District of the Duchy of Lauenburg
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative headquarters :||Ratzeburg|
|Area :||1,263.01 km 2|
|Residents:||198,019 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||157 inhabitants per km 2|
|License plate :||RZ|
|Circle key :||01 0 53|
|Circle structure:||132 parishes|
|Address of the
|District Administrator :||Christoph Mager ( CDU )|
|Location of the Duchy of Lauenburg in Schleswig-Holstein|
The district is the southernmost district of Schleswig-Holstein. It borders in the northwest and north on the district of Stormarn and the independent city of Lübeck , in the east on the district of Northwest Mecklenburg and the district of Ludwigslust-Parchim , both in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , in the south on the other side of the Elbe on the district of Lüneburg and to the district of Harburg in Lower Saxony and in the west to the state of Hamburg .
The district is still very wooded today and contains the largest contiguous forest area in Schleswig-Holstein with the Sachsenwald and one of the oldest nature parks in Schleswig-Holstein with the Lauenburg Lakes Nature Park .
The district had been a duchy since the 14th century ; after it was incorporated into the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein in 1876, the new district was allowed to continue to use the name "Duchy" as a reminder of its past. It has been preserved in the official name of the district to this day. The administrative seat of the district is Ratzeburg , the largest city is Geesthacht .
The district area essentially corresponds to the north Elbe parts of the historic Duchy of Saxony-Lauenburg . In the early Middle Ages, the Limes Saxoniae ran in north-south direction as a protective strip of the Saxon Empire from the Slavs .
After the extinction of the last askanischen Dukes and a lengthy succession dispute the Duchy initially in 1702 fell to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg ( "electoral Hanover"), from 1811 it belonged as part of the department of Bouches de l'Elbe briefly to France and then fell to the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the Danish royal family . However, it never became part of Denmark under constitutional law, but was linked to the Danish crown through a personal union.
After the German-Danish War in 1864, it was briefly administered by Austria and, as a result of the Gastein Convention, united with Prussia in 1865 . The Prussian King Wilhelm I became the new sovereign as the "Duke of Lauenburg" and the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck took over the office of "Minister for Lauenburg". On July 1, 1876, the duchy was incorporated into the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein as the "Landkreis Herzogtum Lauenburg" . As the successor to the Lauenburg knights and landscape , the district committee and district administrator took over the role of the Lauenburg regional association in 1882 , which had held most of the former sovereign wealth since 1872.
On April 1, 1937, the Greater Hamburg Act gave the district the Mecklenburg exclaves Domhof Ratzeburg , Hammer , Horst , Mannhagen , Panten and Walksfelde , and the Lübeck exclaves Albsfelde , Behlendorf , Düchelsdorf , Giesensdorf , Groß Schretstaken , Harmsdorf , Hollenbek and Klein Schretstaken , Nusse , Poggensee , Ritzerau , Sierksrade and Tramm as well as the city of Geesthacht from Hamburg . The NSDAP district leader was Hans Gewecke , who had already joined the NSDAP in 1928 . Gewecke had a large hostel built for the Hitler Youth in Lauenburg.
After the end of World War II , the district became part of the British zone of occupation . By changing the zone boundary between Great Britain and the Soviet Union in the so-called Barber-Lyaschtschenko Agreement of November 13, 1945, the neighboring communities of Ratzeburg , Ziethen , Mechow , Bäk and Römnitz were added to the Duchy of Lauenburg on November 26, 1945. Until then, they belonged to the Mecklenburg district of Schönberg (part of Mecklenburg-Strelitz until 1934 ) and came to the British zone in exchange for the Lauenburg communities of Dechow , Thurow (now part of the community of Roggendorf ) and Lassahn (now part of the town of Zarrentin am Schaalsee ). This change of area was maintained even after German reunification in 1990.
The regional history of the district is processed by the two archive communities in the district area (AG Nordkreis and AG Südkreis). They are supported by the Heimatbund and Geschichtsverein Herzogtum Lauenburg eV , which was formed in 1949 as a merger of two previously independent associations ( Association for the History of the Duchy of Lauenburg , founded in 1883, and Heimatbund Herzogtum Lauenburg , founded in 1925). It is the oldest cultural association in the historic Elbe Duchy with the largest number of members . It is divided into seven district groups and is dedicated to the processing and presentation of regional history as well as the maintenance of the Low German language , monument preservation and environmental protection . He has published the magazine Lauenburgische Heimat since 1925 .
Respective district area
The population figures refer to the respective territorial status.
Current territorial status
The population figures up to 1970 refer to the area on May 27, 1970.
According to the 2011 census , 92,442 or 49.4% of the 187,138 inhabitants were Protestant , 6.0% Roman Catholic and 44.6% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants has fallen since then. As of December 31, 2019, 76,287 (39%) of the approximately 197,000 inhabitants were Protestant.
In contrast to others in Schleswig-Holstein, the district is characterized by numerous relatively smaller to very small communities in which direct democracy and citizen participation is lived. This is explained not least by the historical fractionalization in Lauenburg, Mecklenburg and Lübeck localities and the recent political reclassifications in 1937 and 1945. Administration is mostly carried out by offices that are themselves only of a very manageable size. But even the reclassification of the municipalities under these offices after 1945 has the potential of explosives in this area of pronounced direct democracy. In this respect, the district will be affected not insignificantly by the planned Schleswig-Holstein administrative structure law: according to the draft of the Kiel Ministry of the Interior, a minimum size of 8,000 inhabitants for offices and municipalities without offices was aimed for as a territorial reform on April 1, 2007 . This originally threatened the existence of six of the district's eleven offices, as of January 1, 2007, only ten of them existed. A minimum size for official municipalities, however, has not yet been provided. Here, too, the district has a large number of small communities, especially in the east around Ratzeburg, which often have fewer than 100 inhabitants.
Up to the cut-off date, the offices had the option of voluntary alliances which, according to the draft, could also have crossed the district boundaries within the country; due to the location of the district area, however, only the neighboring district of Stormarn would have come into question, to which, however, a competitive relationship in Hamburg's bacon belt . A first approach to the reduction of administrative units was the enlargement of the Lauenburgische office Lakes strengthened former Office Ratzeburg country , as well as the merger of the Office Nusse with the Office Sandesneben to Sandesneben-Nusse based in Sandesneben and the accession of the municipalities of the Office Aumühle-Wohltorf including the Sachsenwald forest estate to the Hohe Elbgeest office , which took place on January 1, 2008. According to the stipulations of the Ministry of the Interior, the offices of Breitenfelde and Lütau have not yet achieved the set target of 8,000 inhabitants in the respective administrative district beyond the three aforementioned offices. The Breitenfelde Office therefore entered into an agreed administrative partnership with the City of Mölln on January 1, 2007 in accordance with Section 19a of the Law on Municipal Cooperation .
The local elections on May 6, 2018 resulted in the following:
|Political party||Percent 1998||Percent 2003||Percent 2008||Mandates 2008||Percent 2013||Mandates 2013||Percent 2018||Mandates 2018|
|Rule of Law League||-||-||-||-||1.6%||1||-||-|
|Turnout in percent||65.4||56.7||52.7||48.8||49.2|
Estates district administrators
- August Louis Detlev von Schrader , District Administrator and Member of the Lauenburg State Assembly (1848–1853)
- 1852–1856: Friedrich Christian Ferdinand von Pechlin , Danish governor and country drost
- Ernst Philipp Berckemeyer (1852–?), Lauenburg landlord (1808–1879) and member of parliament
- Ottokar von Witzendorff (from 1854), from 1873 his title was Landschaftsrat (to distinguish it from the Prussian district administrator)
From 1873 to 1882 the Hereditary Land Marshal was responsible for the day-to-day administration and the filling of civil servant positions . The district as a Prussian officer was responsible for only the supervision of the State Administration.
Prussian and Schleswig-Holstein district administrators
- 1873–1874: Government assessor Jungbluth
- 1874–1880: Andreas von Bernstorff
- 1880–1882: Albert von Bennigsen-Foerder (1838–1886)
Since October 1, 1882, the district administrator was responsible for local government as well as state supervision.
- 1882–1897: Oskar von Dolega-Kozierowski
- 1897–1900: Konrad Finck von Finckenstein
- 1900–1907: Friedrich von Bülow
- 1907-1919: Emil Mathis
- 1919–1927: Kurt Schönberg
- 1927–1933: Gustav Vogt
- 1933–1938: Theodor Fründt , NSDAP
- 1939–1945: Erich Jüttner , NSDAP; during his military service from 1942 to 1945 provisional: Traugott von Heintze , NSDAP
The administrative structure was changed after the Second World War with the district statutes issued by the British military government in 1946: the district administrator now temporarily acted as honorary head of the district council, the administrative business was transferred to a so-called district director . Later, however, the district administrator took over the management of the district administration again.
- 1945–1946: Ewald Raaz , then district director
- 1946–1948: Wilhelm Gülich , SPD
- 1948–1950: Fritz Vagt , CDU
- 1950–1969: Gerhard Wandschneider , independent
- 1969–1975: Klaus Prößdorf
- 1975–2002: Günter Kröpelin , CDU
- 2002–2015: Gerd Krämer , non-party
- 2015–: Christoph Mager , CDU
The district president is the chairman of the district council and is elected from among its members. He leads the meetings of the district council and represents the district together with the district administrator to the outside world.
- 1974–1982: Heinrich Hagemann , CDU
- 1982–1990: Hermann Heins , CDU
- 1990-1994: Norbert Brackmann , CDU
- 1994–2003: Helga Hinz , SPD
- 2003 – today: Meinhard Füllner , CDU
Coat of arms, flag and seal
- Description of coat of arms
- “In red with a border set twelve times in silver and black, a silver horse head turned to the right. A golden royal crown above the shield. "
With a patent dated September 13, 1865, the King of Prussia took possession of the Duchy of Lauenburg. Immediately the question was asked in Berlin what the new coat of arms of Lauenburg should look like. On November 12, 1866, the King of Prussia decided, on the proposal of his responsible ministries, that the traditional Lauenburg coat of arms - a silver horse's head in a red field - should be retained, but with a black and white border.
This award was announced by the Royal Prussian, Ducal Lauenburg Government in the official weekly newspaper for the Duchy of Lauenburg No. 25 of April 13, 1867. The Ratzeburg government added the Prussian royal crown resting on the shield without authorization. This coat of arms is still unchanged today.
- Description of the flag
- “The circle flag shows the circle coat of arms on a white background; above and below the circular coat of arms there is a black horizontal stripe in the white background. "
The circular flag was adopted in 1948.
- Description of the seal
- "The official seal shows the district coat of arms with the inscription 'Kreis Herzogtum Lauenburg'."
Economy and Infrastructure
The economic center of gravity of the district lies in the Hamburg belt , while the eastern part in the water-rich Lauenburg Lakes Nature Park tends more towards gentle tourism and is characterized by agriculture. The district belongs to the Hamburg metropolitan region .
In the future atlas 2016 , the Herzogtum Lauenburg district was ranked 203 out of 402 districts, municipal associations and urban districts in Germany, making it one of the regions with a “balanced risk-opportunity mix” for the future.
Participation in commercial enterprises
- Waste Management Südholstein (AWSH)
- Duchy of Lauenburg Marketing and Service GmbH (HLMS)
- Economic Development Corporation of the Duchy of Lauenburg (WFL)
- BQG Personalentwicklung GmbH (BQG)
The traffic to the south and south-west is geographically determined by the Elbe and the bridges and ferries that cross it, such as the Lauenburg Elbe Bridge .
- Local public transport in the district was incorporated into the Hamburg Transport Association in 2003 .
- The connection to the motorway network is via the A 1 (Hamburg - Lübeck) in the west, the A 25 ( Geesthacht - Hamburg) in the south, A 24 (Hamburg - Berlin) and the A 20 (Lübeck - Rostock) in the north.
- On July 1, 1956, the district was assigned the distinctive sign RZ (Ratzeburg) when the vehicle registration number that is still valid today was introduced . It is still issued today.
- Rail connections exist from Hamburg via Schwarzenbek to Büchen and on to Berlin as well as from Lüneburg , crossing in Büchen with the aforementioned route, then via Mölln-Ratzeburg on the route towards Lübeck . Both are operated by Deutsche Bahn AG . The Kaiserbahn from Ratzeburg via Schmilau to Hollenbek is now used by tourists as the Ratzeburg adventure railway for trolley trips. This used to be the connection from Ratzeburg to Hagenow Land in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , which was interrupted by the inner German border . From Hamburg-Bergedorf to Geesthacht there is the Bergedorf-Geesthacht Railway , where today only goods and museum railway traffic is operated. It belongs to the AKN .
- There were also the following railway lines in the district: Schwarzenbek - Trittau - Bad Oldesloe ; Mölln - Hollenbek ; Ratzeburg - Berkenthin - Bad Oldesloe (as part of the Kaiserbahn ); Ratzeburg - Ratzeburg city - Mustin (Klein Thurow) . All of the routes mentioned have been closed and dismantled.
- The Elbe-Lübeck Canal , which opened in 1900, begins in the Elbe port of Lauenburg and connects the Central European waterway network with the Baltic Sea via the Trave near Lübeck ; the paths along the canal - like the Old Salt Road - serve as (cycle) hiking trails.
- With the glider airfield Grambeker Heide (approved for gliders, motor gliders, ultralight aircraft and, to a very limited extent, motorized aircraft) between Mölln and Grambek, the district has its only airfield. The nearest international airports are Lübeck Airport and Fuhlsbüttel Airport in Hamburg .
The private Duchy of Lauenburg Foundation is an important cultural institution in the district .
There is no local daily newspaper in the Duchy of Lauenburg. With the "Lauenburgische Landeszeitung", however, a regional edition of the Bergedorfer Zeitung appears , which also has three offices in Lauenburg, Schwarzenbek and Geesthacht. The Lübecker Nachrichten has an editorial office in Mölln and produces two to four regional pages specially tailored to the district. Both newspapers also publish local content for the district on their websites in a separate section. There are also two advertising paper publishers in the Duchy of Lauenburg . With "Radio RZ 1" and "Mölln TV" there are only radio and television stations that can be received via the Internet. In addition, the two online newspapers "Herzogtum Direkt" and "Lauenburger Online Zeitung" are published.
There are 29 designated nature reserves in the district (as of February 2017).
(Residents on December 31, 2019)
|Municipalities not in office|
Offices with official municipalities (* = seat of the official administration)
Municipality and office map
Former municipalities The following municipalities of the Duchy of Lauenburg were incorporated into other municipalities or left the district during its existence:
Until its dissolution in the 1920s, there was also a large number of manor districts in the Duchy of Lauenburg .
- Alfred Kamphausen : Duchy of Lauenburg. Deutscher Kunstverlag Berlin et al. 1959 ( Deutsche Lande - German Art ).
- Maik Ohnezeit: "... the red flag is waving over the Lauenburger Land!" The "livelihood elections" of 1903 and the beginnings of social democracy in the Duchy of Lauenburg. In: Lauenburg homeland. Vol. 173, 08, 2006, , pp. 2-16.
- Eckardt Opitz (ed.): Duchy of Lauenburg. The country and its history. A manual. Wachholtz, Neumünster 2003, ISBN 3-529-02060-5 .
- Eckardt Opitz: Otto von Bismarck and the integration of the Duchy of Lauenburg into the Prussian state. Otto von Bismarck Foundation, Friedrichsruh 2001, ISBN 3-933418-13-5 ( Friedrichsruher contributions 15).
- Website of the Duchy of Lauenburg district
- Website of the Duchy of Lauenburg Marketing und Service GmbH
- Literature from and about the Duchy of Lauenburg in the catalog of the German National Library
- North Statistics Office - Population of the municipalities in Schleswig-Holstein 4th quarter 2019 (XLSX file) (update based on the 2011 census) ( help on this ).
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. lauenburg.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- 1946 census
- Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany 1972
- Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany 1981
- North Statistics Office
- District of the Duchy of Lauenburg: administrative structure on December 31, 2016 *. In: http://www.kreis-rz.de . District of the Duchy of Lauenburg, January 23, 2018, accessed on April 1, 2018 .
- State Statistical Office Schleswig-Holstein (ed.): The population of the communities in Schleswig-Holstein 1867 - 1970 . State Statistical Office Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel 1972, p. 21 .
- District Lauenburg Religion , 2011 census
- Statistical figures 2019 membership development 2019 , accessed on July 26, 2020
- District election 2013: - ( Memento from August 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- District election 2018: http://kreisrz.de/wahlen/app/kw2018.html
- Schleswig-Holstein's municipal coat of arms: District of the Duchy of Lauenburg
- Duchy of Lauenburg district: The coat of arms of the Duchy of Lauenburg district ( Memento from August 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Main statutes of the Herzogtum Lauenburg district ( Memento from May 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)
- Future Atlas 2016. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 2, 2017 ; accessed on March 23, 2018 .
- North Statistics Office - Population of the municipalities in Schleswig-Holstein 4th quarter 2019 (XLSX file) (update based on the 2011 census) ( help on this ).
- State Statistical Office Schleswig-Holstein (Ed.): The population of the communities in Schleswig-Holstein . Historical community directory: District of the Duchy of Lauenburg. Kiel 1972 ( digitized from genealogy.net [accessed on April 21, 2015]).
- Municipalities and manor districts in the Duchy of Lauenburg, as of 1910