Christian Democratic Union of Germany

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Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Logo of the CDU
Armin Laschet
Party leader Armin Laschet ( subject to confirmation by postal vote )
Secretary General Paul Ziemiak
vice-chairman Volker Bouffier
Silvia Breher
Julia Klöckner
Jens Spahn
Thomas Strobl
Federal Managing Director Stefan Hennewig
Federal Treasurer Philipp Murmann
Honorary Chairwoman Jakob Kaiser (†)
Konrad Adenauer (†)
Ludwig Erhard (†)
Kurt Georg Kiesinger (†)
Helmut Kohl (†)
(waiver on January 17, 2000)
founding June 26, 1945 or
October 20 to 22, 1950
(1st Federal Party Congress)
Place of establishment Berlin and Rhineland or Goslar
Headquarters Konrad-Adenauer-Haus
Klingelhöferstrasse 8
10785 Berlin
Youth organization Young Union
Affiliate foundation Konrad Adenauer Foundation
Alignment Christian Democracy
Conservatism
Economic
Liberalism Pro-Europeanism
Colours) red (party logo )
black ( union color )
Bundestag seats
200/709
Seats in state parliaments
494/1866
Government grants 54,018,918.68 euros (2019)
Number of members 407,350 (as of end of December 2019)
Minimum age 16 years
Average age 60 years
(as of 2018)
Proportion of women 26.3 percent
(as of December 31, 2018)
International connections Christian Democratic International (CDI-IDC) and
International Democratic Union (IDU)
MEPs
23/96
European party European People's Party (EPP)
EP Group European People's Party (EPP)
Website cdu.de

The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (short name: CDU ) is a Christian Democratic party in Germany .

It is the second largest German party after members . The CDU and its sister party , the Christian Social Union (CSU), are referred to as Union Parties or Union for short. The CDU does not run in Bavaria, the CSU does not participate in elections in the rest of Germany. Both parties form a parliamentary group in the Bundestag , the CDU / CSU parliamentary group .

The CDU was after the Second World War , unlike the Catholic embossed Center Party as interdenominational founded Christian Party. Its ideological roots are Catholic social teaching , conservatism and ordoliberalism .

At the federal level, the Union has been in government for longer than any other German party since the Federal Republic was founded. The longest time, the CDU formed a coalition next to the CSU with the FDP in black-yellow coalition . In the years 1969–1982 and 1998–2005, the Union parties were in the opposition . Since 2005, the CDU again with Angela Merkel , the German Chancellor .

In the 2017 federal election , the CDU became the strongest party for the third time in a row. It is involved in the grand coalition with the CSU and SPD and thus supports the federal government ( Merkel IV cabinet ).

The CDU is represented in the state parliament in all federal states in which it competes . It currently participates in the respective state government in nine countries and is the prime minister in six .

profile

The Konrad-Adenauer-Haus in Berlin

tradition

Since it was founded, the CDU has been open to people of all Christian denominations and also to non-Christians. The fact that the CDU expressly describes itself as Christian is based on the party's decision to expressly declare that it is committed to the Christian image of man. When the party was founded in 1945, the overcoming of the political antagonism between Catholics and Protestants was a main motive for including the adjective “Christian” in the party name. The CDU is often named as a successor to the Catholic-oriented Center Party .

"According to the Christian understanding, man, nature and the environment are God's creation," says the CDU policy program from 2007 . Accordingly, God created man in his image , from which the dignity of man as a good worth protecting is derived. The natural environment is viewed as a creation that man is not allowed to freely dispose of, but has been entrusted to him by God for preservation.

The CDU advocates anchoring the reference to God in the Charter of the European Union, the preservation of Christian symbols in public space and the preservation of Christian holidays.

In relation to the political statements made by leading church representatives, there are regularly similarities today, but also different approaches and contradictions to the statements of the churches , for example in social policy (see Christian social teaching ) or in the promotion of biotechnology , especially genome research.

Principles

The following basic programs have been adopted by the CDU in the past:

The CDU has been working on a new basic program since autumn 2018.

Election poster for the 1949 federal election

Program

Basic orientation

Since its foundation, the CDU has relied on a Christian image of man . According to the Neheim-Hüstener program of 1946, the "high conception of Christianity of human dignity, of the value of every individual as a basis and guideline (...) in political, economic and cultural life" should apply, which is reflected in the "right to political and religious freedom ”, in“ legal security for everyone ”, in the free activity of women and in the protection of minorities. According to the preamble to the basic program of 2007 , the CDU orients itself “on the Christian image of man and his inviolable dignity and, based on this, on the basic values ​​of freedom, solidarity and justice”.

Economic policy

Commemorative Medal Ludwig Erhard - The Social Market Economy

The CDU is committed to the social market economy and sees this as a guarantee for freedom, prosperity and security in the future. In the course of globalization, it strives for an international expansion of the social market economy, whereby the economic freedom gained should serve the people. Overall, the CDU is concerned with an “economically sensible and socially just” policy.

Furthermore, the CDU sees the social market economy at the same time as a model of society that is directly linked to a "free democracy". According to their principle, freedom and responsibility as well as competition and solidarity formed a unit that made the economic and social model social and ensured social justice . The strength of the social market economy is based on “more freedom and competition”. The CDU trusts in the "positive creative power of free markets and fair competition".

The aim of economic policy is full employment of the population, steady and appropriate economic growth and a solid budget. Furthermore, the CDU is striving to privatize all businesses that are currently still receiving state participation. In labor policy, the CDU relies on "making the labor market more flexible" and on collective bargaining . Unemployment should be counteracted.

The debt of public budgets must be returned determined according CDU, where "debt [...] taxes of tomorrow today" are. Public investments should only be “financed through loans that create values ​​or assets”.

Family policy

The CDU has introduced child-raising allowance or parental allowance to promote families. Furthermore, a legal right to a daycare place since 1996 and a daycare place since 2013 has been introduced under the respective CDU governments. During the 18th Bundestag, same-sex marriage was decided with votes from the CDU / CSU , after Chancellor Merkel had described the vote as a question of conscience without any political party pressure. The government plans to further strengthen the expansion of kindergarten places by 2021. The CDU does not prescribe a specific family model for the families.

Educational policy

The CDU stuck to the tripartite school system longer than other parties . It only openly said goodbye to the tripartite system in 2011.

The CDU advocated tuition fees for the years 2008 to 2013.

Internal security

In the 2017 election campaign, the CDU campaigned for more police officers and stronger security of the EU's external borders. A deployment of the Bundeswehr inside Germany should, according to the CDU / CSU parliamentary group , be approved in "a particularly serious terrorist situation [...] under the leadership of the police".

Network policy

In the area of network policy , the CDU advocates stronger regulation and monitoring of the Internet and advocates data retention , which it has been calling the “minimum retention period” since July 2013. She also advocates blocking of Internet content and online searches .

As part of the parliamentary group of the European People's Party (EPP), the CDU played a key role in drafting the EU Directive 2019/790 on the reform of copyright law in the digital single market.

Immigration policy

The CDU expects immigrants to make greater efforts to achieve greater integration with regard to foreigners policy, advocates the promotion of the German language among immigrants and advocates a controlled immigration policy . A holistic immigration law with a point system is a frequent topic of discussion for the party. The Dual citizenship is approved only in exceptional cases. In 1998/1999, the CDU and the CSU organized a signature campaign against dual citizenship . The Union supports the expulsion of criminal aliens.

Angela Merkel and US President Barack Obama at the state reception in Baden-Baden, April 3, 2009

Foreign policy

In terms of foreign policy, she is primarily striving for an intact relationship with the USA . In the context of the Iraq war, for example, she often accused the then red-green federal government of anti-Americanism . According to former Chancellor candidate Edmund Stoiber (CSU), an “ominous axis” Paris-Berlin-Moscow-Beijing could never replace integration into the Western alliance. Rather, Germany needs the USA as a guarantor of peace and freedom in the world. In addition, the CDU / CSU parliamentary group declared that it would always stand in solidarity with Israel .

European politics

The CDU sees itself as "the" European party. This claim is justified with the European policy of Konrad Adenauer and subsequent chancellors of the party, as well as a tradition that programmatically aimed at a European federal state and the unification of the Christian West . However, with the introduction of internal market regulation and German reunification, the federal state idea has increasingly faded into the background.

Former Federal Chancellor Helmut Kohl still plays a special role in the European political orientation of the CDU . He is described in the party (but also across party and national borders) as a convinced European, as European integration was promoted in his chancellorship, for example through the conclusion of treaties on the euro , the internal market or Schengen .

In the course of the euro crisis , the CDU is repositioning itself towards European integration, but less critical than its Bavarian sister party, the CSU. MEPs of the party advocate the further development of the European Union into a European confederation. From 2009, the CDU-led federal government under Angela Merkel relied more on intergovernmental regulations, for example within the framework of the Euro Plus Pact or the emphasis on a “ Union method ”. At its Leipzig party conference in 2011 in Berlin, however, the CDU decided on a position that propagated the community method and called for a political union based on federal principles.

An EU -Vollmitgliedschaft of Turkey considers them wrong. Instead, the party advocates a privileged partnership . Above all, she argues that Turkey frequently violates human rights and that the Turkish government still denies the Armenian genocide of 1915 today. Furthermore, Turkey must recognize Cyprus as a sovereign state, since it is a basic requirement that the members of the EU recognize each other. The CDU complains that the question of whether Turkey will join the EU could become automatic if Turkey were offered EU accession negotiations at this point in time.

Party politics

Coalitions

So far, the preferred coalition partner at federal level has usually been the FDP , as the CDU sees most in common with it, especially in economic and tax policy. There are different views, especially on the question of civil rights ; Particular mention should be made in this context of the expansion of video surveillance advocated by the CDU but vehemently rejected by the FDP and the long-term storage of connection data. If the possibility of a black-yellow coalition failed, a black-red coalition with the SPD was usually formed for the respective legislative period.

At the state level , alongside the SPD, Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen are currently the most frequent coalition partner of the CDU - in six countries each. For the first time, a black-green coalition ruled from May 2008 to November 2010 in Hamburg . Since January 2014, Hesse has been governed jointly by the CDU and the Greens, while the CDU in Baden-Württemberg has been the Greens' junior partner since 2016. A so-called Jamaica coalition , together with the Greens and the FDP, existed for the first time in Saarland from November 2009 to January 2012 , and has existed in Schleswig-Holstein since 2017 . A so-called Kenya coalition , with the SPD and the Greens, governs under the leadership of the CDU in Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony , under the leadership of the SPD in Brandenburg . In addition, there are two red-black coalitions ( Lower Saxony and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania ), one black-red (Saarland) and one black-yellow coalition ( North Rhine-Westphalia ). At the municipal level, there are coalitions with the Greens , especially in large cities such as Cologne , Frankfurt am Main , Kiel and Saarbrücken .

Relationship to the CSU

Angela Merkel between the CSU politicians Ramsauer (left) and zu Guttenberg , 2008

The CDU and CSU emerged after the Second World War as collection movements based on the model of the Christian image of man. Initially, groups joined together in a decentralized manner - the focus was on Cologne, Berlin and Munich; hence the term “union” and not “party”. It was not until 1950, after Konrad Adenauer's election as the first Federal Chancellor, that the CDU met for its first federal party congress. The Union in Bavaria left it to its commitment at the state level, but made it clear early on that the CSU wanted to be a party with federal political relevance and wanted to form a unit with the CDU at federal level. The two Union parties form a joint parliamentary group .

The relationship between CDU and CSU was not always unproblematic. In the past there were sometimes violent disputes, which culminated in the Kreuther decision to break up , which was ultimately not carried out .

Sometimes there are strong differences of opinion between the two parties and rarely also hostility, most recently in the context of the political dispute with the refugee crisis in Germany from 2015 , where the CDU chairwoman Angela Merkel coined the phrase "We can do it " and the CSU chairman Horst Instead, Seehofer asked the CDU to approve an upper limit for refugees. For the first time in years, Angela Merkel did not take part in the CSU party congress in 2016 as a speaker in her role as CDU chairwoman.

Quota for women

On July 8, 2020, the structural and constitutional commission of the CDU agreed on a proposal for a women's quota for party offices and candidates for mandate. From 2021, this quota model will gradually stipulate a minimum proportion of women in executive bodies from the district level. Initially, a 30 percent quota should apply, 40 percent from 2023 and 50 percent from 2025. On October 5, the CDU federal executive committee will discuss the results of the commission.

Outlines and parliamentary groups

Levels

Representation of the CDU in the state parliaments
  • not represented
  • represented as an opposition party
  • as a small coalition partner in the government
  • as a major coalition partner in the government and provides the head of government
  • The CDU in Germany is divided into 17 regional associations, 27 district associations, 327 district associations and over 10,000 local associations. It is organized in state associations in all German states with the exception of Bavaria . For historical reasons, Lower Saxony has three regional associations: Hanover, Braunschweig and Oldenburg; together they form the CDU regional association in Lower Saxony .

    Regional associations

    The CDU is in all the state parliaments , for which they candidate in a parliamentary group represented. It currently provides six out of sixteen prime ministers , and the sister party CSU governs Bavaria . Furthermore, the CDU participates in Baden-Württemberg as a smaller coalition partner of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen , in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Lower Saxony as a junior partner of the SPD in other state governments.

    Regional association Chairman
    (as of September 10, 2019)
    Members
    (as of December 31, 2018)
    Members per inhabitant aged 16 and over (as of December 31, 2017) Result of the 2017 federal election Last election result state parliament CDU head of government
    Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg Thomas Strobl 61,470 0.68% 34.4% 27.0% ( 2016 ) No
    Berlin Berlin Kai Wegner 12,239 0.40% 22.7% 17.6% ( 2016 ) No
    Brandenburg Brandenburg Michael Stübgen (acting) 5,806 0.27% 26.7% 15.6% ( 2019 ) No
    Braunschweig Braunschweig Frank Oesterhelweg 5,283
    (as of 2014)
    0.63%
    (as of 2011)
    (compare Hanover) (compare Hanover) (compare Hanover)
    Bremen Bremen Carsten Meyer-Heder 2,170 0.38% 25.0% 26.7% ( 2019 ) No
    Hamburg Hamburg Roland Heintze 6,666 0.44% 27.2% 11.2% ( 2020 ) No
    Hanover Hanover
    Bernd Althusmann
    45,957
    (as of 2014)
    0.75%
    (as of 2011)
    34.9%
    (all of Lower Saxony)
    33.6% ( 2017 )
    (all of Lower Saxony)
    No
    Hesse Hesse Volker Bouffier 37,000 0.71% 30.9% 27.0% ( 2018 ) Volker Bouffier ( Bouffier III Cabinet ), since 2010
    Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Vincent Kokert 5.105 0.37% 33.1% 19.0% ( 2016 ) No
    North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia Armin Laschet 124,567 0.84% 32.6% 33.0% ( 2017 ) Armin Laschet ( Laschet cabinet ), since 2017
    Oldenburg Oldenburg Franz-Josef Holzenkamp 11,749
    (as of 2014)
    1.21%
    (as of 2011)
    (compare Hanover) (compare Hanover) (compare Hanover)
    Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate Julia Kloeckner 38,977 1.14% 35.9% 31.8% ( 2016 ) No
    Saarland Saarland Tobias Hans 16,236 1.91% 32.4% 40.7% ( 2017 ) Tobias Hans ( Cabinet Hans ), since 2018
    Saxony Saxony Michael Kretschmer 10,444 0.30% 26.9% 32.1% ( 2019 ) Michael Kretschmer ( Cabinet Kretschmer I ), since 2017
    Saxony-Anhalt Saxony-Anhalt Holger Stahlknecht 6,585 0.35% 30.3% 29.8% ( 2016 ) Reiner Haseloff ( Haseloff II cabinet ), since 2011
    Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein Daniel Günther 19,494 0.79% 34.0% 32.0% ( 2017 ) Daniel Günther ( Günther cabinet ), since 2017
    Thuringia Thuringia Mike Mohring 9,481 0.52% 28.8% 21.7% ( 2019 ) No

    Bundestag parliamentary group and federal government

    In the German Bundestag , CDU and CSU are working in a joint parliamentary group together, the CDU / CSU - faction . Political groups are not part of parties (but rather the principle of political structure for the work of parliament), they also have a "correlative function" with respect to them.

    The CDU / CSU parliamentary group currently comprises 246 members, 200 of them from the CDU. This makes it the largest parliamentary group in the Bundestag and the CDU the most strongly represented party. The parliamentary group chairman is Ralph Brinkhaus , who, like all of his predecessors in office, is a CDU member. In return, the CSU regional group enjoys individual special rights.

    In the current, 19th legislative period , the CDU / CSU parliamentary group, together with the parties that support it and alongside the SPD and its parliamentary group, supports the federal government , the Merkel IV cabinet . She has committed herself to this with the coalition agreement. The parties and parliamentary groups involved send representatives to the coalition committee to coordinate coalition policy .

    In addition to the incumbent since 2005 German Chancellor , Angela Merkel , six are federal minister provided by the CDU, of which four deputies in the Bundestag are:

    European group

    At the European level, the members of the CDU organize together with the Bavarian representatives of the CSU in the CDU / CSU group in the EPP parliamentary group in the European Parliament .

    organization

    Party congress

    28th party conference 2015 in Karlsruhe
    Organizational structure and bodies of the CDU

    The party congress is the highest organ of the CDU. It meets at least every two years, determines the basic lines of the CDU policy, adopted the party's program and decides on the statute, the statute of the CDU.

    The first party congress, which at that time was still called the federal party congress and was elected federal chairman at the Konrad Adenauer, took place in Goslar from October 20-22, 1950 . The 31st party conference took place on December 7th and 8th, 2018 in Hamburg and elected Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer as the new chairwoman.

    Federal Committee

    The federal committee is the second highest body and deals with all political and organizational matters that are not expressly reserved for the federal party conference. For this reason it is often called a small party congress .

    Federal Executive Board and Presidium

    The CDU federal executive heads the federal party. It implements the resolutions of the federal party congress and the federal committee and convenes the federal party congress. The CDU Presidium is responsible for executing the resolutions of the federal executive board and handling current and urgent business. It consists of the leading members of the federal executive board and is not an organ of the CDU in Germany.

    Members

    Membership development. The data relate to information in the specialist literature, estimates (before 1966) and party information as of December 31 of the respective year.

    In December 2017, Germany's CDU had 427,173 members. The average age of the CDU members is 59 years. The average age of the female members is 61 years and that of the males 59 years. 25.8 percent of the members (118,865) are female and 74.2 percent (342,678) are male (see CDU proportions of women from 1991 ). The proportion of women among new entrants is 30.8 percent.

    As of 2011, the proportion of women in the new federal states was 28.1 percent, slightly higher than in the old federal states with 25.3 percent (as of 2011).

    At the beginning of the 1990s, the CDU reached the highest level in its history with around 750,000 members, after which the number fell continuously. At the end of June 2008 it was 530,755, the CDU thus had more members than the SPD for the first time and was the German party with the largest number of members. In May 2011, the number of members of the CDU fell below the 500,000 mark for the first time at 499,646, but was still ahead of the SPD. At the end of June 2012, the number of members of the CDU was 482,951, which means it fell slightly behind the SPD. Internal party calculations assume that the number of members will halve in the east by 2019 compared to 2007, and that in the west by 2024. In 2013 the CDU recorded a decline of 1.95 percent. The decline in membership continued to weaken in 2014 compared to the previous year and was 1.18 percent up to September 2014. In 2016 the membership decrease was 2.9 percent.

    The minimum age required for membership is reached at the age of 16.

    The minimum fee for CDU membership is graduated according to gross income and starts at six euros per month in the lower income groups.

    According to a 2005 study by the Free University of Berlin, 51 percent of CDU members are currently Catholic, 33.3 percent state an evangelical denomination and 15.7 percent do not feel they belong to any church.

    Electoral strongholds

    The strongholds of the party concentrate primarily on rural and / or Catholic regions such as the Eifel , the Sauerland , the Paderborn district , the Münsterland , the Oldenburger Münsterland ( Cloppenburg - Vechta ), the Emsland , the northern Saarland , the Thuringian Eichsfeld , district and the city of Fulda , the Upper Swabian districts of Biberach , Ravensburg and Sigmaringen , various southern Baden districts and areas of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Saxony . The party has only a small number of visitors in the cities of the Ruhr area , in Bremen , in East Frisia , Brandenburg and in the eastern districts of Berlin . In 2013 it was discussed that the CDU had clearly lost popularity in the big cities in previous years, so that it appointed fewer and fewer mayors there , which led to debates in the party on how future big-city milieus could be won over as voters.

    In the recent past, however, a “melting” of the strongholds has been observed to an increasing extent. For example, the CDU (excluding the CSU) achieved a first vote result of over 60 percent in the 1983 federal election in 27 constituencies; The front runner was Biberach with 75.1 percent. In the 2005 Bundestag election, however, the CDU only got over 60 percent of the first votes in one constituency: in Cloppenburg-Vechta with 64.4 percent.

    Associations and specialized agencies

    Associations

    Angela Merkel at the Congress of the European People's Party , 2015

    In addition to the regional associations, the apron organizations in the CDU play an important role within the party. The associations are anchored in the statutes of the CDU. They have two main tasks: On the one hand, they should spread the party's policy within their respective spheres of activity. On the other hand, they should also allow the concerns of the groups they represent to flow into the CDU's policy. In relation to other parties, the associations enjoy extensive independence from the party as a whole. In addition to the right to have its own statutes, this is expressed above all in the fact that its members do not necessarily have to be members of the party as a whole. In addition, they expressly have the right to make their own political statements if these do not contradict the principles of the party.

    The CDU currently has seven associations. Most of its origins go back to the party's early days in the 1950s. Their inner-party weight varies. In addition to the Junge Union , the SME and business association is generally seen as particularly influential. The importance of the Christian Democratic workforce (CDA or social committees) , which was an important internal party power factor until the 1970s, has since declined sharply. The Seniors Union , founded in 1988, advocates intergenerational equity and the active participation in shaping demographic change and, according to its own statements, is the second largest group within the CDU. There is also the Women's Union , the East and Central German Association and the Local Political Association of the CDU and CSU .

    Special organizations and other groups

    In addition to the associations anchored in the statutes, the CDU also has other preliminary organizations with different statuses. In the literature they are sometimes placed on a par with the associations. The special organizations include associations of CDU members or CDU sympathizers who achieve a lower degree of formalization than the associations. The Evangelical Working Group (EAK) and the Ring of Christian Democratic Students (RCDS) have been recognized nationwide since 1952 . Both also include Bavarian regional associations, the EAK of the CSU and the RCDS Bavaria.

    In addition, the following other groups exist and still existed in the CDU:

    Party foundation

    The CDU's affiliated foundation is the Konrad Adenauer Foundation .

    Party finance

    The CDU's total income in 2017 was 156,700,798.32 euros. The most important sources of income for the CDU include state funds, party donations and membership fees.

    Income of the CDU in 2017 EUR proportion of
    Membership fees 37,573,934.92 23.98%
    Mandate holder contributions and similar regular contributions 20,094,742.17 12.82%
    Donations from natural persons 22,576,258.92 14.41%
    Donations from legal entities 12,629,911.08 8.06%
    Income from business activities and investments 0.00 -
    Income from other property 2,002,577.55 1.29%
    Events, distribution of pamphlets and publications and other income related activities 12,782,222.14 8.16%
    State funds 48,361,704.25 30.86%
    Other revenue 659,447.29 0.42%
    total ≈ 156,700,798 100%

    Between 25 and 40 percent of donations from legal entities are made up of large donations of more than 20,000 euros per donation. The following companies and associations are among the largest donors (legal entities, totaled donation sums from 2000 to 2008, from 2007 only donations of 50,000 euros or more):

    1. € 2,244,096 Deutsche Bank AG
    2. € 1,639,034 Südwestmetall
    3. 1,461,652 € Daimler AG
    4. € 1,452,678 Altana AG
    5. 1,036,816 € Chemical Industry Association e. V.
    6. € 740,000 Association of the Bavarian Metal and Electrical Industry
    7. € 665,031 BMW AG
    8. € 663,957 Allianz AG
    9. 625,516 € Association of the Metal and Electrical Industry North Rhine-Westphalia e. V.
    10. 456,150 € Deutsche Vermögensberatung AG DVAG

    From January to July 2017, the CDU received 15 large donations (each over € 50,000) with a total value of € 1,901,537.00.

    story

    founding

    Memorial plaque on the founding house of the CDU, Platanenallee 11, in Berlin-Westend

    In the chaos of the collapse of the National Socialist dictatorship, immediately after the end of the war in 1945, everywhere in Germany - including Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Hanover, Stuttgart, Würzburg, Munich - the Christian Democratic and Christian Democrats were founded almost simultaneously, spontaneously and independently of one another -Social Union. Your idea arose in the resistance circles and Gestapo prisons in the awareness of common fates, political convictions and models regardless of denomination.

    Immediately after the American troops marched in on March 6, 1945, concrete plans for a new “Christian-Democratic Party” began in Cologne. The "Cologne Guidelines" developed after June 17, 1945 formed the basis for the programs of the new party in Rhineland and Westphalia in September 1945. Almost simultaneously, the Christian Democratic Union (sic!) Entered Berlin on June 26, 1945 with its Call for founding “German People!” To the public.

    The majority of those persecuted by Nazi persecution, concentration camp prisoners or emigrants signed the appeals. The first chairman of the CDU, Andreas Hermes , had been sentenced to death for involvement in the July 20, 1944 assassination attempt and was awaiting execution on Plötzensee death row before he was freed in April 1945. In his view, the new Christian, interdenominational party should compensate for the shortcomings of the Catholic-dominated Center Party in the Weimar Republic in the future German state.

    Election poster from 1953 with the slogan " All roads of Marxism lead to Moscow "

    The CDU organized at different speeds in the German states and occupation zones between 1945 and 1949. A first overarching merger took place in the joint zone committee of the eight regional associations of the CDU in the British zone, which was constituted on January 22, 1946 in Herford , East Westphalia . Konrad Adenauer was elected chairman of the zone committee. A merger was prohibited in the French and American occupation zones. In 1947, the CDU therefore formed a working group in order to maintain the internal unity of the party despite the various progress made. The cooperation with the CDU in the Soviet occupation zone dwindled due to the imposed political orientation. On May 11, 1950, the CDU united at a federal level at a conference of state chairmen in Königswinter. On October 21 of the same year this was confirmed at the 1st federal party conference in Goslar. The political reality of two German states was thus reproduced in the organizational structure of the CDU. The federal party also had its own regional association for the CDU members who had fled to the West until the early 1950s, the so -called CDU in exile .

    A significant portion of the CDU membership (including Konrad Adenauer ) comes from the front of the Second World War, existing Catholic and south - / west German embossed Center Party . Leading members of the German National People's Party , the right-wing liberal German People's Party and the liberal DDP also joined the CDU, particularly in northern Germany . The founding of the Union as a secular and interdenominational party made it possible, in contrast to the former Center Party , to gain a foothold in Protestant circles far beyond the Catholic milieu.

    The first strongly anti-materialistic Neheim-Hüstener program from 1946 for the British zone was largely formulated by Adenauer. The Ahlen program from 1947 was largely shaped by the CDU in the British occupation zones and, in the spirit of “ Christian socialism ”, envisaged turning away from a capitalist social and economic order. In contrast, the “Düsseldorf Guiding Principles” of 1949 advocated the capitalist economic order in the sense of a social market economy , which was put into practice by the first Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and the Federal Minister of Economics Ludwig Erhard . In 1953 the party manifested this orientation in the "Hamburg Program".

    1949–1963: The Adenauer era

    CDU election poster from 1957: " No experiments !"

    In the first federal election in 1949 , the Union parties were the strongest parliamentary group in the Bundestag with 31.0 percent, just ahead of the SPD (29.2 percent) and formed together with the FDP (11.9 percent) and the German Party (DP; 4.0 percent) a coalition. The former Lord Mayor of Cologne and long-time center politician, Konrad Adenauer , was elected the first Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany with a majority of one vote on September 15, 1949 . In 1950, Adenauer was also elected the first federal chairman of the CDU when the CDU was formed at the federal level.

    Adenauer's Rhenish Catholicism and its anchoring in Catholic social teaching had a lasting impact on German society in the 1950s. In particular, thanks to the successful policy of Federal Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard , which led to an economic upswing, the Union experienced two brilliant victories in the federal elections in 1953 and 1957 , with the election victory in 1957 even earning it and the CSU an absolute majority . Nevertheless, she continued to form a coalition with the right-wing conservative DP, which was still present in northern Germany . In the second and third federal elections, the CDU also helped the DP to use the basic mandate clause to override the five percent hurdle by refraining from putting up direct candidates in some of the distinct north German DP strongholds. Since she refused to “give the DP a helping hand” in the 1961 Bundestag election , half of the 17 DP Bundestag members switched to the CDU in 1960, including DP Federal Ministers Hans-Christoph Seebohm and Hans-Joachim von Merkatz . The CDU and CSU thus led a single government for a year, as the remaining DP MPs were no longer involved in the government. From the beginning of the 1960s, most of the electorate of the DP also switched to the CDU, so that the DP no longer played a role.

    The 1950s were marked by the “ economic miracle ” and the debate about the West's integration of the Federal Republic (including joining NATO in 1955 and based on the USA). The CDU rated the Soviet offer for a unified, neutral Germany as a camouflage maneuver. Adenauer formulated the so-called suction theory . According to this theory, a neutral Germany ran the risk of falling into the pull of the Soviet Union.

    The CDU suffered significant losses in the 1961 federal election (CDU 35.8 percent, CSU 9.6 percent, SPD 36.2 percent, FDP 12.8 percent). Among other things, these losses were justified with the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and Adenauer's allegedly too hesitant reaction to it.

    Ludwig Erhard (left) and Kurt Georg Kiesinger (right), November 25, 1966

    1963–1969: Erhard and Kiesinger governments

    In 1963 Adenauer resigned in favor of Ludwig Erhard from the office of Federal Chancellor and in 1966 from the party chairmanship. Erhard was able to secure government responsibility for the CDU in the 1965 federal elections , but a year later it broke with coalition partner FDP due to quarrels over economic and financial issues and the first economic crisis of the post-war period. The previous Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg , Kurt Georg Kiesinger , then formed the first grand coalition at federal level with the SPD .

    1969–1982: First time in opposition

    The 1969 Bundestag election brought a deep break in the history of the Federal Republic and the history of the CDU: For the first time, the CDU had to join the parliamentary opposition , as the SPD and FDP formed a coalition under Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt (SPD). When the federal party chairman was elected in 1971, Rainer Barzel , who had been the CDU / CSU parliamentary group leader in the Bundestag since 1963, prevailed against the Rhineland-Palatinate Prime Minister Helmut Kohl .

    Due to their rejection of the Eastern Treaty , several members of the government camp converted to the CDU / CSU opposition between 1970 and 1972, which brought them close to the majority in the Bundestag (see Members of the Sixth German Bundestag ). In the spring of 1972 Barzel's attempt to replace Brandt with a constructive vote of no confidence failed , although there seemed to be an arithmetical majority of the opposition before the vote. The exact circumstances of this vote have not yet been fully clarified, the only thing that is certain is that at least one vote from the ranks of the Union MPs was bought by the State Security of the GDR (see Steiner-Wienand affair ). There was a clear defeat in the 1972 federal election : for the first time, the CDU and CSU were no longer the strongest parliamentary group. Barzel, CDU chairman since 1971, renounced a second election period in 1973 and took responsibility for the election defeat, which was viewed as a debacle within the party. His successor was Helmut Kohl , who was to lead the party until 1998.

    In 1976 the CDU entered the election campaign with the slogans “For love of Germany: choose freedom” and “freedom instead of socialism”. Kohl's first candidacy for chancellor against Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in the 1976 federal election failed, although the CDU and CSU were able to achieve significant profits, thus becoming the strongest party again and only narrowly missing an absolute majority. In mid-November 1976, the CSU then announced the Kreuther separation decision by terminating the faction community with the CDU in the Bundestag and striving for an expansion to the entire federal territory . She only backed down after the CDU had threatened to become active in Bavaria in the future. In the 1980 federal election, the CSU chairman, Franz Josef Strauss, was defeated by the incumbent Chancellor Helmut Schmidt as the joint candidate for chancellor of the two Union parties.

    1982–1998: The Kohl government

    Helmut Kohl, September 11, 1989
    Helmut Kohl at the opening of the border at the Brandenburg Gate, December 22, 1989

    In 1982 the social-liberal coalition broke up . Helmut Kohl was elected Helmut Schmidt's successor on October 1, 1982 by means of a constructive vote of no confidence . In the early parliamentary elections in 1983 , the CDU and CSU under Kohl increased their share of the vote with 48.8 percent and continued the coalition with the FDP that was formed with the change of power in October 1982. The Federal Constitutional Court rejected complaints against the premature dissolution of the Bundestag, but the constitution of the Bundestag election through a deliberately lost vote of confidence remained constitutionally controversial. In the 1987 Bundestag election , the CDU and CSU under the leadership of Kohl suffered a significant loss of votes, but remained the strongest parliamentary group in the Bundestag and continued the government with the FDP.

    On November 9, 1989, the borders between the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany were opened . At the time, Kohl was in Warsaw and, like most observers, was completely taken by surprise by the events. He immediately broke off his stay to go to Bonn and then to West Berlin . After initial hesitation and planning for a long-term unification process (ten-point plan), it became clear in the spring of 1990 due to the pressure in the population that a quick reunification had to be achieved. Through intensive personal talks and negotiations, Kohl managed to get the approval of the Allies and the support of the European neighbors. The Chancellor, who had already fallen behind in the opinion polls, was able to win a clear victory in the first all-German federal election in 1990 - celebrated as the “Chancellor of Unity” .

    In the course of reunification, parts of the GDR civil rights movement, such as the Democratic Awakening , but also the previous GDR block parties, Democratic Peasant Party of Germany and the CDU (East), were absorbed into the CDU. Apart from a few leaders, the CDU (East), which shortly before had seen itself as a “party of socialism”, was fully integrated into the CDU of the Federal Republic without much consideration for the previous confessions of its members. (A separate article gives an overview of the whereabouts of the assets of the Eastern CDU and the Peasant Party after the merger.)

    After the CDU narrowly managed to assert itself again in the 1994 Bundestag election with Helmut Kohl as a leader, it lost the government majority in the 1998 Bundestag election together with the CSU and, for the second time in the history of the Federal Republic, lost its position as the strongest parliamentary group. With 35.1 percent it achieved the second worst result in federal elections in its history after 1949. Kohl's successor as Federal Chancellor was the previous Prime Minister of Lower Saxony , Gerhard Schröder (SPD).

    The main causes of the disastrous defeat were the sluggish economic development with the accompanying rising unemployment; and the Germans had grown tired of Helmut Kohl's chancellorship after 16 years. The CDU was also in a deep crisis at the state level. In November 1998 it provided the head of government only in Baden-Württemberg , Berlin , Saxony and Thuringia , and in Berlin and Thuringia it formed a grand coalition with the SPD. In addition, she was junior partner of the SPD in another grand coalition in Bremen .

    1998–2005: The CDU in the opposition

    Edmund Stoiber (CSU) and Friedrich Merz

    Wolfgang Schäuble became the new party chairman . In 1998/1999 the CDU / CSU initiated a signature campaign against the reform of German citizenship law , in which the right of descent should be supplemented by elements of the ius soli . The public campaign helped the Hessian top candidate Roland Koch to victory in the election and to the office of Hessian Prime Minister .

    At the end of 1999, the CDU was shaken by a party donation scandal. The heart of the affair were donations in the millions, whose donors Helmut Kohl refused to name. Some black accounts were also kept bypassing the tax authorities . The CDU general secretary at the time, Angela Merkel, forced Kohl to resign from the position of CDU honorary chairman. In connection with this scandal, Wolfgang Schäuble had to resign as chairman of the CDU and the CDU / CSU parliamentary group at the beginning of 2000 after contradicting statements on the matter. The successor as party leader was Angela Merkel , who became the first woman to head one of the German people's parties. Schäuble's successor as parliamentary group leader was Friedrich Merz . In 2000 the party headquarters moved from Bonn to the Konrad-Adenauer-Haus in Berlin .

    In the federal election in 2002 , the Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber (CSU) ran as candidate for chancellor. Despite considerable growth in south and south-west Germany, the CDU / CSU remained only the second largest parliamentary group. According to analysts, the main reason was that Bayer Stoiber was unable to address voters sufficiently, especially in northern Germany (as Strauss had already done in 1980) and eastern Germany.

    The state elections in Schleswig-Holstein in 2005 brought the end of the term of office of Prime Minister Heide Simonis (SPD); the CDU then led a grand coalition with the SPD. On May 22, 2005, the CDU triumphed in North Rhine-Westphalia , replacing the last reigning red-green state government in Germany at that time.

    2005–2009: First Chancellor - Second Grand Coalition

    Angela Merkel after receiving an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Physics and Geosciences at the University of Leipzig , June 3, 2008

    After the early federal election on September 18, 2005, the parliamentary group consisting of CDU and CSU under Angela Merkel became the strongest parliamentary group for the first time since the 1994 election, but received fewer votes than in the previous election and than predicted in opinion polls . The Union received the third worst result in its party history. The declared electoral goal of a Bundestag majority in favor of a coalition with the FDP could not be achieved.

    Although the CDU / CSU formed the strongest parliamentary group, the SPD initially claimed the office of Federal Chancellor for itself; However, since the latter excluded a coalition of the SPD, the Greens and the Left Party and the FDP was not ready for a traffic light coalition , it was not possible to form a government without the CDU. On November 11, 2005, the CDU, CSU and SPD agreed on a coalition agreement for a grand coalition under Angela Merkel as Federal Chancellor. After the coalition agreement was signed on November 22, 2005, Angela Merkel was elected the first woman to hold the position of Federal Chancellor with 397 of 614 votes in the German Bundestag. Angela Merkel received more votes in the election for Chancellor than any of her predecessors, but the percentage of her election result with 64.9 percent of the votes was worse than Kurt Georg Kiesinger's . However, when he was elected Federal Chancellor on December 1, 1966, the grand coalition provided over 90.1 percent of the seats, while the grand coalition under Merkel provided just under 73 percent of the seats in the 16th German Bundestag. This was mainly due to the three other parties, which were represented much more strongly than before in the Bundestag.

    2009–2013: New coalition partner in the Merkel II cabinet

    In the 2009 Bundestag elections , the CDU lost again slightly in votes, but thanks to overhanging mandates , it had more members in the Bundestag than in the previous legislative period . Since the FDP also achieved the best election result in its history, Angela Merkel was able to change government partner and be re-elected as head of government of the fourth Christian-liberal coalition with the votes of the Union and FDP . Previously, no Federal Chancellor in German history managed to change coalition partner.

    In January 2010 the CDU presented its future paper on the Berlin Declaration . This was perceived by some observers as a sign of a left trend on the part of the CDU. On the initiative of Friedrich-Wilhelm Siebeke , the action to stop the left trend was founded, which published its manifesto against the left trend in German daily newspapers one month after the Berlin declaration .

    Since 2013: renewed grand coalition

    After the 2013 federal election , in which the Union missed an absolute majority of the seats in the Bundestag by just five seats, it explored Alliance 90 / The Greens and the SPD. Since some functionaries of the Greens and the CSU rejected a black-green coalition, the CDU / CSU and the SPD negotiated again about the formation of a grand coalition. After the successful membership decision of the SPD , the coalition agreement was signed. On December 17, 2013, Angela Merkel was elected Chancellor for the third time by a large majority.

    Since the FDP, which, according to Merkel, is and will remain a “natural coalition partner”, persisted at around 3 percent in election polls in 2014 and a return to the Bundestag in 2017 seemed uncertain, the CDU began to open up more towards the Greens.

    In the 2017 federal election , the CDU lost a lot and, together with the CSU, only got 32.9 percent of the vote. After the SPD initially ruled out a re-launch of the grand coalition on election evening, explorations for a Jamaica coalition made up of the Union, FDP and the Greens took place. This failed in November 2017. After successful exploratory and coalition negotiations with the SPD, Angela Merkel was re-elected for the third time on March 14, 2018 .

    On August 27, 2018, the presidium and federal executive committee of the CDU revoked the status of the Christian Democrats for Life , the Economic Council of the CDU and the Values ​​Union as special organizations of the party. New groups or associations of the CDU should no longer be officially recognized since then.

    On December 7, 2018, the delegates of the 31st federal party congress of the CDU elected Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer as the new party leader.

    Personalities

    Federal Chairperson

    Armin Laschet Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer Angela Merkel Wolfgang Schäuble Helmut Kohl Rainer Barzel Kurt Georg Kiesinger Ludwig Erhard Konrad Adenauer
    Chairman Beginning of the term of office Term expires Honorary Chair
    Soviet zone
    Andreas Hermes Andreas Hermes July 1945 December 1945 No
    Jakob Kaiser Jakob Kaiser 1946 1947 since 1958
    Otto Nuschke Otto Nuschke 1948 1949 No
    Federal Republic
    Konrad Adenauer Konrad Adenauer
    Federal Chancellor 1949 to 1963
    March 1, 1946 (British Zone)

    October 21, 1950 (nationwide)
    March 23, 1966 since 1966
    Ludwig Erhard Ludwig Erhard
    Federal Chancellor 1963 to 1966
    March 23, 1966 May 23, 1967 since 1967
    Kurt Georg Kiesinger Kurt Georg Kiesinger
    Federal Chancellor 1966 to 1969
    May 23, 1967 5th October 1971 since 1971
    Rainer Barzel Rainer Barzel 5th October 1971 June 12, 1973 No
    Helmut Kohl Helmut Kohl
    Federal Chancellor 1982 to 1998
    Chairman of the European Council 1994
    June 12, 1973 November 7, 1998 since 1998;
    on January 18, 2000, Helmut Kohl agreed to suspend the honorary chair due to the CDU donation affair
    German politican German politican November 7, 1998 February 16, 2000 No
    Angela Merkel Angela Merkel
    Federal Chancellor since 2005
    Chairwoman of the European Council in 2007
    April 10, 2000 7th December 2018 No
    Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer
    Federal Minister of Defense since 2019
    7th December 2018 January 16, 2021 No
    Armin Laschet Armin Laschet
    Prime Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia since 2017
    January 16, 2021 officiating

    General Secretaries

    Surname Beginning of the term of office Term expires
    Bruno Heck Bruno Heck 1967 1971
    Konrad Kraske Konrad Kraske 1971 1973
    Kurt Biedenkopf Kurt Biedenkopf 1973 1977
    Heiner Geissler Heiner Geissler 1977 1989
    Volker Rühe Volker Rühe 1989 1992
    Peter Hintze Peter Hintze 1992 1998
    Angela Merkel Angela Merkel 1998 2000
    Ruprecht Polenz Ruprecht Polenz 2000 2000
    Laurenz Meyer Laurenz Meyer 2000 2004
    Volker Kauder Volker Kauder 2005 2005
    Ronald Pofalla Ronald Pofalla 2005 2009
    Hermann Groehe Hermann Groehe 2009 2013
    Peter Tauber Peter Tauber 2013 2018
    Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer February 2018 December 2018
    Paul Ziemiak Paul Ziemiak 2018 officiating
    Ralph Brinkhaus Volker Kauder Angela Merkel Friedrich Merz Wolfgang Schäuble Alfred Dregger Helmut Kohl Karl Carstens Rainer Barzel Heinrich von Brentano Heinrich Krone Heinrich von Brentano

    Chairwoman of the CDU / CSU parliamentary group

    Surname Beginning of the term of office Term expires
    Konrad Adenauer Konrad Adenauer September 1, 1949 September 20, 1949
    Heinrich von Brentano Heinrich von Brentano September 30, 1949 June 7, 1955
    Heinrich Krone Heinrich Krone June 15, 1955 November 24, 1961
    Heinrich von Brentano Heinrich von Brentano November 24, 1961 November 14, 1964 (†)
    Rainer Barzel Rainer Barzel December 1, 1964 May 9, 1973
    Karl Carstens Karl Carstens 17th May 1973 1st December 1976
    Helmut Kohl Helmut Kohl December 13, 1976 4th October 1982
    Alfred Dregger Alfred Dregger 4th October 1982 November 25, 1991
    German politican German politican November 25, 1991 February 29, 2000
    Friedrich Merz Friedrich Merz February 29, 2000 September 24, 2002
    Angela Merkel Angela Merkel September 24, 2002 November 21, 2005
    Volker Kauder Volker Kauder November 21, 2005 25th September 2018
    Ralph Brinkhaus Ralph Brinkhaus 25th September 2018 officiating

    Federal President

    The following CDU politicians were elected Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany. Party membership is traditionally suspended during the presidency.

    Chancellor

    The following CDU politicians officiated as Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    President of the German Bundestag

    The following CDU politicians were from the members of the German Parliament to the President of the German Bundestag elected.

    President of the Federal Constitutional Court

    The following CDU politicians served as presidents of the Federal Constitutional Court .

    Presidents of EU institutions and EU commissioners

    The following CDU politicians were from the members of the European Parliament to the President of the European Parliament elected.

    The following CDU politicians officiated as members of the European Commission or its president .

    The European Court of Auditors as an organ of the European Union has so far been presided over by two CDU politicians.

    Results in nationwide elections

    Results of the federal elections

    Election year Share of votes Votes 1
    1949 25.2% 05,978,636
    1953 36.4% 10,016,594
    1957 39.7% 11,875,339
    1961 35.8% 11.283.901
    1965 38.0% 12,387,562
    1969 36.6% 12,079,535
    1972 35.2% 13.190.837
    1976 38.0% 14,367,302
    1980 34.2% 12,989,200
    1983 38.2% 14,857,680
    1987 34.5% 13,045,745
    1990 36.7% 17,055,116
    1994 34.2% 16,089,960
    1998 28.4% 14,004,908
    2002 29.5% 14,167,561
    2005 27.8% 13.136.740
    2009 27.3% 11,828,277
    2013 34.1% 14,921,877
    2017 26.8% 12,445,832
    1 From 1953: second votes.

    Results of the European elections

    Election year Share of votes be right
    1979 39.1% 10,883,085
    1984 37.5% 09,308,411
    1989 29.5% 08,332,846
    1994 32.0% 11,346,073
    1999 39.3% 10,628,224
    2004 36.5% 09,412,997
    2009 30.7% 08,071,391
    2014 30.0% 08,812,653
    2019 22.6% 08,438,975

    literature

    See also

    Web links

    Individual evidence

    1. CDU and SPD lose members. In: T-online . January 16, 2020, accessed January 17, 2020 .
    2. The corporate design of the CDU in Germany , accessed on April 2, 2019
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    4. Average age of the members of the political parties in Germany on December 31, 2018 Statista The statistics portal, accessed on May 22, 2020.
    5. ^ Oskar Niedermayer: Party members in Germany: Version 2019. In: Workbooks from the Otto Stammer Center, No. 30; Berlin: Free University of Berlin 2019. Accessed August 7, 2019 .
    6. ^ Josef Schmid: Christian Democratic Union of Germany . In: Uwe Andersen and Wichard Woyke (eds.): Handbook of the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1995, p. 110.
    7. See basic program, § 234.
    8. See basic program, § 5.
    9. See basic program, § 39.
    10. See basic program, § 320.
    11. See basic program, § 279.
    12. List of the basic programs with the respective texts at the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung
    13. ^ Basic program ( Memento of January 22, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
    14. Basic program: Where do we stand? , on cdu.de
    15. ^ The zone committee of the Christian Democratic Union of the British zone : party program von Neheim-Hüsten . In: Archives of the Federal Office of the CDU . tape 2/201 , no. 16-1 , 1946, pp. 3 ( Website of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation [PDF; 436 kB ; accessed on January 10, 2020]).
    16. Freedom and Security. Principles for Germany. December 4, 2007, accessed January 10, 2020 .
    17. ↑ Gay marriage as a question of conscience: Merkel lifts parliamentary group compulsory in Union , on n-tv.de
    18. For a Germany in which we live well and happily. , on cdu.de
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    20. For security and order. (Safety leaflet), on cdu.de.
    21. Press statement deployment of the Bundeswehr inside , on cducsu.de
    22. Martin Holland: Bosbach: Union holds on to data retention. heise.de, July 5, 2013, accessed on July 11, 2013 .
    23. Martin Lutz: Controversial initiative: Union wants to expel foreign criminals quickly. In: welt.de . November 15, 2013, accessed October 7, 2018 .
    24. We will always stand by Israel's side. Speech on 60 years of Israel on cducsu.de
    25. ^ CDU website: The CDU - the German European party.
    26. Cf. 60 years of CDU responsibility for Germany and Europe. (PDF; 1.6 MB) Günter letter , Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung , accessed on October 15, 2011 . P. 29
    27. ^ Konrad Adenauer Foundation: Helmut Kohl
    28. Position paper by Elmar Brok MEP and Werner Langen MEP: For a strong and stable Europe.
    29. Strong Europe - Good Future for Germany - Decision of the 24th party congress of the CDU in Germany. (PDF; 84 kB) Christian Democratic Union of Germany, accessed on November 15, 2011 .
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    34. Party memberships in Germany: Version 2019. Accessed on August 7, 2019 .
    35. BVerfGE 80, 188
    36. Party Congress Hamburg 2018 . In: Christian Democratic Union of Germany . ( cdu.de [accessed on February 26, 2019]).
    37. ^ Ulrich von Alemann : The party system of the Federal Republic of Germany. Federal Agency for Civic Education: Bonn 2010. p. 171
    38. a b CDU federal office: Report of the federal office for the 27th party congress of the CDU in Germany, 8.-10. December 2014, Kölnmesse (PDF; 3.1 MB)
    39. CDU Federal Office: Report of the Federal Office on the 24th party congress of the CDU in Germany (PDF; 3.1 MB)
    40. Günter Bannas: CDU has more members than the SPD. Pofalla: "A historic day". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, July 28, 2008, accessed on October 28, 2012 .
    41. The number of CDU members also slipped below 500,000. Die Welt, June 16, 2011, accessed October 28, 2012 .
    42. ^ Robert Roßmann: Membership statistics of the people's parties. SPD dies more slowly. Süddeutsche.de, July 10, 2008, accessed October 28, 2012 .
    43. CDU expects the number of members in the east to halve by 2019. WirtschaftsWoche, July 21, 2007, accessed on October 28, 2012 .
    44. Party study: The SPD in particular is losing members. July 12, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016 .
    45. Questions and answers about membership , on cdu.de, accessed on October 24, 2019
    46. ^ The CDU's big city fiasco . In: Die Zeit from March 15, 2013.
    47. ^ Associations and specialized organizations on the CDU homepage
    48. Senior Citizens' Union of the CDU in Germany , on senioren-union.de
    49. Robin Alexander: Kramp-Karrenbauer: The CDU wants to become gay - but not yet . August 26, 2018 ( welt.de [accessed April 9, 2019]).
    50. Working Group of Christian Democratic Teachers (ACDL) , on cdurlp.de, accessed on October 24, 2019
    51. Network integration
    52. State Executive Committee of the CDU Berlin. Resolution on the dissolution of the Berlin regional associations of the German-Turkish Forum (DTF) and the German-Greek Forum (DGF) ( Memento from February 11, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), 2013.
    53. ^ German-Turkish forum of the CDU in NRW. Union of Diversity is a new force in the CDU NRW ( Memento from February 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). Press release and invitation to the founding event, 2014.
    54. The Merkel Lodge , Der Spiegel June 12, 2006
    55. ^ The forum for Konrad Adenauer's political legacy , on konradserben.de
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    57. Union der Mitte Merkel supporters against the shift to the right , by Ansgar Graw , Die Welt July 17, 2018
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    59. ^ Union der Mitte Liberal CDU supporters from Kramp-Karrenbauer meet in Berlin , by Florian Gathmann, Der Spiegel April 3, 2019
    60. ^ Liberal CDU members First meeting of the "Union of the Middle" , by Robert Roßmann, Süddeutsche Zeitung April 3, 2019
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    63. bundestag.de: Directory of sources about the timely publication of donations over 50,000 €
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    73. Stop the link trend action: http://linkstrend-stoppen.de/index.php?id=initiator ( Memento from December 31, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) , viewed April 13, 2010.
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    78. digital choice , subject to confirmation by postal vote
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