percent by Allied air raids on Kiel . With 350 sunk ships, the Kiel Fjord was probably the largest ship cemetery of the time.

End of war

Destroyed cruiser "Admiral Hipper" in dry dock, 1945

On May 2, 1945 at 9:30 p.m., the Baltic Sea Naval Command announced that Kiel should not be defended. The following day, existing war material and ammunition were destroyed, leading to numerous detonations and shots that could be heard all over the city. On May 3rd, the city was declared an " Open City ". The last air raid on Kiel took place on the following night from May 3rd to 4th. On May 4th, Hans-Georg von Friedeburg signed the surrender of all German troops in northwest Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark at Lüneburg on behalf of the last Reich President Karl Dönitz , who had previously left the last Reich government in Flensburg - Mürwik . On the same day, the first British armored car reached the city. In the afternoon, a small British delegation entered the Kiel City Hall and handed the Lord Mayor Behrens orders for the behavior of the population. Allied control of Kiel had begun. In the days that followed, the city was gradually occupied without a fight. The rest of Schleswig-Holstein was also completely occupied in the following days, with the exception of the Mürwik special area , which was not occupied until May 23rd. The last government of the Reich ended with subsequent arrests.

Kiel as the state capital of Schleswig-Holstein

Schoolchildren reforest debris with trees, October 1948
State Parliament and State Government of Schleswig-Holstein on the west bank of the Kiel Fjord
The plenary hall of the Schleswig-Holstein State Parliament directly on the Kiel Fjord, which can be recognized through the door glazing on the right

After the end of World War II, Kiel belonged to the British zone of occupation from 1945 . The British military administration set up a DP camp in the city to accommodate displaced persons . The majority of them were former Nazi forced laborers from Poland and the Baltic States .

With Ordinance No. 46 of the British Military Government on August 23, 1946, the Province of Schleswig-Holstein was separated from the State of Prussia and the new State of Schleswig-Holstein was founded; the Free State of Prussia itself was dissolved on February 25, 1947 by the Control Council Act No. 46 . Kiel was the capital of Schleswig-Holstein, which in 1949 became the federal state of the newly founded Federal Republic of Germany .

As early as the end of 1944, many refugees from East Prussia , West Prussia and Pomerania came to Schleswig-Holstein. Long after the end of the war, displaced persons from the eastern regions of the German Reich had to be housed in the heavily destroyed city . In the post-war years , Kiel was rebuilt from a “modernist” point of view. It soon developed again into the economic, political and intellectual center of Schleswig-Holstein.

36 years after the 1936 Summer Olympics , Kiel was once again the venue for the sailing competitions of the 1972 Summer Olympics , this time in the new Schilksee Olympic Center . In 1975 the Kiel envelope was revived as a modern folk festival. In 1985, the Kiel tram was stopped, a decision that is regretted many times today. In 1992 the city celebrated its 750th anniversary and in 1994 the 100th Kiel Week was held. Due to the two world wars, there was no Kiel Week from 1915 to 1919 and from 1940 to 1946.

On September 23, 2008 the city received the title Place of Diversity awarded by the federal government .


In 1850 the urban area of ​​Kiel including Hammer comprised a total of 1277 hectares.

From 1869 the following communities and districts were incorporated into the city of Kiel.

year places Part of the country Increase in ha Population (2008)
1869 Brunswik Holstein 277 6,036
1893 Wik Holstein 560 17,715
1901 Gaarden -East Holstein 311 16,287
1909 Projensdorf Holstein 229 see Wik
1910 Gaarden-South Holstein 618 10,356
1910 Hassee Holstein 369 11,897
1910 Ellerbek Holstein 89 5,780
1910 Wellingdorf Holstein 420 7,877
1910 Hasseldieksdamm Holstein 293 2,843
1922 Holtenau Schleswig 512 5,239
1922 Praised Schleswig 336 7,278
1922 Friedrichsort Schleswig 132 2,373
1923 Kronsburg Holstein 69 see Gaarden-Süd
1924 Neumühlen-Dietrichsdorf Holstein 401 11,729
1939 Elmschenhagen / Kroog Holstein 655 17.209
1958 Suchsdorf Holstein 760 9,098
1959 Schilksee Schleswig 608 5,158
1963 Mettenhof Holstein 158 18,865
1970 Russee Holstein 398 7,342
1970 Meimersdorf Holstein 766 2,252
1970 Moor lake Holstein 557 1,622
1970 Wellsee Holstein 501 5,059
1970 Ronne Holstein 479 422

Population development

Population development from 1300 to 2018

In 1885 Kiel had more than 50,000 inhabitants. In 1900, the city's population exceeded 100,000, making it a major city . By 1910 that number had doubled to 211,000. In December 1942 the population of the city reached its historical high of 306,000 due to the armament in World War II (naval port, shipyards). On December 31, 2016, the “ official population ” for Kiel was 247,441 according to the statistical office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices).


As is known, 1086 recognized asylum seekers, 54 asylum seekers with other residence permits, 37 repatriates and 1043 people without an asylum background lived in Kiel at the end of 2018 without their own housing . The latter group consists of 505 single men, 106 single women and the following non-single persons: 80 men, 128 women and 233 children. 676 people are properly accommodated, i.e. 95 are in communal accommodation, 237 in hotels and boarding houses of simple level, 344 in substitute living space (113 apartments rented by the city); of these 676, 205 are single men, 39 single women and 107 couples / single parents with children. For single men there are 44 places in two-bed rooms, 20 places in single rooms and 6 emergency beds in the Bodelschwinghhaus, for single women there are 30 places in individual residential containers on Arkonastraße, usually almost all places are occupied. Of the people without an asylum background and without proper accommodation, 291 live with friends / acquaintances, 43 are in clinics / women's shelters , 33 actually do " slab " or live in the "garden". For the last-mentioned group of people, there are three heated sea containers available from October to April at least from October to April and, if necessary, with 6 and a maximum of 8 places each, in order to be able to spend the night protected from the weather and, if the temperature is below zero, the day. In the years 2008 to 2012, the number of people without their own living space in the area of ​​responsibility of the City of Kiel was still below 400, almost all of them were without an asylum background, the number of legal accommodations was below 150.


Denomination statistics

The St. Nikolai Church on the Alter Markt is the oldest preserved building in the city.
The St. Nicholas Church on Rathausstrasse

According to the 2011 census , 41.3% of the population were Protestant , 7.4% Roman Catholic and 51.3% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants and Catholics has continued to decline since then. At the end of 2019, Kiel had 247,777 inhabitants, 84,769 (34.2%) Protestant, 16,541 (6.7%) Catholic and 146,467 (59.1%) either had another religion or no religious affiliation at all. A year earlier, 35.1% of the population of Kiel were Protestant, 6.8% Catholic and 58.1% belonged to another denomination or religion or were non-denominational. There are a total of 23 Protestant parishes and four Catholic parishes. There are also 14 mosques in the state capital, 11 of them in the Gaarden district.



The population of the city of Kiel initially belonged to the Archdiocese of Bremen and its suffragan diocese of Schleswig . From 1526 the Reformation was introduced by the sovereign . In 1534 the Catholics had to do without the only parish church in the city (there was another church next to it). The Franciscan monastery in Kiel had already been closed four years earlier . After that, Kiel was a predominantly Protestant city for a long time, which belonged to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Schleswig-Holstein . Today the Lutheran parishes of the city - provided they are not members of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church or the Danish Church in South Schleswig (in Kiel-Holtenau) - belong to the Altholstein parish within the Schleswig and Holstein district in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Northern Germany .

In 1891 the first Catholic parish church since the Reformation was built. The parishioners of Kiel belonged to the then existing " Apostolic Vicariate of the Nordic Missions ". The Catholic communities in Kiel and the surrounding area belong to the Kiel deanery of the Archdiocese of Hamburg .

Of the Evangelical Free Churches , the Baptists (since 1872), the Methodist Church , the Free Evangelical Congregation , the Seventh-day Adventists and several Pentecostal congregations are represented in Kiel .

Other Christian communities and church communities represented in Kiel are the Apostolic Community , Jehovah's Witnesses , the New Apostolic Church , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ( Mormons ) and the Christian community inspired by anthroposophy .


The existence of a Jewish community in the Middle Ages and early modern times has not been proven. The history of the Jews in Kiel therefore probably began relatively late, at the end of the 17th century. It is thanks to the policy of King Christian VII that the Kiel magistrate with its initially anti-Jewish attitude did not prevail and Jews were able to settle in Kiel. In 1782, the former university coffeehouse at Kehdenstrasse 12 was converted into the city's first Jewish prayer house (the building no longer exists) until the community moved to the larger, three-story synagogue in Haßstrasse in 1869 (part of the ground floor is in ruins until recieved today). This synagogue soon became too small, so that in 1910 the community moved into a large new building near Schrevenpark, on the corner of Humboldtstrasse and Goethestrasse.

In 1933 the community had about 600 members. This last synagogue was in the pogrom night of 9/10. Destroyed November 1938 . Because of National Socialism , most of Kiel's Jews left the city and went into exile or were deported to extermination camps and murdered. Due to the low number of Jews after the end of the Nazi regime, the administration of Jewish affairs for Schleswig-Holstein was transferred to the Jewish community in Hamburg in 1968.

With the collapse of the Eastern Bloc and the subsequent immigration of Eastern European Jews to Germany, the situation of the Jewish communities across Germany changed fundamentally. In 1995 the "Jewish Education, Culture and Social Work" was founded in Kiel, and in 1997 the cantor Daniel Katz, newly appointed from Hamburg, invited the 250 Jews in Kiel to the first Jewish service after the destruction of the last prayer room of the Jewish community (until 1941 in the fire corridor, today Europaplatz).

The current approximately 550 Jews in the city and the regular church services led to the establishment of an independent Jewish community in Kiel at the beginning of 2004, which belongs to the regional association of the Jewish communities of Schleswig-Holstein . In October 2004 members of the previous Hamburg community center founded a second community in Kiel and - together with the former Hamburg community center Flensburg and the Jewish community Lübeck - a second, separate umbrella organization (Jewish Community Schleswig-Holstein). Both Kiel congregations have been members of the Central Council of Jews in Germany since 2005 . The community center and the headquarters of the Jewish community are located on Wikingerstraße. The synagogue of the Jewish community in Kiel is on Waitzstrasse in Brunswik. The old Jewish cemetery is on Michelsenstrasse. Two new Jewish cemeteries were set up on the municipal site at Eichhof.


The number of Muslim communities has risen to 14 since the first community was founded in 1978. In the summer of 2004, the Habib Mosque (friend's mosque) on Flintbeker Strasse was the first mosque that can be recognized from the outside as a sacred building. The majority of the mosques are located in Gaarden, where the proportion of residents with a migration background is above average at 43.6% (especially from Turkey and Arab countries). There are other mosques in Friedrichsort, Dietrichsdorf and on Königsweg in the inner city area.


Local politics

Council meeting

Election to the 2018 Kiel Council
Turnout: 45.5 ℅
Gains and losses
compared to 2013
 % p
Allocation of seats in the 2018 Kiel Council
A total of 59 seats

The council assembly is the municipal representative of the city of Kiel. The citizens decide on the composition every five years. The last election took place on May 6, 2018. The council members elected for The PARTY and the Pirate Party have merged as the parliamentary group, one member elected for the FDP is non-attached . SPD, Greens and FDP cooperate in a traffic light coalition .


At the head of the city of Kiel there was originally a Vogt who was appointed by the sovereign. In addition to the bailiff, there was a council very early on , which after 1315 increasingly exercised actual power in the city. The municipal council in Kiel is now known as the council assembly. The chairman of the council was the mayor. Later there were several mayors. After the transition to Prussia , the Prussian town order was introduced throughout Schleswig-Holstein in 1867 . At the head of the city was a mayor .

After the Second World War, Schleswig-Holstein became part of the British zone of occupation . The military government introduced a two-pronged administration in 1946. After that, there was initially a lord mayor as chairman of the council and, in addition, an upper town director as head of administration. The Schleswig-Holstein municipal code of 1950 gave the head of administration the traditional title of mayor or lord mayor and introduced the new designation of city ​​president for the chairman of the council in larger cities - as in Kiel .

For the first time after the Second World War, the Lord Mayor ( Norbert Gansel , SPD) was directly elected in 1997; In 2003 Angelika Volquartz (CDU) succeeded him as Kiel's first female mayor. Torsten Albig (SPD) was directly elected for a six-year term in 2009, but left the Schleswig-Holstein state parliament in 2012 after being elected. Until a new mayor was elected, Mayor Peter Todeskino of the Greens acted as mayor on behalf of the Greens, and on November 11, 2012, the SPD candidate Susanne Gaschke was elected as the new mayor of Kiel. On October 28, 2013, Susanne Gaschke resigned with immediate effect because of the so-called Kiel tax deal, and Todeskino took over the official business again until the new election was due. In the new election of the mayor on March 23, 2014, Ulf Kämpfer (SPD) won the election to the office of mayor with 63.1%. On October 27, 2019, Kämper was elected for a further term in the first ballot. His deputy has been Mayor Renate Treutel since 2018

Ulf Kämper , mayor since 2014
Kiel Inner Fjord , looking northeast; left west bank with town center, right east bank with HDW (shipyard); Aerial photograph 2003

Bottom right corner of the picture: Central station with the station forecourt, on the left opposite the ZOB with saddled parking deck ; on the left half of the picture the green copper roof of the Nikolaikirche - center of the city center on the old market
The Kiel Fjord facing south; left the east bank with the largest German shipyard HDW, renamed ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) at the end of 2012. On the right edge of the picture you can see an AIDA Cruises ship.

Mayor 1867–1946

Chairman of the Council since 1946

Head of Administration since 1946

Representation of Kiel in the state parliament of Schleswig-Holstein

The city of Kiel is politically divided into three constituencies. There is the state electoral district of Kiel-Nord (13), the state electoral district of Kiel-West (14) and the state electoral district of Kiel-Ost (15). In the 2012 state elections, Rolf Fischer ( SPD ) for constituency 13 , Jürgen Weber (SPD) for constituency 14 and Bernd Heinemann (SPD) for constituency 15 were elected to the Schleswig-Holstein state parliament. Torsten Albig (SPD), Heiner Garg (FDP) and Ekkehard Klug (FDP) entered the state parliament via their party's state list .

Representation of Kiel in the Bundestag

The Bundestag constituency of Kiel (5) also includes Kronshagen and Altenholz in the Rendsburg-Eckernförde district . In the 2017 federal election, the citizens of this constituency voted Mathias Stein (SPD) directly into the Bundestag with 31% of the first votes .

badges and flags

Coat of arms of Kiel

Blazon : The silver Holstein nettle leaf in red , covered with a bricked black boat. The silver nettle leaf on a red background is the coat of arms of the Schauenburgers . The brick boat symbolizes the city rights (through the city wall) and the location as a port city.

Town twinning

The town twinning of Kiel:

Economy and Infrastructure

The Hörn (right) forms the southern end of the Kiel inner fjord ; Kiel Central Station on the left with the eastern side entrance, from there pedestrians can directly reach Norwaykai via the Hörnbrücke leading to the right , the high-rise center at Germaniahafen and the Gaarden district on the east bank behind it . Panorama picture 2006, photographed from the CAP over 180 ° eastward from north to south
A similar panorama, taken in January 2012. It shows u. a. the now completed buildings of the Atlantic Hotel (opposite the train station) and the new Stena Line terminal (in the middle half behind the Stena Line ship ).


Kiel is a service location. 78.5% of all employees in Kiel are employed in this sector , 21.4% are employed in the manufacturing industry ( secondary sector ) and 0.2% in agriculture ( primary sector ). Kiel is a location for important shipyards . Otherwise there are machine factories and other industries in Kiel, such as IT / office machine production. The port plays an economically important role, in particular ferry and cruise shipping.

The unemployment rate was 7.4% in December 2018. In 2016, Kiel achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 11.312 billion, placing it 34th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 45,821 (Schleswig-Holstein: € 31,294, Germany € 38,180) and thus above the regional and national average. In 2016 there were around 170,400 gainfully employed people in the city. The city's economic situation has recently eased. In addition, there was also an increase in population, so that Kiel now has over 240,000 inhabitants again.

2005 EUROSTAT GDP per inhabitant
Coat of arms Kiel.svg Kiel 35,618 / ~ $ 49,866
Flag of Schleswig-Holstein.svg Schleswig-Holstein € 24,250 / ~ $ 33,950
Flag of Germany.svg Germany € 27,219 / ~ $ 38,107
Flag of Europe.svg European Union € 22,400 / ~ $ 31,360

In the Future Atlas 2016, the city of Kiel was ranked 174th out of 402 districts, municipal associations and cities in Germany, making it one of the regions with a “balanced risk-opportunity mix” for the future.

Resident companies and institutions

HDW site, today TKMS
Submarine in the HDW dock

With the Förde Sparkasse , Kieler Volksbank eG , the HSH Nordbank , the Evangelische Bank eG with a board seat and the Provinzial NordWest Versicherungsgruppe , Kiel is a banking and insurance location.

The still well-known companies MaK (mechanical engineering) and Hagenuk (telecommunications) no longer exist.

There is also an active startup culture in Kiel, represented by the StarterKitchen start- up center and startups such as SciEngines GmbH, Real-Eyes, myBoo, SealMedia, Cliplister, Druckpreis.DE,, Yoosello, GetAnEdge, Flowy Apps, fraguru, Schnexagon, local portal, Piano Motion and ubique art.

KIEL coastal power plant on the left, the
Kiel joint power plant on the right

Energy industry

Kiel is also a power plant location . Between 1970 and 2019, the supplied with coal -powered Gemeinschaftskraftwerk Kiel electrical energy and also provided the town with district heating . In April 2019, it is to be replaced by the natural gas -fired KIEL coastal power plant. A total of around 70,000 customers are connected to the district heating network.


The Schleswig-Holstein State Broadcasting House of the NDR
  • The Schleswig-Holstein State Broadcasting House of North German Broadcasting is located in Kiel with the production of Schleswig-Holstein Magazine and the radio program NDR 1 Welle Nord and the regional and international studio for Northern Europe of ZDF .
  • The nationwide private radio station R.SH ( Radio Schleswig-Holstein , Germany's first private broadcaster), Delta radio and Radio BOB! (on the frequencies of the former Radio NORA - Nord-Ostsee-Radio ) are all based in Kiel in the Funkhaus Wittland or Radiozentrum Kiel .
  • Citizens ' radio is represented by the Kiel Open Channel with the television station "Kiel TV" and the radio station KielFM . It is broadcast from the house of the Open Canal Schleswig-Holstein in the Hamburger Chaussee.
  • In Kiel-Nord the British Army broadcasts the army transmitter BFBS with a very short range via VHF .
  • RTL and Sat.1 each have a regional studio in Kiel.
  • The daily newspaper, the Kieler Nachrichten , is published by the Kieler Zeitung Verlags- und Druckerei KG GmbH & Co , which in turn is closely associated with the SPD- related publishing company Madsack .
  • In Kiel there is quite a large range of free monthly city magazines, all of which have a mixture of music, culture, cinema, events, appointments, local advertisements, classified ads, sport and party life as their content: diva , KIELSIDE , Kiel Magazin , KIELerLEBEN , Station , Tango and Ultimo .
  • Three regular podcasts report on Kiel: The Nordcast of KielPod (also on KielFM, see above) and the Moin Kiel Podcast.
  • The largest online magazine about Kiel is the Fördeflüsterer . There is also the editorial online gastronomy guide kielometer .
  • The episodes of the ARD crime series Tatort have been playing in Kiel since 2003 with the inspector Klaus Borowski played by Axel Milberg . They are produced for the NDR.

Public facilities

State House in Kiel (2017)
The Gorch Fock in her home port of Kiel during the Kiel Week 2004

Kiel is the seat of the following establishments and institutions, GmbHs and corporations under public law , primarily assigned / responsible:





Kiel is the seat of several courts. The Kiel District Court and the Kiel Regional Court are courts of ordinary jurisdiction . The Kiel Labor Court and the Schleswig-Holstein State Labor Court are courts of German labor jurisdiction . The Schleswig-Holstein Finance Court is responsible for financial jurisdiction . The social court is the Kiel Social Court .


Education and Research

The Christian Albrechts University , founded by Duke Christian Albrecht in 1665, is the only comprehensive university in Schleswig-Holstein with almost 25,000 students. Other research institutions such as the German Central Library for Economic Sciences - Leibniz Information Center for Economics (ZBW), the Kiel Institute for World Economy (IfW), the Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research (GEOMAR) and the Bundeswehr Research Institute are independent, but partly connected to the University of Kiel for water noise and geophysics . In addition, there are further tertiary educational institutions in the city with the Kiel University of Applied Sciences (founded in 1969) and the Muthesius Kunsthochschule Kiel (founded in 1907). The Murmann School of Global Management and Economics and Multimedia Campus Kiel projects were ultimately unsuccessful. In addition to further training at the vocational academy, the Schleswig-Holstein Business Academy also offers a dual degree in business administration, industrial engineering and business IT.

The Federal Institute for Dairy Research is worth mentioning as a departmental research institution , but in 2004 it was merged with other institutions to form the Max Rubner Institute . The state capital of Kiel is a "corporative supporting member" of the Max Planck Society .

The ARGE-SH eV has as a senior building research establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany based in Kiel.

There are twelve grammar schools in Kiel , of which the Kiel School of Academics, founded in 1320 as a humanistic grammar school, is the oldest school in the city. Other grammar schools include the Elmschenhagen grammar school and the Max Planck school with a focus on natural sciences and the Ricarda Huch school with a focus on languages. In addition, there are numerous community schools - some with upper secondary school - as well as privately owned schools spread across the city .


The Schwedenkai and the Sartorikai are within walking distance of Kiel city center; the Norway quay in the lower half of the picture; Facing west; Recorded in 2005
The Queen Elizabeth moored at the
Ostseekai for the first time in 2012 .
The natural conditions of the Kiel Fjord also allow cruise ships and (car) ferries to access the southern end of the fjord not far from Kiel Central Station.


With 1.6 million passengers, the port of Kiel was the third largest passenger port in Germany after the ports of Puttgarden and Rostock in 2007. Since then, the number of passengers has continued to rise; it is generated in particular from the ferry lines to Gothenburg and Oslo, but also from the cruise business . In 2019 there were a total of almost 2.4 million passengers traveling to and from Kiel (2018: over 2.2 million; 2017: 2.117 million, 2015: 2.1 million, 2014: 1.98 million, 2013: 1.94 million) counted on ferry and cruise ships.

In terms of cruises, there were 175 calls (2018: 169; 2017: 143; 2016: 147; 2015: 133; 2014: 127; 2013: 128) from 32 different cruise ships (2018: 34; 2017: 29; 2016: 26; 2015 + 2014: 25 each; 2013: 22). Since the ships are getting bigger and bigger, more than 803,000 passengers were counted in 2019 (2018: almost 600,000; 2017: 513,500; 2016: 485,500, 2015: 458,771). A new terminal building for cruises was built at Berth 28 ( Ostseekai ) for a good 10 million euros , which went into operation in March 2020.

The pure cargo handling, which largely takes place in Kiel's Ostuferhafen , plays a rather subordinate role throughout Germany. In 2010, 5.8 million t of goods were handled in the ports of Kiel ; in 2011 the value was 6.29 million t, 8.5% higher, and in 2012 more than 6.3 million t of goods were handled, half of them at the Ostuferhafen. In 2013, too, the annual turnover was 6.32 million t, with 5.1 million t being attributable to ferry traffic. The cargo throughput in 2014 was 6.43 million t, 1.6% higher than in 2013. In 2015, at 6.2 million t, 4.2% fewer goods were handled than in the previous year, the decline in was particularly noticeable Handling of bulk goods (−9.4%) such as coal and grain. In 2016, cargo handling in the port increased by 5.3% to 6.5 million t; in 2017 it was already 7.4074 million t (+14.3%) with a total of more than 450,000 cargo units (+5, 8%) for ferry traffic. In 2018, the throughput amounted to 7.15 million t (−3.5%), of which almost 6 million t was in ferry traffic. Seehafen Kiel GmbH & Co. KG is responsible for the port in Kiel .

There are also freight train connections between the Kiel seaport and the Adriatic logistics hub Trieste as the end point of the maritime silk road . This connects Kiel to the transport lines that run from the Shanghai deep-water port of Yangshan , via Hong Kong , Singapore , Port Klang (Malaysia), Laem Chabang (Thailand), through the Suez Canal, via the Greek port of Piraeus to the northern Adriatic. In the port of Kiel, port handling in combined cargo traffic (KLV) in 2018 amounted to almost 29,000 trailers and containers that were transported by rail in hinterland traffic .

Combined passenger / cargo ferries operate to

Freight ferries operate to

A container / general cargo ship operates to

  • RussiaRussia Kaliningrad (Transmarine Line: TBN, once a week)

In Holtenau is the eastern end of the Kiel Canal , the world as Kiel Canal is known. The eastern and western parts of the city are for the most part (wedge-shaped) separated by the Kiel Fjord. The support vessels of the Schlepp- und Fährgesellschaft Kiel (SFK) as part of the local public transport make it possible to cross the fjord.


Traffic map Kiel

The two federal motorways 210 and 215 lead from Kiel to the A 7 Hamburg - Flensburg to the Rendsburg motorway junction and the Bordesholm motorway triangle . Furthermore, the federal highways B 76 and B 202 run through the urban area and thus form an important and busy urban motorway. From the Kiel-Mitte junction, the B 76 is developed as a motorway-like road . Furthermore, the federal highways B 404 (will be expanded to A 21 ), B 502 and B 503 begin / end in the Kiel city area. Kiel was one of the two endpoints of the B 4 (the other is Nuremberg ) until the Kiel- Quickborn section was downgraded to a state road because of the parallel A 7.

Kiel is the starting and ending point of a tourist route that opened in May 2004: The German Ferry Route from Kiel to Bremervörde connects around 50 different ferries, bridges, locks, barrages and maritime museums; Landmarks are the suspension ferries in Rendsburg and on the Oste .

Bicycle traffic

The people of Kiel cover 17 percent of all trips by bike. The city tries to meet these requirements with projects to expand the infrastructure for cyclists, such as the construction of cycle superhighways and cycle routes.

Kiel is also connected to numerous national and international cycle routes: including the Baltic Sea Cycle Route (runs within the European EuroVelo network as EV 10 around the entire Baltic Sea and connects Kiel with cities such as Stralsund, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Saint Petersburg and Gdansk and Riga).

Schilksee ferry on the fjord

Local public transport

Urban public transport (ÖPNV) is served by city buses of the Kieler Verkehrsgesellschaft (KVG) and the ferries of the SFK , which travel the Kiel Fjord from the west bank ( Strande ) via the city center to Laboe . The regional bus service is operated by Autokraft and the Verkehrsbetriebe Kreis Plön (VKP).

Stadtregionalbahn Kiel (SRB)

For some time there have been plans to build a StadtRegionalBahn Kiel (SRB). But although a study expressly recommended construction, the project made slow progress because of the unclear financing. In contrast to the SPD, which was opposition at the time, the black-green coalition in Kiel had expressly committed to the project in the budget consultations: The draft of the new transport development plan (VEP) of the city of Kiel published in January 2008 contained the SRB as a proposed measure.

In January 2013 the online portal announced that the state authority LVS should now prepare the tender for a design plan. This was agreed by the cities of Kiel and Neumünster, the districts affected by the urban railway and the state at a joint top meeting on the urban regional railway in Kiel. At the meeting, the participants agreed on a key issues paper. The preparations for the call for tenders should be completed by June 2013, after which a further meeting should take place. In addition, an image campaign for the urban regional railway was agreed in the key issues paper. This was intended to bring the benefits of an SRB even closer to people than was previously the case. How much the campaign should cost and when the necessary funds would be requested in the Kiel Council was not yet certain.

Overall, the establishment of the railway, with which Kiel and the neighboring districts could have been connected to the Hamburg S-Bahn network, should cost around 380 million euros, according to an estimate, of which at least 60% would have been paid for from federal subsidies. To do this, those involved in the project would have had to pay a total of 14.6 million euros in operating costs per year. The state had already promised to take over 6.1 million euros, which would have corresponded to a share of around 40%. According to information from Kieler Nachrichten , the city of Kiel would have had to pay around 4.7 million euros a year, Neumünster 300,000 euros. The Plön district would have incurred operating costs of 1.2 million euros and the Rendsburg-Eckernförde district 1.6 million euros.

At the beginning of November 2014 it became known that the “ StadtRegionalBahn Kiel ” project should now be partially implemented despite great criticism from several sides. Initially, they wanted to start building a light rail line from Kiel to the surrounding area. Before the construction began, the citizens of Kiel should vote on the construction of the new light rail line. Only after the construction of the first line should the citizens of the surrounding districts be asked about the construction of further light rail lines. This should take place after 2020. The city of Kiel would have assumed the largest share of the planning costs totaling 7.5 million euros with still 5.25 million euros. The share of the two districts involved (Plön and Rendsburg-Eckernförde) would have fallen to a total of 375,000 euros. The state of Schleswig-Holstein would have contributed 25% to the project planning. Instead of its own company, the existing regional transport service company (LVS) should take over the planning of the project. According to the representatives, a compromise on costs would have been found between the circles involved and the city of Kiel.

In May 2015, the mayor of Kiel Ulf Kämpfer (SPD) announced the temporary end of the “StadtRegionalBahn Kiel” project. Since the surrounding districts (with the exception of Plön district) could not get used to the idea of ​​the “StadtRegionalBahn Kiel”, Kiel will now concentrate only on one tram within the city area. If necessary, this can still be expanded beyond the city limits. The Kiel – Schönberger Railway should also play a role in these plans . The city of Kiel now estimates that the number of inbound and outbound commuters has risen to more than 100,000 people. Many of them would have to accept a time-consuming change at Kiel Central Station when traveling to or from Kiel . A modern tram and the "Hein-Schönberg-Bahn" in Kiel are supposed to improve this situation considerably.

Kiel Central Station (interior view as panorama picture)
Kiel Central Station; East exit with the Kaisertreppe
The Hörnbrücke "in action"; Right next to the east side of the main station, this pedestrian bridge over the southern port basin (= Hörn = tip) allows access to the east bank of the Kiel Fjord with the Norway quay and the
Gaarden district

Railway and stations

Kiel has had a railway since 1844. The Kiel main station is the second largest station in Schleswig-Holstein and a terminus . The five small train stations or stops Kiel-Russee, Kiel-Schulen am Langsee, Kiel-Suchsdorf , Kiel-Hassee CITTI-Park and Kiel-Elmschenhagen only play a role for regional traffic. The line from Kiel in the direction of Neumünster – Hamburg has been fully electrified since 1995 . Since then, Kiel has been an end point of the ICE network of Deutsche Bahn. There are a total of six daily connections in the direction of Cologne, Frankfurt and Berlin, which are also connected to Munich or Switzerland.

There is regional traffic twice an hour via Neumünster to Hamburg , from where there are direct connections to Berlin, Munich and Cologne every hour. There is also regional traffic via Plön to Lübeck , via Eckernförde to Flensburg and via Rendsburg and Schleswig to Husum . In the region around Kiel, the offer on these regional routes is increased to every half hour with additional trips to Eckernförde and Lübeck. All routes are operated by DB . From the Kiel – Flensburg railway line branches off in Suchsdorf for goods traffic to the port of Kiel in the Wik district . A resumption of passenger traffic on the KSE railway line to Schönberg in connection with the introduction of a light rail in Kiel has been discussed since 2009.

air traffic

North of the Kiel Canal is the Kiel-Holtenau airfield , the expansion of which has long been discussed and has since been rejected. Since November 2006 there has been no more scheduled flights from Kiel until further notice due to insufficient capacity utilization. Other airports that can be reached in just over an hour are Hamburg International Airport and Lübeck Airport , from which there are connections to Munich and Stuttgart.


  • From 1974 to 1989 there was a cable car in Kiel that connected the two parts of the former Weipert department store across the old boat harbor . The cable car was automatically operated without a driver and could be used free of charge.
  • The stagecoach as an important means of travel and transport was not finally taken out of service by the post office until 1957 . Until then, Kiel was the last German city besides Wuppertal in which horse-drawn carts were still used to deliver mail.
City jubilee 750 years of Kiel (first day sheet 1992),
east view of the city center from the port:
v. l. Right : Sailing school ship Gorch Fock in the home port of Kiel, town hall with town hall tower , maritime museum, behind the roof of the opera house , to the right of it the Nikolaikirche , concert hall and Kiel Castle ;
German Federal Post 1992
City anniversary 750 years Kiel, dedication first day sheet to the above stamp
Flea market on Rathausplatz, left town hall, right opera house
“Little Kiel” - in the background the opera house and the town hall tower

Culture and sights


The Kiel town hall, symbol of the city
The Holsten Street , the main shopping and pedestrian zone in the area Berliner Platz in the city center. Looking north towards the 'Nikolaikirche' at the 'Alten Markt'. Recorded in 2009.
Sailing ships in the harbor during the Kiel Week

Kiel is characterized by its proximity to the sea and has several beaches (Falckenstein, Friedrichsort , Schilksee ). The first urban settlement emerged on the peninsula between Förde and Kleiner Kiel. The northern access to the land was secured by the castle. The city was laid out very regularly, with a market square in the center, with eight streets at right angles from each corner. Starting from these, some small side streets led to the old wall ring and on to the water. The city's main street was the north-south axis, Dänische Straße – Holstenstraße, which ran diagonally across the market square.

For centuries, Kiel, one of the larger cities of Holstein , was overshadowed by other Baltic Sea cities (especially Flensburg and Lübeck ), although it was a (insignificant) member of the Hanseatic League for a long time. It was not until the end of the 18th century that the city began to expand south beyond its peninsula. As an extension of Holstenstrasse, the suburb was built, which eventually extended to the St. Jürgen Chapel (it was located next to today's main train station), the cemetery of which became the city's main cemetery in the 19th century. In the suburbs, too, some remarkable town houses were built. The largest part was an artisan and petty bourgeois quarter. Overall, the small university town was considered a pretty place and was praised for its beauty by poets like Theodor Storm , who studied in Kiel.

When Kiel was separated from the entire Danish state in 1864 and a little later became a Prussian naval port, the cityscape changed fundamentally. Few cities in the German Empire grew as rapidly as Kiel. The city changed its character and expanded in all directions. Villa districts emerged mainly in the north (Düsternbrook) and partly in the west, while numerous tenement quarters were built near the city center. On the east bank of the fjord in Kiel- Gaarden , Kiel-Ellerbek and Wellingdorf , the largest shipyards in Europe and other working-class quarters were built. The old and suburbs were visibly reshaped with oversized buildings typical of the time. Among other things, new university buildings were built near the castle on the banks of the Förde. The connection between Kleiner Kiel and Förde was also increasingly built over. To the west of the suburb, an important urban ensemble was created with the Neuer Markt, which is open to the Kleiner Kiel, with its town hall and city theater.

The winding narrowness of the inner city caught the attention of city planners as early as the 1920s. During the Nazi era , plans for a generous redesign of the inner city were concretized. The city planner Herbert Jensen , appointed in 1940 , campaigned for a renovation that should turn the old town into the center of a “German city”.

After the heavy bombing of the Second World War, the eastern parts of the city and the Wilhelminian suburbs were largely in ruins, while the old and suburbs were almost completely in ruins. During the reconstruction, which was led by Jensen, who remained in office, the city should now be designed in the style of the time, more modern, more open and more spacious. They wanted to bring the connection between the city and the water and the beautifully situated city center back into focus. In contrast to the situation in cities like Lübeck or Münster, the reconstruction of historical buildings destroyed in the war was completely abandoned; instead, even structures like the fire-damaged main university building were demolished.

While the reconstruction of Kiel was praised as exemplary in the first post-war decades, the result is now viewed much more critically. The old town peninsula can still be recognized as such from the air. But massive interventions in the historic street network of the old town (removal of most of the smaller side streets, building over the Haßstraße on the market, Eggerstedtstraße traffic aisle along the eastern part of the old town, overbuilding of the old market square with commercial buildings, replacement of the old buildings), the construction of numerous oversized shops, Park and office buildings and the already unimaginative architecture of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s leave little urban flair or charm. The flea market , which takes place every Sunday in summer , however, brings life to the entire inner city area.

In a sense, Kiel no longer has an inner city, but no old town. Today, of all places, Dänische Strasse, with its large number of preserved Wilhelminian-style buildings, is the “parlor” of the old town. The suburb was rebuilt very generously. The narrow development of the Wilhelminian-era districts was loosened up and greened during the reconstruction. In many cases, today's Kiel cityscape is seen as almost typical of a large city destroyed in World War II and is therefore generally considered to be unappealing.

Since the turn of the millennium, however, the city center has been visually upgraded permanently (reconstruction of the Hörn area at the main station; complete renovation of the main station taking into account structural and historical aspects that were not taken into account during the restoration after the war damage; redesign of the boat harbor, etc.). At the same time, part of the old town center is to be reconstructed by dismantling Eggerstedtstrasse and redesigning the old market . This is flanked by excavations on the former parking lot between the palace gardens and the university clinic, where the main building of the university was once located. It is believed that a lot of historical building fabric was buried here after the Second World War.

Some sights (buildings see below)

Kiellinie (bank to the Kiel Fjord )
Fichtestrasse 28 in the marine district

Theater, music and film

Opera house

The Kiel Theater with the playhouse, opera house and theater at Werftpark is the largest cultural institution in the city. There are also numerous other initiatives such as the Low German Stage in Kiel , the Polish Theater and student theater. Classical concerts by the Kiel Philharmonic Orchestra, the numerous concerts of the annual Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival and the concerts of international pop stars in the Sparkassen-Arena (former name: Ostseehalle ), in Halle400 or in Kiel Castle, especially during the Kieler Woche , ensure varied offer. There is a Kiel boys' choir .

There are several cinemas in Kiel, including a Cinemaxx multiplex cinema at the main train station, a municipal cinema in the pump , the “dream cinema”, the “STUDIO - Filmtheater am Dreiecksplatz”, the metro cinema and the media dome of the Kiel University of Applied Sciences. The cinemas “Neues Studio” and “Die Brücke” were temporarily closed on August 31, 2009 due to the bankruptcy of the operating company. The "New Studio" was reopened on December 23, 2009 under the name Studio Filmtheater , the rooms of the "Brücke", however, remained permanently closed.


City museum in the Warleberger Hof
Maritime Museum
Lighthouse in Kiel-Holtenau
Water tower in Kiel-Ravensberg
Hörn campus at the southern end of the Kiel Fjord
Flanders bunker in Kiel-Wik
Iltis bunker in Gaarden (2018)


Lost structures

  • Heiligengeistkirche , 14th century, rebuilt at the end of the 19th century, destroyed in an air raid on December 13, 1943 except for the cloister
  • Old town hall , in the core of the 14th century, on the market square, destroyed on December 13, 1943 except for the remains of the vault
  • Persian houses, half-timbered houses from the 17th century in front of the Nikolaikirche, destroyed on May 22, 1944
  • Palace, central building and east wing, birthplace of the Russian Tsar Peter III. , Ruin blown up in 1959
  • Telemannsches Haus, Haßstrasse 1, exceptionally richly decorated half-timbered building from the 16th century, on the night of 7/8. Destroyed May 1941. Remains of the carved beams are in the State Museum in Schleswig.
  • Thaulow Museum , demolished in May 1948 after being destroyed in the war
  • St. Jürgen Chapel, south of the suburb, 13th century, demolished in 1902 and replaced by the St. Jürgen Church from 1902 to 1904. The St. Jürgen Church, which was badly damaged in the war, was blown up and demolished in the summer of 1954, and the associated cemetery was leveled. The bell of the St. Jürgen Chapel from 1530 is located in the new city monastery in Harmsstraße.
  • Old University, Kattenstrasse, building by Ernst Georg Sonnin , later a museum, destroyed in 1944
  • New university, palace garden, building by Martin Gropius , ruins demolished after the Second World War; only parts of the university clinic have been preserved.
  • Buchwaldscher Hof , Kiel's largest aristocratic court, Dänische Strasse, demolished after being destroyed in the war
  • Marientempel (from 1808) in Düsternbrook wood , partially destroyed by an explosive bomb in 1944 and demolished in 1948
  • Birthplace of the poet Detlev von Liliencron , Herzog-Friedrich-Strasse, sacrificed in 1964 for the construction of the Hertie department store ; a memorial plaque in the transition to the Sophienhof shopping mile still reminds of this.
  • Numerous notable town houses from the 15th to 19th centuries Century were replaced by typical new buildings during the rapid growth of the city in the imperial era, almost all the others were destroyed in the Second World War.
  • Kilian submarine bunker , built over in 2001 during the construction of the Ostuferhafen
  • Holsati mill on the Schwentine estuary, demolished in 2008

Important monuments and sculptures


The Sparkassen-Arena is the home ground of the THW Kiel


THW Kiel at the award ceremony of the EHF Champions League 2011/12

Kiel is a stronghold of professional handball . The city's best-known sporting figurehead is the German record champions THW Kiel , who can boast a number of national and international championship titles: by 2020 they had won 21 German championship titles, eleven cup wins and three victories in the EHF Champions League .
The home arena of THW Kiel has been the
Sparkassen-Arena (formerly Ostseehalle ), one of the largest event halls in Germany , for decades .


The Holstein Stadium is the home arena of KSV Holstein

The best known and most successful football club in Kiel is Holstein Kiel . The traditional club, which was the first North German club to win the German soccer championship in 1912 , has held its matches in the Holstein Stadium, which currently holds 15,034 spectators, since 1911 . The venue is one of the oldest and most traditional venues in Germany. The club, which is popularly known as the storks , is back in the 2nd Bundesliga after its promotion in 2017 . In addition to winning the German championship, two German runners-up championships in 1910 and 1930 are among the greatest nationwide successes. At the regional north German level, the club won over thirty titles. The club qualified more than thirty times for the DFB Cup , reaching the round of 16 six times, the quarter-finals twice and the semi-finals once.

Other Kiel football clubs that have played at least fourth class in the past are in alphabetical order: FC Kilia Kiel , NDTSV Holsatia Kiel , Police SV Kiel , SC Comet Kiel , SV Ellerbek , SV Friedrichsort , TSV Schilksee , TuS Gaarden , TuS Holtenau , TuS Black and White Elmschenhagen , Wiker SV and VfB Kiel .

water sports

Kiel is an important arena for sailing. The sailing competitions of the Summer Olympics took place in Kiel in 1936 and 1972. Another application for the sailing competitions of the Summer Olympics in 2024 failed due to a referendum in Hamburg . In contrast to Hamburg, 65.6% of those who voted voted in favor of an application in Kiel. The Olympic Center Schilksee from 1972 in Kiel-Schilksee has been an important port for sailing competitions ever since. The old Olympic harbor from 1936 is located on the west side of the Kiel inner fjord on the Kiellinie (formerly Hindenburgufer) and belongs to the district of Düsternbrook . The Kiel Week is the largest sailing event in the world, ahead of the Travemuende Week , the Hanse Sail and the Olympic Games sailing competitions. Every year, many sailors with thousands of boats of (almost) all classes from all continents take part in Kiel-Schilksee. A large number of other regattas take place during the rest of the season. These activities are primarily carried out by several sailing clubs that have their headquarters around the Kiel Fjord, with the Kieler Yacht Club (KYC, formerly: "Imperial Yacht Club") as the largest and most active club. In 2002, Kiel was the destination port of the Volvo Ocean Race . Other regattas include, for example, the Inshore Race Weekend of the Academic Sailing Club .

In addition to sailing, rowing dominates in Kiel . The Erste Kieler Ruder-Club von 1862 eV is the oldest rowing club in the Kiel area and the third oldest rowing club in the Federal Republic of Germany. Its around 400 (as of December 31, 2017) members recorded many world championships and German championships, all in all the members of the club recorded In the course of its 150-year history around 5300 (as of December 31, 2017) regatta victories. In addition to the First Kiel Rowing Club, there is the rowing society Germania Kiel, the Kieler Kanuklub (KKK), the rowing team of ATV Ditmarsia , the academic rowing club, the rowing club of the CAU and also many school rowing teams.

American football

The Kiel Baltic Hurricanes are the most successful American football club in Schleswig-Holstein and play in the German Football League . In 2010 they became German champions after being runner-up in 2008 and 2009.


The men's team of FT Adler Kiel has played in the 2nd Bundesliga rugby since the 2015/2016 season. She is currently runner-up in the north group.


The women's team of the Kiel Seahawks played in the Softball Bundesliga in 2008 and again since 2012.

Volleyball / beach volleyball

The volleyball men of Kieler TV play in the 2nd Bundesliga North . In addition, Kiel was the federal base for beach volleyball until 2016 .

Other sports


Culinary specialties

Protected areas

There are three designated nature reserves in the city area (as of February 2017).


See also: People from Kiel (Category) , Famous Scholars at Kiel University and List of Honorary Citizens of Kiel


In 1962, a 738 gram stone meteorite of the type L6 fell in the city of Kiel . He broke through a roof and landed in the attic, where the resident found him.



  • Doris Tillmann, Johannes Rosenplänter (Hrsg.): Kiel Lexikon. Wachholtz, Neumünster 2010, ISBN 978-3-529-02556-3 .
  • Hans-G. Hilscher, Dietrich Bleihöfer: Kiel Street Lexicon . Continued since 2005 by the Office for Building Regulations, Surveying and Geoinformation of the State Capital Kiel, status: February 2017 (enter search term here: ).


  • Karl Baedeker , Otto Brandt: Baedekers Kiel . 5th edition. Ostfildern-Kemnat / Munich 1990.
  • Sarah Nadine Habeck, Jacqueline Melzer, Anne Reddehase, Imke Schröder: Finally Kiel! Your city guide . rap publishing house, Freiburg i. Br. 2012, ISBN 978-3-942733-05-2 .
  • Burkhard Hackländer: Kiel . Travel Guide, 4th revised. Edition. Conrad-Stein-Verlag, Welver 2010, ISBN 978-3-86686-960-8 .

Historical representations

  • Working group on democratic history (ed.): We are the building people. Kiel 1945 to 1950 . Neuer Malik, Kiel 1985, ISBN 3-89029-950-4 .
  • Thomas Hill: Hanseatic City of Kiel. Wachholtz, Kiel / Hamburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-529-05040-4 .
  • Jürgen Jensen, Peter Wulf (ed.): History of the city of Kiel. Kiel, 1242–1992, 750 years of the city. Wachholtz, Neumünster 1991, ISBN 3-529-02718-9 .
  • Werner Paravicini (ed.), Uwe Albrecht , Annette Henning: Encounters with Kiel. Gift of the Christian-Albrechts-Universität for the 750th anniversary of the city. Wachholtz, Neumünster 1992, ISBN 3-529-02722-7 .
  • Annerose Sieck: Kiel. A little city history. Sutton, Erfurt 2006, ISBN 3-86680-052-5 .
  • Doris Tillmann; Johannes Rosenplänter: Air War and "Home Front". War experience in the Nazi society in Kiel 1929-1945 . Solivagus-Verlag, Kiel 2020, ISBN 978-3-947064-09-0 .

Historical cityscapes

  • Jürgen Jensen: Kiel in the age of the world wars. Photographed city history from 1914 to 1955 . Husum-Verlag, Husum 2017, ISBN 978-3-89876-874-0 .
  • Jürgen Jensen: Historical Cityscape Atlas Kiel. A documentation of the beginnings of the preservation of the site and monument around 1900 . Wachholtz, Neumünster 1986, ISBN 3-529-02678-6 .
  • Jürgen Jensen: Kiel treasure of images - reality and perception of the city on old photographs. Boyens Buchverlag, Heide 2012, ISBN 978-3-8042-1358-6 .
  • Jürgen Jensen: Kiel Theater of War - aerial photos of the city's destruction in 1944/45. 2nd, expanded edition. Wachholtz, Neumünster 1997, ISBN 3-529-02697-2 .
  • Hedwig Sievert: Kiel then and now - the old town. 2nd Edition. Verlag Walter G. Mühlau, Kiel 1963.
  • Doris Tillmann; Johannes Rosenplänter: Air War and "Home Front". War experience in the Nazi society in Kiel 1929-1945 . Solivagus-Verlag, Kiel 2020, ISBN 978-3-947064-09-0 .

Special topics

  • Dieter-J. Mehlhorn: Architecture Guide Kiel. Dietrich-Reimer-Verlag, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-496-01165-3 .
  • Jens Rönnau: Open Air Gallery Kiel: Art and Monuments . Wachholtz, Neumünster 2011, ISBN 978-3-529-05433-4 .
  • Rudolf Jaworski , Witold Molik (ed.): Monuments in Kiel and Posen: Parallels and Contrasts. Ludwig, Kiel 2002, ISBN 3-933598-41-9 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
  • Annegret Bergmann (Ed.): There's no such thing as impossible ... 24 portraits of outstanding women from Kiel's city history . Kiel 2007, OCLC 255464970 .

Illustrated books

  • Marco Knopp: Hundertsechs Meter Kiel: An entertaining illustrated book with special stories about 17 places in Kiel. Kronshagener Agentur & Haase Verlag, Kiel 2014, ISBN 978-3-9816327-5-0 .
  • Jan Köhler-Kaeß (photos), Boris Geißler: Kiel's most beautiful sides • Kiel's most beautiful sides . Medien-Verlag Schubert, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-937843-06-3 .
  • Peter Cornelius (photos), Jan S. Kunstreich: Colorful Kiel . Walter G. Mühlau Verlag, Kiel 1962.
  • Tom Körber: keel. state capital on the fjord / capital at the fjord: panorama photographs . Körber Photographie & Verlag, Kiel 2009, ISBN 978-3-00-028534-9 .
  • Katrin Kroll: Kiel Week . Wachholtz, Neumünster 2007, ISBN 978-3-529-02555-6 .
  • Peter Schuster: Kiel and the Kiel Fjord - Germany's most beautiful seaside city. 2nd Edition. Boyens Buchverlag, Heide 2012, ISBN 978-3-8042-1258-9 .

Aerial photography

  • Jürgen Jensen: Kiel Theater of War - aerial photos of the city's destruction in 1944/45. 2nd, expanded edition. Wachholtz, Neumünster 1997, ISBN 3-529-02697-2 .
  • Jan Köhler-Kaeß: Kiel from above • Pictures of the state capital from a bird's eye view . Conrad Stein Verlag, Welver 1998, ISBN 3-89392-263-6 .

Web links

Commons : Kiel  - Collection of Images
Wiktionary: Kiel  - Explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikisource: Kiel  - Sources and full texts
Wikivoyage: Kiel  - travel guide

Individual evidence

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  33. Uwe Danker , Astrid Schwabe: Schleswig-Holstein and National Socialism. Neumünster 2005, ISBN 3-529-02810-X , p. 104.
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  44. Three men played a prominent role: the SPD mayor Andreas Gayk and the two Protestant provosts Johannes Lorentzen and Hans Asmussen . They were supported by donors from the USA, Canada, Switzerland, Sweden and other countries. Especially the Mennonite aid organization Mennonite Central Committee under Cornelius J. Dyck excelled with extensive aid deliveries in the first post-war years. See: Johannes Rempel : Jump over the wall with God. From Mennonite farm boy in the Urals to pastor in Kiel . (Postum) published by Hans-Joachim Ramm, Husum: Matthiesen 2013, esp.p. 420 ff.
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