Christian Democratic Union of Germany
|Christian Democratic Union of Germany|
|party leader||Friedrich Merz|
|general secretary||Mario Czaja|
|Federal Managing Director||Stefan Hennewig|
|Federal Treasurer||Julia Kloeckner|
Jakob Kaiser (†)
Konrad Adenauer (†)
Ludwig Erhard (†)
Kurt Georg Kiesinger (†)
Helmut Kohl (†)
(waiver on January 17, 2000)
|founding||June 26, 1945 and
October 20 to 22, 1950
(1st Federal Party Congress)
|place of incorporation||Berlin and Rhineland or Goslar|
|youth organization||Young Union|
|Party-affiliated foundation||Konrad Adenauer Foundation|
Social market economy
red (party logo)
black ( union color )
|seats in state legislatures|
|Government grants||53,726,367.31 euros (2020)|
|number of members||384,204 (as of December 2021)|
|minimum age||16 years|
|average age||60.8 years
(as of December 2021)
|proportion of women||26.6 percent
(as of December 2021)
Centrist Democratic International (CDI-IDC) and
International Democratic Union (IDU)
|European party||European People's Party (EPP)|
|EP Group||European People's Party (EPP)|
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany ( CDU ) is a Christian Democratic , conservative and economically liberal party founded between 1945 and 1950 in Germany . She is located in the middle-right of the political spectrum .
In association with its sister party , the Christian Social Union (CSU), the second-largest German party in terms of members (as of 2021) is also referred to as " Union ". The CDU stands in elections in all federal states with the exception of Bavaria , and the CSU in turn only there. Both parties form a parliamentary group in the Bundestag , the CDU/CSU parliamentary group .
The CDU was founded immediately after the Second World War in 1945 and in a second attempt at the first federal party conference in 1950 as a non-denominational Christian party. This set it apart from the Catholic Center Party , which had embodied Christian Democratic values throughout the Weimar Republic . The ideological roots of the CDU are Catholic social teaching , conservatism and ordoliberalism .
At the federal level, the Union as a whole has been in government for longer than any other German party since the founding of the Federal Republic . For the longest time, the CDU formed a black-yellow coalition alongside the CSU and the Free Democratic Party (FDP) . Most recently, the CDU provided Chancellor Angela Merkel from 2005 to 2021 . In the 2021 federal elections , it came in second behind the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). With the swearing-in of the SPD-led federal government ( Scholz ) in December 2021, the CDU is back in the role of an opposition party after 16 years of government responsibility . As before in the years 1969-1982 and 1998-2005, the Union parties are again leading the parliamentary opposition.
The CDU is also represented in the state parliament in all federal states in which it is running . It currently participates in the respective state governments in nine countries and provides the prime ministers in six .
Alongside the SPD on the left , the conservative CDU is considered to be one of the two major popular parties in post-war history. In the increasingly fragmented party landscape of the Berlin Republic , this position is sometimes called into question.
Since it was founded, the CDU has been open to people of all Christian denominations as well as non-Christians. The fact that the CDU expressly describes itself as Christian is based on the party's decision to expressly declare itself committed to the Christian image of man. When the party was founded in 1945, overcoming the political differences between Catholics and Protestants was also a main reason for including the adjective "Christian" in the party name. The CDU is often mentioned as a successor to the Catholic-oriented Center Party . It sees itself as a center party with an offer for the entire population.
"According to the Christian understanding, man, nature and the environment are God's creation," says the CDU basic program from 2007 . God created man in his image , from which the dignity of man as a good worth protecting is derived. The natural environment is seen as a creation that man is not free to dispose of, but has been entrusted to him by God to preserve.
The CDU advocates anchoring the reference to God in the charter of the European Union, for the preservation of Christian symbols in public space and the retention of Christian holidays.
The political statements of the two major churches reveal similarities (e.g. in relation to social policy oriented towards Christian social teaching or the rejection of euthanasia ) as well as differences to them, e.g. in their attitude towards biotechnology , in particular genome research, or in questions of the right of asylum .
The following policy programs have been adopted by the CDU in the past:
- Neheim-Hüstener program (1946) shows the conflict about a "Christian socialism".
- The Düsseldorf Principles (1949), adopted on the occasion of the 1949 Bundestag elections , advocated a social market economy
- Hamburg program (1953)
- Berlin program (1968 (first version), 1971 (second version))
- Ludwigshafen Program (1978)
- Freedom in Responsibility (1994)
- freedom and security. Principles for Germany (2007): In 2006, the CDU initiated a debate on a new basic program under the motto "New justice through more freedom". All state organizations and associations of the CDU were represented on the 69-strong basic program commission, which met for the first time on April 25, 2006 under the chairmanship of the then CDU general secretary Ronald Pofalla . The draft that was drawn up was approved by the CDU national board at the beginning of July 2007 and finally adopted on December 3, 2007 at the federal party conference in Hanover.
The CDU has been working on a new policy program since autumn 2018.
Ever since it was founded, the CDU has invoked a Christian image of man . According to the Neheim-Hüstener program of 1946, the "high Christian conception of human dignity, of the value of each individual human being as the basis and guideline (...) in political, economic and cultural life" should apply, which is reflected, among other things, in the "right to political and religious freedom", in "legal security for everyone", in the free activity of women and in the protection of minorities. According to the preamble to the basic program of 2007 , the CDU orients itself "to the Christian image of man and his inviolable dignity and, based on this, to the basic values of freedom, solidarity and justice".
The CDU is committed to the social market economy and sees this as a guarantee for freedom, prosperity and security in the future. In the course of globalization, it is striving for an international expansion of the social market economy, whereby the economic freedom gained should serve people. Overall, the CDU is intent on an "economically reasonable and socially just" policy.
Furthermore, the CDU sees the social market economy as a social model that is directly linked to a "free democracy". According to their principle, freedom and responsibility as well as competition and solidarity formed a unit that made the economic and social model social and ensured social justice . The strength of the social market economy is based on "more freedom and competition". The CDU trusts in the "positive creative power of free markets and fair competition".
The aim of economic policy is full employment for the population, steady and appropriate economic growth and a solid budget. Furthermore, the CDU is striving for the privatization of all business operations that are currently still state-owned. In terms of labor policy, the CDU relies on “making the labor market more flexible” and on collective bargaining autonomy . Unemployment should be counteracted.
According to the CDU, the level of public debt must be resolutely reduced, with "today's debt [...] tomorrow's taxes". Public investments should only be “financed through loans that create values or assets”.
The CDU introduced the child-raising allowance or parental allowance to support families. Furthermore, a legal entitlement to a place in a day care center has been introduced since 1996 and a place in a crèche since 2013 under the respective CDU governments. The government plans to further strengthen the expansion of kindergarten places by 2021. No specific family model is prescribed for families.
During the 18th Bundestag, about a third of the CDU/CSU MPs voted in favor of same-sex marriage after Chancellor Merkel described the vote as a question of conscience without party pressure. The vote was then scheduled at short notice in the last week of the legislative period by the other parliamentary groups against the will of the Union faction. In previous years, the majority of the party had not proactively pushed for equality for homosexual partnerships, for example with regard to tax law; Progressive laws generally came about as a result of compromises with coalition partners who were more liberal in this respect, or under the pressure of some rulings from the highest courts.
The CDU stuck to the tripartite school system longer than other parties . She only openly said goodbye to it in 2011.
Tuition fees were advocated from 2008 to 2013 .
In the 2017 election campaign, the CDU campaigned for more police officers and stronger security for the EU's external borders. According to the CDU/CSU parliamentary group, a deployment of the Bundeswehr in Germany should be approved in the event of "a particularly serious terrorist situation [...] under the leadership of the police". The CDU votes against a labeling requirement for the federal police on the grounds that they want to protect police officers and sees the labeling requirement as an insinuation of law violations by officials.
In the area of network policy , the CDU advocates stricter regulation and monitoring of the Internet and advocates data retention , which it has called the "minimum storage period" since July 2013. She also advocates blocking of internet content and online searches .
With regard to policy on foreigners, the CDU expects migrants to make greater efforts to achieve greater integration, supports the promotion of the German language among immigrants and advocates a controlled immigration policy . A holistic immigration law with a points system is a frequent topic of discussion in the party. Dual citizenship is only advocated in exceptional cases. In 1998/1999 the CDU, together with the CSU, organized a signature campaign against dual citizenship . The Union supports the expulsion of criminal aliens.
In terms of foreign policy, she is primarily striving for an intact relationship with the USA . Around the time of the Iraq war , she often accused the then red-green federal government of anti-Americanism . According to former chancellor candidate Edmund Stoiber (CSU), an "ominous axis" Paris-Berlin-Moscow-Beijing could never replace integration into the western alliance. Rather, Germany needs the USA as a guarantor of peace and freedom in the world. The CDU/CSU parliamentary group also stated that they would always stand in solidarity with Israel .
The CDU sees itself as “the” European party. This claim is based on the European policy of Konrad Adenauer and subsequent chancellors of the party, as well as a tradition that programmatically aimed at a European federal state and the unification of the Christian West . With the introduction of the regulation of the internal market and German reunification, however, the idea of a federal state increasingly receded into the background.
Former Federal Chancellor Helmut Kohl still plays a special role in the European policy orientation of the CDU . He is described within the party (but also across party and national borders) as a convinced European, since European integration was promoted during his chancellorship, for example through the conclusion of treaties on the euro , on the internal market or on Schengen .
In the wake of the euro crisis , the CDU repositioned itself on European integration, but less critically than its Bavarian sister party, the CSU. MEPs from the party are committed to the further development of the European Union into a European confederation. From 2009, the CDU-led federal government under Angela Merkel relied more heavily on intergovernmental regulations, for example within the framework of the Euro Plus Pact or the emphasis on a " union method ". On the other hand, at its Leipzig party conference in Berlin in 2011, the CDU decided on a position that propagated the community method and called for a political union based on federal principles.
She thinks full EU membership for Turkey is wrong. Instead, the party advocates a privileged partnership . Above all, she argues that Turkey frequently violates human rights and that the Turkish government still denies the 1915 genocide of the Armenians . Furthermore, Turkey must recognize Cyprus as a sovereign state, since it is a basic requirement that the members of the EU recognize each other. The CDU complains that the question of whether Turkey will join the EU could become an automatism if Turkey were offered EU accession negotiations at this point in time.
climate and environmental policy
The CDU's federal election program states that greenhouse gas neutrality should be implemented as binding by 2045. Concrete CO 2 prices are not mentioned.
The preferred coalition partner at federal level has usually been the FDP , since the CDU sees the most common ground with it, especially in economic and tax policy. Above all, there are different views on the question of civil rights ; In particular, the expansion of video surveillance, which was advocated by the CDU but vehemently rejected by the FDP, and the longer-term storage of connection data should be mentioned in this context. If there was no possibility of a black-yellow coalition , a black-red coalition was formed with the SPD for a limited period of time .
At the state level , alongside the SPD, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen are currently the most common coalition partner of the CDU – in five states each. A black-green coalition governed for the first time in Hamburg from May 2008 to November 2010 . Hesse has been governed jointly by the CDU and the Greens since January 2014 , while the CDU in Baden-Württemberg has been a “junior partner” of the Greens since 2016. A so-called Jamaica coalition , together with the Greens and FDP, first existed in Saarland from November 2009 to January 2012 , and has existed in Schleswig-Holstein since 2017 . A so-called Kenya coalition , with SPD and Greens, governs under the leadership of the CDU in Saxony , from 2016 to 2021 also in Saxony-Anhalt , and under the leadership of the SPD in Brandenburg . In addition, there is a red-black coalition ( Lower Saxony ), a black-red coalition (Saarland) and a black-yellow coalition ( North Rhine-Westphalia ) at state level. At municipal level, there have been coalitions with the Greens in recent years, especially in large cities such as Cologne , Frankfurt am Main , Kiel and Saarbrücken .
relationship with the CSU
After the Second World War, the CDU and CSU emerged as collective movements based on the model of the Christian image of man. Initially, groups came together in a decentralized manner – the focus was on Cologne, Berlin and Munich; hence the term "union" and not "party". It was not until 1950, i.e. after Konrad Adenauer was elected the first Federal Chancellor, that the CDU met for its first federal party conference. The Union in Bavaria left it with its commitment at the state level, but made it clear early on that the CSU wanted to be a party with a national political connection and form a unit with the CDU at the federal level. The two Union parties form a common parliamentary group .
However, the relationship between the CDU and CSU was not always unproblematic. In the past, there were sometimes violent arguments, which culminated in the Kreuther separation decision , which was ultimately not implemented .
There are sometimes strong differences of opinion between the two parties and rarely hostilities, most recently in the context of the political debate on the refugee crisis in Germany from 2015 , where the CDU chairwoman Angela Merkel coined the phrase "We can do it", the CSU chairman Horst Instead, Seehofer demanded that the CDU agree to an upper limit for refugees. In 2016, for the first time in years, Angela Merkel did not take part in the CSU party conference as a speaker in her capacity as CDU leader.
quota for women
On July 8, 2020, the structure and statute commission of the CDU agreed on a proposal for a quota for women in party offices and candidates. From 2021, this quota model gradually prescribes a minimum proportion of women on board committees from district level upwards. Initially, a 30 percent quota should apply, from 2023 40 percent and from 2025 50 percent. According to a survey by the EAF Berlin , the majority of female CDU members reject a women's quota.
divisions and factions
The CDU Germany is divided into 17 state associations, 27 district associations, 327 district associations and over 10,000 local associations. It is organized in state associations in all German states with the exception of Bavaria . For historical reasons, Lower Saxony has three regional associations in Hanover, Braunschweig and Oldenburg; together they form the regional association of the CDU in Lower Saxony .
The CDU is represented in parliamentary groups in all the state parliaments for which it is a candidate . It currently provides six out of sixteen prime ministers , in Bavaria the sister party CSU governs . The CDU is also involved in Baden-Württemberg as a smaller coalition partner of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen , in Lower Saxony as a junior partner of the SPD and in a Kenya coalition in other state governments.
(as of October 23, 2021)
(as of December 31, 2018)
|Members per inhabitant aged 16 and over (as of December 31, 2017)||Results of the 2021 general election||Last election result state parliament||CDU Prime Minister|
|Baden-Wuerttemberg||Thomas Strobl||61,470||0.68%||24.8%||24.1% ( 2021 )||no|
|Berlin||Kai Wegner||12,239||0.40%||15.9%||18.1% ( 2021 )||no|
|Brandenburg||Michael Stubgen||5,806||0.27%||15.3%||15.6% ( 2019 )||no|
(as of 2014)
(as of 2011)
|(compare Hanover)||(compare Hanover)||(compare Hanover)|
|Bremen||Carsten Meyer-Heder||2,170||0.38%||17.2%||26.7% ( 2019 )||no|
|Hamburg||Christopher Ploss||6,666||0.44%||15.5%||11.2% ( 2020 )||no|
(as of 2014)
(as of 2011)
(all of Lower Saxony)
|33.6% ( 2017 )
(all of Lower Saxony)
|Hesse||Volker Bouffier||37,000||0.71%||22.8%||27.0% ( 2018 )||Volker Bouffier ( Cabinet Bouffier III ), since 2010|
|Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania||Eckhardt Rehberg||5.105||0.37%||17.4%||13.3% ( 2021 )||no|
|North Rhine-Westphalia||Hendrik Wust||124,567||0.84%||26.0%||33.0% ( 2017 )||Hendrik Wüst ( Cabinet Wüst ), since 2021|
(as of 2014)
(as of 2011)
|(compare Hanover)||(compare Hanover)||(compare Hanover)|
|Rhineland-Palatinate||Julia Kloeckner||38,977||1.14%||24.7%||27.7% ( 2021 )||no|
|Saarland||Tobias Hans||16,236||1.91%||23.6%||40.7% ( 2017 )||Tobias Hans ( Cabinet Hans ), since 2018|
|Saxony||Michael Kretschmer||10,444||0.30%||17.2%||32.1% ( 2019 )||Michael Kretschmer ( Cabinet Kretschmer II ), since 2017|
|Saxony-Anhalt||Sven Schulze||6,585||0.35%||21.0%||37.1% ( 2021 )||Reiner Haseloff ( Haseloff III cabinet ), since 2011|
|Schleswig Holstein||Daniel Gunther||19,494||0.79%||22.0%||32.0% ( 2017 )||Daniel Günther ( Cabinet Günther ), since 2017|
|Thuringia||Christian Shepherd||9,481||0.52%||16.9%||21.7% ( 2019 )||no|
In the German Bundestag , the CDU and CSU work together in a common faction , the CDU/CSU parliamentary group . Although parliamentary groups are not part of parties (but the principle of political division for the work of Parliament), they also have a “correlate function” in relation to them.
The CDU/CSU parliamentary group currently has 197 members, 152 of them from the CDU. This makes it the second-largest parliamentary group in the Bundestag and the CDU the second-largest party represented. Group leader is Ralph Brinkhaus , who, like all his predecessors, is a CDU member. In return, the CSU state group enjoys individual special rights.
The first party congress, which was then still called the federal party congress and at which Konrad Adenauer was elected federal chairman, took place in Goslar from October 20th to 22nd, 1950 . The 34th party congress took place in digital form on January 22, 2022 and elected Friedrich Merz as the new chairman. The results of the party congress will be verified by a postal vote.
The Federal Committee is the second-highest body and deals with all political issues and organizational matters that are not expressly reserved for the Federal Party Congress. For this reason it is often also called a small party congress .
National Executive and Presidency
The CDU federal board leads the federal party. It carries out the decisions of the federal party convention and the federal committee and convenes the federal party convention. The executive committee of the CDU implements the resolutions of the federal executive board and handles current and urgent business. It consists of the leading members of the federal executive board and is not an organ of the CDU Germany.
In December 2021, Germany's CDU had 384,204 members. The average age of CDU members is 60.8 years. 26.6 percent of the members are female and 73.4 percent male (see CDU proportion of women from 1991 ).
At the beginning of the 1990s, the CDU reached the highest level in its history with around 750,000 members, after which the number steadily decreased. At the end of June 2008, it was 530,755, meaning that the CDU had more members than the SPD for the first time, making it the German party with the most members. In May 2011, the number of members of the CDU fell below the 500,000 mark for the first time at 499,646, but was still ahead of the SPD. At the end of June 2012, the CDU had 482,951 members, falling slightly behind the SPD again. Internal party calculations assume that the number of members in the east will halve by 2019 compared to 2007, and that in the west by 2024. In 2013, the CDU recorded a decline of 1.95 percent. The decline in membership continued to weaken in 2014 compared to the previous year and was 1.18 percent by September 2014. In 2016, the decline in membership was 2.9 percent.
The minimum age required for membership is 16 years of age.
The minimum contribution for CDU membership is graded according to gross income and starts at six euros per month in the lower income brackets.
According to a 2005 study by the Freie Universität Berlin , 51 percent of CDU members are currently Catholic, 33.3 percent are Protestant and 15.7 percent do not feel they belong to any church.
The party's strongholds are primarily concentrated in rural and/or Catholic regions such as the Eifel , Sauerland , Paderborn district , Münsterland , Oldenburger Münsterland ( Cloppenburg - Vechta ), Emsland , northern Saarland , Eichsfeld in Thuringia , district and city of Fulda , the Upper Swabian counties of Biberach , Ravensburg and Sigmaringen , various southern Baden counties, and areas of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Saxony . The party has comparatively few followers in the cities of the Ruhr area , in Bremen , in East Frisia , Brandenburg and in the eastern districts of Berlin . In 2013 it was discussed that the CDU had lost popularity in the big cities in previous years, so that it had fewer and fewer mayors there , which led to debates within the party as to how metropolitan milieus could be won as voters in the future.
In the recent past, however, a "melting down" of the strongholds has been observed to an increasing extent. For example, in the 1983 Bundestag elections, the CDU (excluding the CSU) achieved a first vote result of over 60 percent in 27 constituencies; Biberach was the leader with 75.1 percent. In the 2005 general election, however, the CDU received more than 60 percent of the first votes in only one constituency: in Cloppenburg-Vechta with 64.4 percent.
associations and special organizations
In addition to the state associations, the front organizations in the CDU play an important role within the party. The associations are anchored in the statute of the CDU. In doing so, they have two main tasks: on the one hand, they are to disseminate the party's policy within their respective spheres of activity. On the other hand, they should also allow the concerns of the groups they represent to flow into the politics of the CDU. In relation to other parties, the associations enjoy a high degree of independence from the party as a whole. In addition to the right to set its own statutes, this is expressed above all in the fact that its members do not necessarily have to be members of the party as a whole. In addition, they expressly have the right to their own political statements, provided these do not contradict the principles of the party.
The CDU currently has seven associations. Most of its origins date back to the early days of the party in the 1950s. Their weight within the party varies. In addition to the Junge Union , the Mittelstand and Wirtschaftsvereinigung is generally regarded as particularly influential. The importance of the Christian Democratic Workers' Group (CDA or social committees) , which was an important inner-party power factor up until the 1970s, has since declined sharply. The Seniors' Union , founded in 1988, is committed to intergenerational justice and active participation in shaping demographic change and, according to its own statements, is the second-largest group within the CDU. There is also the Women's Union , the East and Central German Association and the Local Political Association of the CDU and CSU .
Special organizations and other groups
In addition to the associations anchored in the statutes, there are other front organizations with different statuses in the CDU. In the literature, they are sometimes placed on a par with associations. The special organizations include associations of CDU members or CDU sympathizers , which achieve a lower degree of formalization than the associations. The Evangelical Working Group (EAK) and the Ring of Christian Democratic Students (RCDS) have been recognized nationwide since 1952 . Both also include Bavarian state associations, the EAK of the CSU and the RCDS Bayern.
In addition, there are and have been the following other groups in the CDU:
- Economic Council of the CDU , founded in 1963 (status as a special organization revoked in 2018)
- Working Group of Christian Democratic Teachers (ACDL)
- Federal Working Group of Christian Democratic Lawyers (BACDJ), founded in 1968
- Student Union of Germany (SU), founded in 1972
- Christian Democrats for Life (CDL), founded 1985 (special agency status revoked 2018)
- Christian Conservative Germany Forum (CKDF) 1992–2003
- German-Turkish Forum (DTF) since 1996, partly merged intothe CDU's integration network . In 2014, the North Rhine-Westphalian forum merged into the cross-national “Union of Diversity – State Network for Integration of the CDU NRW”.
- Lesbians and Gays in the Union (LSU), founded in 1998
- Andean Pact (CDU) , founded in 2003
- Xanten district , became known in 2006
- Einstein Connection , founded in 2007
- Working group of committed Catholics in the CDU , founded in 2009
- Stop Action Left Trend , founded in 2010
- Berliner Kreis in der Union , publicly active since 2012
- Konrads Erben , association of former scholarship holders of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, nucleus of the Value Union (WU)foundedin 2017 in cooperation with the Stop Left Trend campaign and the Berliner Kreis in der Union . The initiator of Konrad's heirs is Alexander Mitsch , who was also chairman of the Values Union before he was replaced in this office by Max Otte .
- Union der Mitte initiatedby Karin Prien in 2018, first meeting in early April 2019
- Climate Union , established in 2021
The party-affiliated foundation of the CDU is the Konrad Adenauer Foundation .
The total income of the CDU in 2017 was 156,700,798.32 euros. The CDU's most important sources of income include state funds, party donations and membership fees.
|Income of the CDU in 2017||EUR||portion|
|Mandate contributions and similar regular contributions||20,094,742.17||12.82%|
|Donations from natural persons||22,576,258.92||14.41%|
|Donations from legal entities||12,629,911.08||8.06%|
|Income from business activities and participations||0.00||–|
|income from other assets||2,002,577.55||1.29%|
|Events, distribution of pamphlets and publications and other revenue-related activities||12,782,222.14||8.16%|
Between 25 and 40 percent of the donation income from legal entities consists of large donations of more than 20,000 euros per donation. The following companies and associations are among the largest donors (legal entities, total donations from 2000 to 2008, from 2007 only donations of 50,000 euros or more):
- €2,244,096 Deutsche Bank AG
- €1,639,034 Southwest Metal
- €1,461,652 Daimler AG
- €1,452,678 Altana Ltd
- 1,036,816 € Association of the Chemical Industry e. V
- €740,000 Association of the Bavarian Metal and Electrical Industry
- €665,031 BMW AG
- €663,957 Allianz AG
- €625,516 Association of the Metal and Electrical Industry North Rhine-Westphalia e. V
- €456,150 Deutsche Vermögensberatung AG DVAG
From January to July 2017, the CDU received 15 large donations (each over €50,000) with a total value of €1,901,537.00.
In the chaos of the collapse of the National Socialist dictatorship, immediately after the end of the war in 1945, the Christian-Democratic (sic! ) and the Christian Social Union. Their idea arose in the resistance circles and Gestapo prisons in the awareness of a common destiny, political convictions and ideals, regardless of religion.
Immediately after the invasion of American troops on March 6, 1945, concrete plans for a new "Christian Democratic Party" began in Cologne. The "Cologne Principles" drawn up after June 17, 1945 formed the basis for the programs of the new party in Rhineland and Westphalia in September 1945. Almost simultaneously, on June 26, 1945, the Christian Democratic Union (sic!) came into being in Berlin with its Founding appeal “German people!” to the public.
The majority of the founding appeals were signed by victims of Nazi persecution, concentration camp prisoners or emigrants. The first leader of the CDU, Andreas Hermes , had been sentenced to death for involvement in the July 20, 1944 assassination attempt and was awaiting execution on Plötzensee 's death row before being freed in April 1945. In his view, the new Christian, interdenominational party should make up for the shortcomings of the Catholic-dominated Center Party in the Weimar Republic in the future German state.
Between 1945 and 1949, the CDU organized itself at different speeds in the German states and zones of occupation. A first overarching merger took place in the joint zone committee of the eight state associations of the CDU in the British zone, which was constituted on January 22, 1946 in Herford in East Westphalia . Konrad Adenauer was elected chairman of the zone committee. A merger was prohibited in the French and American zones of occupation. In 1947, the CDU therefore formed a working group in order to maintain the party's internal unity despite the differing progress. Cooperation with the CDU in the Soviet occupation zone dwindled due to the imposed political orientation. On May 11, 1950, at a conference of state chairmen in Königswinter, the CDU merged at federal level. On October 21 of the same year, this was confirmed at the 1st Federal Party Congress in Goslar. In this way, the political reality of two German states was reflected in the organizational structure of the CDU. The federal party also had its own state association of CDU members who had fled to the West until the early 1950s, the so-called Exil-CDU .
A significant part of the CDU membership (including Konrad Adenauer ) comes from the Catholic Center Party , which existed before the Second World War and was shaped by South and West Germany . Leading members of the German National People's Party , the right-wing liberal German People's Party and the liberal DDP also joined the CDU, particularly in Northern Germany . The founding of the Union as a secular and interdenominational party made it possible, in contrast to the former Center Party , to gain a foothold in Protestant circles far beyond the Catholic milieu.
The first strongly anti-materialist Neheim-Hüstener program from 1946 for the British zone was largely formulated by Adenauer. The Ahlen program from 1947 was largely shaped by the CDU in the British zones of occupation and, in the spirit of “ Christian socialism ”, envisaged turning away from a capitalist social and economic order. In contrast, the "Düsseldorf Principles" of 1949 advocated the capitalist economic order in the sense of a social market economy , which was put into practice by the first Federal Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer , and the Federal Minister of Economics , Ludwig Erhard . In 1953, the party manifested this orientation in the "Hamburg Program".
1949-1963: The Adenauer era
In the first federal election in 1949 , the Union parties became the strongest parliamentary group with 31.0 percent, just ahead of the SPD (29.2 percent) and together with the FDP (11.9 percent) and the German party (DP; 4.0 percent) a coalition. The former Lord Mayor of Cologne and longtime Center politician, Konrad Adenauer , was elected the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany on September 15, 1949 by a majority of one vote . In 1950, Adenauer was also elected the first federal chairman of the CDU when the CDU was formed at federal level.
Adenauer 's Rhenish Catholicism and its roots in Catholic social teaching had a lasting impact on German society in the 1950s. The Union experienced two brilliant victories in the Bundestag elections in 1953 and 1957 , in particular due to the policy of Federal Minister of Economics Ludwig Erhard , which was largely rated as successful , which led to an economic upswing . The election victory in 1957 even brought it and the CSU an absolute majority . Despite this, it continued to form a coalition with the right-wing conservative DP , which is still present above all in northern Germany . In the second and third federal elections, the CDU also helped the DP to override the five-percent hurdle by using the basic mandate clause by refraining from nominating direct candidates in some prominent North German DP strongholds. Since she refused to "help" the DP again in the 1961 federal elections , half of the 17 DP members of the Bundestag switched to the CDU in 1960, including the DP federal ministers Hans-Christoph Seebohm and Hans-Joachim von Merkatz . For a year, the CDU and CSU led a one-party government, since the remaining DP MPs were no longer part of the government. From the early 1960s, most of the DP electorate also switched to the CDU, so that the DP no longer played a role.
The 1950s were marked by the “ economic miracle ” and the debate about the Federal Republic’s ties to the West (including joining NATO in 1955 and aligning it with the USA). The Soviet offer for a united, neutral Germany was seen by the CDU as a camouflage maneuver. Adenauer formulated the so-called suction theory . According to this theory, a neutral Germany was in danger of being sucked into the Soviet Union.
The CDU suffered serious losses in the 1961 federal election (CDU 35.8 percent, CSU 9.6 percent, SPD 36.2 percent, FDP 12.8 percent). Among other things, these losses were attributed to the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and Adenauer's allegedly hesitant reaction to it.
1963–1969: Erhard and Kiesinger governments
In 1963 Adenauer resigned from the office of Federal Chancellor in favor of Ludwig Erhard and in 1966 also from the party chairmanship. Erhard was able to secure government responsibility for the CDU in the 1965 federal election , but a year later there was a break with the coalition partner FDP due to disputes about economic and financial policy issues and the first economic crisis of the post-war period. The previous Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg , Kurt Georg Kiesinger , then formed the first grand coalition at federal level with the SPD .
1969–1982: First time in opposition
The 1969 federal election brought about a deep turning point in the history of the Federal Republic and also in the history of the CDU: For the first time, the CDU had to go into the parliamentary opposition , since the SPD and FDP formed a coalition under Chancellor Willy Brandt (SPD). In the election of the federal party chairman in 1971, Rainer Barzel , who had been chairman of the CDU/CSU parliamentary group in the Bundestag since 1963, prevailed in a contested vote against the Prime Minister of Rhineland-Palatinate , Helmut Kohl .
Due to their rejection of the Eastern treaties , several members of the government camp defected to the CDU/CSU opposition between 1970 and 1972, which brought them close to a majority in the Bundestag (see Members of the sixth German Bundestag ). In the spring of 1972, Barzel's attempt to replace Brandt with a constructive vote of no confidence failed , although before the vote the opposition appeared to have a mathematical majority. The exact circumstances of this vote have not been completely clarified to this day, the only thing that is certain is that at least one vote from the ranks of the Union deputies was bought by the state security of the GDR (see Steiner-Wienand affair ). There was a clear defeat in the 1972 Bundestag elections : for the first time, the CDU and CSU were no longer the strongest parliamentary group. Barzel, CDU chairman since 1971, renounced a second electoral term in 1973 and took responsibility for the election defeat, which was viewed as a debacle within the party. He was succeeded by Helmut Kohl , who was to lead the party until 1998.
In 1976, the CDU went into the election campaign with the slogans "For the love of Germany: Choose freedom" and "Freedom instead of socialism". However, Kohl's first candidacy for Chancellor against Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in the 1976 federal election failed, although the CDU and CSU were able to achieve significant gains, becoming the strongest party again and only just missing out on an absolute majority. In mid-November 1976, the CSU then announced the Kreuth separation decision by terminating the faction community with the CDU in the Bundestag and striving for an extension to the entire federal territory . She only backed down after the CDU had threatened to become active in Bavaria in the future. In the federal elections of 1980 , CSU chairman Franz Josef Strauss , as the joint candidate for chancellor of the two Union parties, lost to incumbent Chancellor Helmut Schmidt.
1982–1998: The Kohl government
In 1982 the social-liberal coalition broke up . Helmut Kohl was elected Helmut Schmidt's successor on October 1, 1982 by a constructive vote of no confidence. In the early federal elections in 1983 , the CDU and CSU under Kohl significantly increased their share of the vote to 48.8 percent and continued the coalition with the FDP that they had formed with the change of power in October 1982. Although the Federal Constitutional Court dismissed complaints against the early dissolution of the Bundestag, the fact that the Bundestag elections came about as a result of a vote of confidence deliberately lost remained constitutionally controversial. In the 1987 general election , the CDU and CSU suffered significant losses under Kohl's leadership, but remained the strongest parliamentary group in the Bundestag and continued to govern with the FDP.
On November 9, 1989, the borders between the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany were opened . Kohl was in Warsaw at the time and, like most observers, was completely taken by surprise by the events. He immediately broke off his stay in order to go to Bonn and then to West Berlin . After initial hesitation and planning for a long-term unification process (ten-point plan), it became clear in the spring of 1990, due to popular pressure, that reunification had to be achieved quickly. Through intensive personal talks and negotiations, Kohl managed to gain the approval of the Allies and the support of his European neighbors. The Federal Chancellor, who had already fallen far behind in the opinion polls, was able to win a clear victory in the first all-German federal election in 1990 – celebrated as the “Chancellor of Unity” .
In the course of reunification, parts of the GDR civil rights movement, such as the Democratic Awakening , but also the previous GDR block parties , the Democratic Farmers' Party of Germany and the CDU (East) , merged into the CDU. Apart from a few leaders, the CDU (East), which shortly before had understood itself as a “party of socialism”, was completely integrated into the CDU of the Federal Republic without much consideration for the previous commitments of the members. (A separate article gives an overview of the whereabouts of the assets of the Eastern CDU and the Farmers' Party after the merger.)
After the CDU had just managed to assert itself again in the 1994 federal elections with Helmut Kohl as the leading figure, it lost the government majority together with the CSU in the 1998 federal elections and for the second time in the history of the Federal Republic its position as the strongest parliamentary group. With 35.1 percent, it achieved the second-worst result in federal elections in its history after 1949. Kohl's successor as Federal Chancellor was the previous Prime Minister of Lower Saxony, Gerhard Schröder (SPD).
The main causes of the disastrous defeat were the sluggish economic development with the accompanying increase in unemployment; and the Germans, after 16 years as chancellor, had grown weary of Helmut Kohl. The CDU was also in a deep crisis at state level. In November 1998, for example, it was only the head of government in Baden-Württemberg , Berlin , Saxony and Thuringia , forming a grand coalition with the SPD in Berlin and Thuringia. In addition, she was a junior partner of the SPD in another grand coalition in Bremen .
1998-2005: The CDU in opposition
Wolfgang Schäuble became the new party chairman . In 1998/1999, the CDU/CSU initiated a signature campaign against the reform of German citizenship law , in which the law of descent was to be supplemented by elements of the ius soli . The public campaign helped the Hessian top candidate Roland Koch to win the election and to become Prime Minister of Hesse .
At the end of 1999, the CDU was rocked by a party donation scandal. The core of the affair was donations in the millions, whose donors Helmut Kohl refused to name. Likewise, some black accounts were kept bypassing the Treasury . The CDU General Secretary at the time , Angela Merkel, forced Kohl to resign as CDU honorary chairman. In connection with this scandal, Wolfgang Schäuble had to resign as chairman of the CDU and the CDU/CSU parliamentary group at the beginning of 2000 after contradicting statements on the facts. The successor as party leader was Angela Merkel , who was the first woman to become the head of one of the German people's parties. Schäuble's successor as parliamentary group leader was Friedrich Merz . In 2000, the party headquarters moved from Bonn to the Konrad-Adenauer-Haus in Berlin .
In the 2002 Bundestag elections , the Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber (CSU) ran as a candidate for chancellor. Despite significant growth in southern and southwestern Germany, the CDU/CSU remained only the second largest parliamentary group. According to analysts, the main reason was that Bayer Stoiber was not able to appeal to voters sufficiently, especially in northern (like Strauss in 1980) and eastern Germany.
The state elections in Schleswig-Holstein in 2005 brought about the end of Prime Minister Heide Simonis ' (SPD) term; the CDU then led a grand coalition with the SPD. On May 22, 2005, the CDU was victorious in North Rhine-Westphalia , replacing the last incumbent red-green state government in Germany at the time.
2005-2009: First female Chancellor – Second grand coalition
After the early Bundestag elections on September 18, 2005, the CDU and CSU parliamentary group under Angela Merkel became the strongest parliamentary group for the first time since the 1994 election, but received fewer votes than in the previous election and than forecast in opinion polls . The Union received the third-worst result in its party's history. The declared election goal, a Bundestag majority for a coalition with the FDP, could not be achieved.
Although the CDU/CSU was the strongest faction, the SPD initially claimed the office of Federal Chancellor; However, since that ruled out a coalition of the SPD, the Greens and the Left Party and the FDP was not prepared to form a traffic light coalition , it was not possible to form a government without the CDU. On November 11, 2005, the CDU, CSU and SPD agreed on a coalition agreement for a grand coalition under Angela Merkel as Federal Chancellor. After the signing of the coalition agreement on November 22, 2005, Angela Merkel was elected the first woman to hold the position of Federal Chancellor with 397 out of 614 votes from the members of the German Bundestag. Angela Merkel received more votes in the chancellor election than any of her predecessors in office, but in percentage terms her election result with 64.9 percent of the votes was worse than that of Kurt Georg Kiesinger . However, when he was elected Chancellor on December 1, 1966, the grand coalition provided more than 90.1 percent of the seats, while the grand coalition under Merkel provided just under 73 percent of the seats in the 16th German Bundestag. This was mainly due to the three other parties, which were much more strongly represented in the Bundestag than before.
2009-2013: New coalition partner in the Merkel II cabinet
In the 2009 federal election , the CDU lost a little more votes, but thanks to overhang mandates , it was represented by more MPs in the Bundestag than in the previous legislative period . Since the FDP also achieved the best election result in its history, Angela Merkel was able to change government partners and be re-elected as head of government in the fourth Christian-liberal coalition with the votes of the CDU and FDP . Before that, no chancellor in German history had managed to change coalition partners.
In January 2010, the CDU presented its future paper, the Berlin Declaration . This was perceived by some observers as a sign of a leftward trend in the CDU. On the initiative of Friedrich-Wilhelm Siebeke , the Stop the Left Trend campaign was founded, which published its manifesto against the left trend in German daily newspapers a month after the Berlin Declaration.
2013-2021: Another grand coalition
After the 2013 federal election , in which the Union missed out on an absolute majority of seats in the Bundestag by only five mandates, it explored with Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and the SPD. Since some officials of the Greens and the CSU rejected a black-green coalition, the CDU/CSU and the SPD again negotiated the formation of a grand coalition. After the successful membership decision of the SPD , the coalition agreement was signed. On December 17, 2013, Angela Merkel was elected Chancellor for the third time by a large majority.
Since the FDP, which according to Merkel is and will remain a "natural coalition partner", remained at around 3 percent in election polls in 2014 and a return to the Bundestag in 2017 appeared uncertain against this background, the CDU began to open up more to the Greens.
In the 2017 federal election , the CDU lost heavily and, together with the CSU, only got 32.9 percent of the votes. After the SPD initially ruled out a resumption of the grand coalition on the evening of the election, there were soundings for a Jamaica coalition of Union, FDP and Greens. These failed in November 2017. After successful exploratory and coalition negotiations with the SPD, Angela Merkel was re-elected for the third time on March 14, 2018 .
On August 27, 2018, the Presidium and Federal Executive Committee of the CDU revoked the status of the Christian Democrats for Life , the Economic Council of the CDU and the Value Union as special organizations of the party. Since then, new CDU groups or associations should no longer be officially recognised.
After the CSU suffered major losses in the state elections in Bavaria in October 2018 and two weeks later the CDU also lost double digits in the state elections in Hesse , Angela Merkel resigned in a presidium meeting on October 29, 2018, the day after the Hessian state elections announced that he would no longer run for the office of CDU chairman at the upcoming party conference. She also announced that she would not stand again in the next federal election. CDU General Secretary Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer , former parliamentary group leader Friedrich Merz and Federal Health Minister Jens Spahn ran to succeed her as party leader . This was the first time since 1971 that there was more than one candidate for the post, and for the first time ever there were more than two. On December 7, 2018, the delegates at the 31st federal party conference of the CDU elected Kramp-Karrenbauer as the new party leader in the second ballot.
In the 2019 European elections , the Union achieved 28.9 percent, the worst result in a nationwide election to date. Although Manfred Weber from the CSU ran as the EPP's top candidate, the European Council subsequently nominated Federal Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen as Commission President. She was elected by the EU Parliament on July 16 and is the first woman to hold this office as well as the first German and the first CDU politician since Walter Hallstein .
CDU chairwoman Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer announced on February 10, 2020, immediately during the government crisis in Thuringia , which was triggered by the election of the FDP politician Thomas Kemmerich as prime minister with votes from the CDU and AfD , that she would not run for chancellor the federal elections in 2021 and the withdrawal from the party chairmanship. Armin Laschet , Prime Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia, once again Friedrich Merz and foreign politician Norbert Röttgen applied to succeed him . The election of the new party leader was originally scheduled for the end of April 2020, but had to be postponed twice due to the corona pandemic . On January 16, 2021, a digital party conference elected Armin Laschet as the new CDU federal chairman in the second ballot. Since this was the first digital personal election in German party history, formal confirmation by postal vote was necessary. Laschet therefore officially became chairman on January 22nd.
At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany in spring 2020, the popularity ratings of the CDU in surveys initially rose sharply. This was regularly interpreted as the usual positive effect of external crises on the popularity ratings of the CDU as the leading governing party. In March 2021, however, the popularity ratings fell significantly again and the CDU suffered defeats in two state elections (each historically worst result in Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate ). Above all, various suspected cases of corruption by politicians and members of the Bundestag of the CDU and CSU were held responsible for this (including in the course of the mask affair and the Azerbaijan affair ). In addition, there was increasing dissatisfaction among the population with the fight against the pandemic ("third wave" and vaccination progress perceived as sluggish).
In the 2021 federal election , the Union received 24.1 percent of the second votes (after 32.9 percent in 2017 and 41.5 percent in 2013 and 33.8 percent in 2009), i.e. it lost one in four voters compared to 2017 (26.7 percent).
After strong internal party pressure, Laschet announced on October 7, 2021 that he wanted to give up the party leadership. To determine the successor in the presidency, the party base was involved for the first time by means of member surveys.
|chairman||beginning of the term||end of term||honorary chair|
|Andrew Hermes||July 1945||December 1945||no|
|Jacob Kaiser||1946||1947||since 1958|
Chancellor from 1949 to 1963
|March 1, 1946 (British Zone)
October 21, 1950 (National)
|March 23, 1966||since 1966|
Federal Chancellor 1963 to 1966
|March 23, 1966||May 23, 1967||since 1967|
Kurt Georg Kiesinger
Chancellor from 1966 to 1969
|May 23, 1967||October 5, 1971||since 1971|
|Rainer Barzel||October 5, 1971||June 12, 1973||no|
Federal Chancellor 1982 to 1998
Chairman of the European Council 1994
|June 12, 1973||November 7, 1998||since 1998;
on January 18, 2000, Helmut Kohl agreed to let the honorary chairmanship rest due to the CDU donation scandal
|Wolfgang Schäuble||November 7, 1998||February 16, 2000||no|
Federal Chancellor 2005 to 2021
President of the European Council 2007
|April 10, 2000||December 7, 2018||no|
Federal Minister of Defense 2019 to 2021
|December 7, 2018||January 22, 2021||no|
Prime Minister of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia from 2017 to 2021
|January 22, 2021 ( voted digitally
on January 16, 2021 )
|January 31, 2022||no|
former chairman of the CDU/CSU parliamentary group
|January 31, 2022
(voted digitally on January 22, 2022)
|Surname||beginning of the term||end of term|
|Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer||February 2018||December 2018|
|Surname||beginning of the term||end of term|
|Konrad Adenauer||September 1, 1949||September 20, 1949|
|Henry of Brentano||September 30, 1949||June 7, 1955|
|Henry Krone||June 15, 1955||Nov. 24, 1961|
|Henry of Brentano||Nov. 24, 1961||November 14, 1964 (†)|
|Rainer Barzel||December 1, 1964||May 9, 1973|
|Karl Carstens||May 17, 1973||December 1, 1976|
|Helmut Kohl||December 13, 1976||October 4, 1982|
|Alfred Dregger||October 4, 1982||Nov. 25, 1991|
|Wolfgang Schäuble||Nov. 25, 1991||February 29, 2000|
|Friedrich Merz||February 29, 2000||September 24, 2002|
|Angela Merkel||September 24, 2002||November 21, 2005|
|Volker Kauder||November 21, 2005||September 25, 2018|
|Ralph Brinkhaus||September 25, 2018||officiating|
The following CDU politicians were elected Federal Presidents of the Federal Republic of Germany. Party membership is traditionally suspended during the presidency.
September 13, 1959 to
June 30, 1969
July 1, 1979 to
June 30, 1984
Richard von Weizsäcker
July 1, 1984 to
June 30, 1994
July 1, 1994 to
June 30, 1999
July 1, 2004 to
May 31, 2010
June 30, 2010 to
February 17, 2012
The following CDU politicians officiated as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany.
September 15, 1949 to
October 16, 1963
October 16, 1963 to
December 1, 1966
Kurt Georg Kiesinger
December 1, 1966 to
October 21, 1969
October 1, 1982 to
October 27, 1998
November 22, 2005 to
December 8, 2021
President of the German Bundestag
September 7, 1949 to
October 18, 1950
October 19, 1950 to
October 29, 1954 (†)
November 16, 1954 to
January 31, 1969
Kai-Uwe von Hassel
February 5, 1969 to
December 13, 1972
December 14, 1976 to
May 31, 1979
March 29, 1983 to
October 25, 1984
November 5, 1984 to
November 11, 1988
November 25, 1988 to
October 26, 1998
October 18, 2005 to
October 24, 2017
October 24, 2017 to
October 26, 2021
President of the Federal Constitutional Court
Subsequent CDU politicians served as Presidents of the Federal Constitutional Court .
January 8, 1959 to
December 8, 1971
December 8, 1971 to
December 20, 1983
November 16, 1987 to
June 30, 1994
since June 22, 2020
Presidents of EU institutions and EU commissioners
March 28, 1960 to
March 27, 1962
January 14, 1992 to
July 19, 1994
January 16, 2007 to
July 14, 2009
Results in federal elections
|election year||vote share||voices 1|
|election year||vote share||voices|
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- Political Database
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- Original document (from page 16 of the PDF file; 562 kB)
- Ludwig Bergstrasser: History of the political parties in Germany. Olzog Verlag, Munich/Vienna 1965, p. 241
- Interview with Rainer Barzel: "I have never eaten with Helmut Kohl" . In: The daily mirror . 28 June 2000 ( tagesspiegel.de [accessed 3 November 2018]).
- Election programs and slogans online at the Konrad-Adenauer-Foundation
- Biography Schäuble, website of the German Historical Museum
- Federal Executive Committee of the CDU: Berlin Declaration – Our Perspectives 2010-2013 ( Memento from January 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 98 kB), from January 15, 2010.
- Thomas Steinmann in Financial Times Deutschland : Christian-Conservatives - Die Heimatvertriebenen der CDU ( Memento of May 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) from April 6, 2010, seen on April 13, 2010.
- Märkische Oderzeitung Frankfurt (Oder): Political scientist Langguth warns Merkel (CDU) of March 21, 2010, read on March 25, 2010.
- Action links trend stop: http://linkstrend-stoppen.de/index.php?id=initiator ( memento from December 31, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) , seen on April 13, 2010.
- Action to stop the left trend: Manifesto against the left trend ( Memento of October 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) .
- Peter Müller: Attack at the CDU party conference: Why Merkel is now bullying the SPD. In: Mirror Online . December 9, 2014, retrieved June 9, 2018 .
- Cornelia Kaminski: Is diversity in the CDU recently undesirable? On: kath.net from August 28, 2018
- Jörg Rößner: "This procedure is unprecedented in the history of the Federal Republic". In: welt.de. October 28, 2018, retrieved January 26, 2021 .
- Questions and Answers - How the CDU chooses a new leadership. In: Deutschlandfunk . December 7, 2018, retrieved January 26, 2021 .
- tagesschau.de: Kramp-Karrenbauer elected new CDU chairman. Retrieved December 7, 2018 .
- European elections 2019: The results at a glance. In: Tagesspiegel.de. May 27, 2019, retrieved January 26, 2021 .
- Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer: Resignation after many mishaps. In: ZDFtoday. 10 February 2020, retrieved 26 January 2021 .
- Result of the postal vote: Armin Laschet officially confirmed as CDU chairman. In: The Mirror. January 22, 2021, retrieved January 26, 2021 .
- Union climbs over 40 percent - remaining parties lose , published on May 9, 2020 on t-online.de , retrieved on March 20, 2021.
- Robert Pausch: Why only the Union wins? , published May 10, 2020 at Zeit Online , retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Union drops to 29 percent, Greens and small parties win , published on March 17, 2021 on faz.net , retrieved on March 20, 2021.
- Mariam Lau : It could also go wrong , published on March 17, 2021 on Zeit Online , retrieved on March 20, 2021.
- Unrest in the CDU after the election defeats , published on March 15, 2021 on Zeit Online , retrieved on March 20, 2021.
- ZEIT ONLINE | A resignation that shouldn't be called that. 7 October 2021, retrieved 11 November 2021 .
- CDU general secretary: "It's time for the members". November 2, 2021, retrieved November 11, 2021 .
- rulers.org: Presidents of the Parliamentary Assembly (from 30 Mar 1962, European Parliament)
- Bundestagswahl 2013. The Federal Returning Officer, 2013, retrieved on January 12, 2017 .
- seats European election 2019, GermanyFinal result , on bundeswahlleiter.de
- Members page in EBD. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 7, 2012 ; retrieved October 6, 2010 .