Parliamentary group (Bundestag)
The parliamentary groups in the German Bundestag are associations of at least 5% of the members of the Bundestag (see (1) GoBT ). They represent the central units of action of the Bundestag and are the political principle of structuring its work.
Fractions are formed from parliamentarians from the same party or from parties that do not compete with each other in the individual federal states . The legal regulations on parliamentary groups are not to be found in the Basic Law , where the legal term is only mentioned once in GG in connection with the joint committee . The conditions of their formation, their tasks and rights are regulated in the Members' Act in to AbgG. Further regulations can be found in the rules of procedure of the Bundestag in accordance with (2) AbgG .
A group of at least three MPs holding less than 5% of the seats is recognized as a group . They have fewer rights than the political groups, but they have the right to propose, be a member and speak in the committees . Individuals or persons from groups that are not recognized as a group are considered non-attached MPs .
Fractions enjoy numerous rights: They are entitled to a meeting room in the premises of the German Bundestag, they provide members of the Council of Elders and receive additional funding for leading the faction.
As an association with partial legal capacity, parliamentary groups can assert parliamentary rights of the Bundestag in their own name . You have the right, for example, to make large inquiries or to request a current hour .
The members of the Bundestag committees and the committees of inquiry are delegated by the parliamentary groups, and the speaking time of the members of the Bundestag is also largely organized through them. Due to their competencies in relation to the career and profiling possibilities of the MPs, in Germany an excessive discipline of parliamentary groups is complained, which stands in the way of the free mandate according to Abs. 1 Satz 2 GG.
The parliamentary groups in the German Bundestag are financed from public funds. The legal basis is a corresponding approach in the federal budget . Most of the funds will be used for wages and salaries of parliamentary group employees. The grant is made up of a basic amount that each parliamentary group receives and a surcharge corresponding to the strength of the respective parliamentary group. In 2020, a total of € 119.4 million was paid to the parliamentary groups in the German Bundestag. The audited accounts of the parliamentary groups are published annually (in August) as a printed matter by the Bundestag.
Parliamentary groups from different parties
The CDU / CSU parliamentary group is an example of a parliamentary group whose members belong to different parties. The CSU can only be elected in Bavaria and the CDU only in the rest of the federal states. The two parties do not compete with each other and can therefore form a common parliamentary group in the Bundestag.
The Left faction existed until the accession of the WASG to the left of members of the Left Party and the WASG and some non-party . However, the two parties did not compete against each other anywhere in Germany for the federal election, but rather as a joint electoral list . However, the WASG regional associations Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Berlin ran against the respective PDS regional associations in their federal states in state parliament and parliamentary elections. There were concerns that this approach could have deprived the joint parliamentary group of its very existence.
Political groups can also host MPs from other parties or MPs from outside parties as guests.
Archives of the political groups
The documents of the parliamentary groups in the German Bundestag are kept in the archives of the party-affiliated foundations .
Current and former political groups
- Fractions and groups in the German Bundestag since 1949
Narrow bars indicate groups .
In order to form a parliamentary group, ten MPs were required up to December 1951 / January 1952, then 15 MPs. At the beginning of the 6th electoral term on March 27, 1969, this hurdle was raised to 5% of the members of the Bundestag. There were 26 MPs, as of October 3, 1990 34 MPs. From 2002 to 2009 31 MPs were required and from 2009 to 2017 32 MPs. Due to the increase to 709 members in the 19th German Bundestag, 36 members are required to form parliamentary groups from 2017 to 2021.
Current political groups
CDU / CSU parliamentary group since September 1949
- October 1990 to December 1990 CDU / CSU / DSU parliamentary group
- SPD parliamentary group since September 1949
- AfD parliamentary group since September 2017
- FDP parliamentary group from September 1949 to October 2013 and since September 2017
The Left parliamentary group since September 2005
- PDS group October 1990 to September 1998
- PDS parliamentary group September 1998 to September 2002
Alliance 90 / The Greens parliamentary group since October 1994
- The Greens Group March 1983 to October 1990
- The Greens parliamentary group / Alliance 90 October 1990 to December 1990
- Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen group , December 1990 to October 1994
Former political groups
DP parliamentary group September 1949 to July 1960 (parliamentary group status lost)
- December 1951 to December 1952 DP / DPB parliamentary group
- March 1957 to September 1957 DP / FVP parliamentary group
- DP group , July 1960 to May 1961 (dissolved after party merger with GB / BHE for GDP )
FVP Bundestag parliamentary group June 1956 to March 1957 (merger with DP parliamentary group)
- March 1956 Working Group of Free Democrats
- March 1956 to June 1956 Democratic Working Group
KPD parliamentary group , September 1949 to December 1951 (parliamentary group status lost)
- KPD group January 1952 to September 1953 (left the Bundestag)
- Fraction of the Federal Union , December 1951 to September 1953 (left the Bundestag)
- Fraction of the Center , September 1949 to December 1951 (merged to form the Fraction of the Federal Union)
- BP parliamentary group September 1949 to December 1951 (merged to form the parliamentary group of the Federal Union)
WAV parliamentary group , September 1949 to October 1950 (group status lost, partial transfer to the BHE / DG group)
- WAV group , October 1950 to December 1951 (partial transfer to the DP / DPB parliamentary group) and April 1953 to September 1953 (left the Bundestag)
GB / BHE parliamentary group September 1953 to September 1957 (left the Bundestag)
- German community bloc of expellees and disenfranchised (BHE / DG ), October 1950 to March 1952 (transfer to DP / DPB parliamentary group)
National Rights Group , September 1949 to December 1950
- September 1949 DRP group
- Group strength / Oberlander , July 1955
- Group leader
- Parliamentary group
- Parliamentary executive director
- List of non-attached members of the German Bundestag
- CDU / CSU parliamentary group in the German Bundestag
- SPD parliamentary group
- Alternative for Germany parliamentary group (AfD)
- Group of Free Democrats (FDP)
- DIE LINKE parliamentary group.
- Bundestag parliamentary group of the Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen party
- Full text of the minutes of the parliamentary groups in the 6th electoral term
- Paul Kevenhörster: Fraktion , In: Uwe Andersen / Wichard Woyke (Hrsg.): Concise dictionary of the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany . 7th updated edition Heidelberg: Springer 2013.
- BVerfGE 80, 188
- Cash payments to the parliamentary groups. In: data manual. German Bundestag, 2021, accessed on September 26, 2021 .
- A current printed matter can be found in: BT-Drs. 18/2380 .