Noah's Ark

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Noah's Ark, painting by Edward Hicks, 1846
Noah's entry into the ark, painting by Hans Jordaens, around 1600, Residenzgalerie Salzburg
Noah's Ark as a toy in the Bibliorama Bible Museum in Stuttgart

According to the biblical Book of Genesis , chapters 6–9, Noah's Ark was a buoyant box built by the Patriarch Noah . The word “ark” is derived from the Latin word for box ( arca ), which corresponds to the Hebrew word for box ( tēvāh ). The German form “Arche Noah” instead of “Arche Noahs” comes from Luther's translation (see Status constructus ).

According to the biblical narration, Noah was chosen by God and warned of a great flood . He was commissioned to build an ark to save himself and his family, consisting of eight people, and the land animals from the flood. He received precise information about the construction of the ark ( Gen 6,14–16  EU ). At the end of the flood she ran aground in the "Ararat Mountains" ( Gen 8,4  EU ).

There are theological references to other stories of salvation; thus Moses , who was abandoned on the Nile after his birth , was saved in a 'basket' (or 'box', Hebrew: tēvāh ) made of rush and pitch ( Ex 2, 3–11  EU ).

Ancient sources


The Return of the Dove to Noah's Ark (painting by John Everett Millais , 1851, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

The Hebrew word for ark is תֵבָה tēvāh , which means 'box, shrine, coffin'. By building the ark, Noah was saved with his wife, his three sons Shem , Ham and Jafet and their wives.

According to Genesis 6.14  EU, the ark was 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide and 30 cubits high. If the cubit is only 44.5 centimeters (other estimates of the old cubit are 56 or 61 centimeters), then the ark would have been 133.5 meters long, 22.3 meters wide and 13.4 meters high. As a result, the ark would have had a gross volume of almost 40,000 cubic meters and would have been almost half as long as the ocean liner Queen Elizabeth 2 . It is estimated that such a ship would have about the same displacement as the 20th century ocean liner, the Titanic . According to the biblical record, since it was reinforced on the inside by two additional floors, it had three decks and had a floor area of ​​approximately 8,900 square meters.

According to the Bible, the wood for the ark was gopher ( Hebrew גפר) is used. Which tree species it was is no longer known today; but one usually assumes that the cypress is meant. This wood is very water-resistant and durable. The Phoenicians and Alexander the Great preferred the cypress for shipbuilding. According to more recent, controversial research, a comparison of the Hebrew "gopher" to the Aramaic root word could clarify: In it it would mean "laminated wood", i.e. plywood , which has a high strength for the same weight.

New Testament

The New Testament looks back at the flood and the ark. According to the Gospel according to Matthew , Jesus of Nazareth spoke the following words:

“For as they were in the days before the Flood - they ate, they drank, they married and were married until the day Noah went into the ark; and they paid no heed to it until the flood came and carried them all away - so it will be with the coming of the Son of Man ”

- Mt 24: 38-39, Luther Bible.

Noah's Ark is mentioned in three other places: Hebr 11.7  EU , 1 Petr 3.20  EU and 2 Petr 2.5  EU . According to this, Noah is the "heir of righteousness that comes from faith" (Hebrews 11: 7). The flood, through which “eight people” are saved in the ark, corresponds to baptism as a salvation event from “death” (as the cleansing of the conscience from “dead works” - Heb 9: 14-15  EU ) and resurrection (1. Petr 3.20). God kept "only Noah, the preacher of righteousness, together with seven other than eighth" while the "world of the wicked" perished (2 Pet 2,5).


In temporal proximity to the New Testament, the apocryphal book of wisdom says: “So even in primeval times with the sinking of the cocky giants, the hope of the world took refuge on a raft and, controlled by your (God's) hand, the world the seed of one leave a new gender. Because blessing rests on the wood through which justice is done ”( Weish 14.6f  EU ). Before that it says: “The souls of the righteous are in God's hands” and therefore ultimately do not perish.

Ancient historians

The Jewish historian Flavius ​​Josephus reproduces the biblical story from a later perspective (1st century AD), specifies geographical information and refers to other sources of the Flood tradition such as Berossos and Nikolaos of Damascus . Josephus mentions remains of Noah's ark in four places:

  • "The Armenians call this place Apobaterion, which means 'place of exit', and the remains of the ark are still shown there today."
  • "It is said that a part of that vehicle is still present in Armenia on the Kordyäer Mountains, and that some people extract resin from it in order to use it as a magic agent against threatening evils." (Quote from the Babylonian priest Berossus)
  • “Above Minyas in Armenia there is a huge mountain called Baris, on which many are said to have fled at the time of the great flood, whereby they were saved. One is said to have ridden in an ark and landed on the top of the mountain, and remains of the ship's wood are said to have been preserved there for a long time. "(Quote from Nikolaos of Damascus)
  • “This area [the Karrae landscape] is particularly productive on Amomum , and there are also remains of the ark in which Noe is said to have escaped the Flood. Anyone who wants to see them will be shown the ruins to this day. "


The Koran ( 7th century AD) also tells the story of Noah's ark in sura 11 . In this version, one of Noah's sons drowns while trying to find refuge on a mountain. In traditional Islamic literature, the mountain Al-Judi is mentioned as the landing site . According to Muslim and early Christian tradition, this is located in the southeast Turkish province of Şirnak .

Ancient oriental parallels

Atraḫasis epic

The Atraḫasis epic with the hero of the same name Atra entstandasis was written by the end of the 19th century at the latest. The ark was only built after three plagues could not stop the unchecked increase in humanity and the gods saw a flood as the last effective possibility. Enki , god of men, warned Atraḫasis of the disaster so that Atraḫasis could start building the ark in time.

“Separate yourself from your house, build a ship!
Disdain property, save your life for it.
The ship you are supposed to build […] is cube [shaped…]!
Consider it equal to the depth of the water.
The sun god should not see his interior (without a window), consider it above and below!
The equipment is reinforced, the commitment is strong, everything is solid!
Pure (animals), [...], fat animals [...]
He (Atraḫasis) crossed [the ... (and) brought there] a winged [e birds] of the sky.
He put cattle in it; Ge [tier ...] from the steppe.
[To ...] he invited his people.
[...] he let his family enter.
They heard God's voice;
then the pitch was brought to seal the door.
When he had locked her door ... he cut the rope (and) cast off the ship. "

- Atraḫasis epic, plate 3, I, verses 22 to 55

Epic of Gilgamesh

Cuneiform tablet from the Epic of Gilgamesh (Plate XI) with the story of the Flood, British Museum

Also that probably originally in the 18th century BC. Epic of Gilgamesh , written in BC, tells of a flood. In this tradition, partly taken literally from the Atraḫasis epic, Uta-napišti received the order from the god Ea to build a ship. Uta-napišti is called "Atraḫasis" ("The most wise one") in some passages.

“Man of Šuruppak , son of Ubara-Tutu!
Tear down the house and build a ship.
Forsake wealth and seek instead what breathes.
You dislike what you have, instead keep what breathes alive.
Bring the seed of all that breathes up inside the ship.
The dimensions of the ship that you are going to build -
are coordinated with one another:
its width and length should be exactly the same.
Like the Apsû , it itself has a protective roof! "

The cube-shaped ark in the Gilgamesh epic was 60 m × 60 m × 60 m (216,000 cubic meters) more than five times as large as Noah's ark:

“A field was the size of its floor area,
its walls ten times twelve cubits high,
the edge of its ceiling ten times twelve cubits into a square.
I drafted its outline and presented it:
I covered it with six ceilings,
so I divided seven floors.
Then I took
my entire family and kin up inside the ship . I brought up the
herd animals of the steppe, the wild animals of the steppe,
representatives of all the arts.
I went into the interior of the ship and then gave up my gate. "

Uta-napišti, like Atraḫasis and Noah, ended up stranded with his ark on a mountain peak, here called Nimuš .

Cuneiform tablet

On a clay tablet published by Irving Finkel in 2014, the construction of an ark is described in cuneiform. The text describes the construction of an ark made of reeds, which was sealed with bitumen. A pair of each species came on board the ark and survived a far-reaching flood together with the builder and his family.

The circular floor plan of the ark, on the other hand, deviates from the biblical tradition. “Design the ship you are going to build on a circular plan.” Finkel compares the construction with Babylonian ships, whose counterparts are known today as coracles . The dimensions again agree with the information in the Gilgamesh epic.

The partly damaged clay tablet is about the size of a smartphone and is dated to the year 1,700 BC.

Whereabouts of the ark

Many theologians today regard the narrative as a myth , the meaning of which lies not in its historical content, but in the theological statement. The texts of prehistory (Gen 1–11) are said to have been written during the Babylonian captivity in the 6th century BC; For this reason alone, a search for the remains of the ark is superfluous.

In evangelicalism , especially in the USA , and in Orthodoxy , however, the historical reality of the history of the Flood is generally adhered to. The Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses also understand the presentation as an account of historical events. The theological interpretation is given a different weighting accordingly.

The biblical mountain Ararat is not necessarily to be equated with the mountain Ararat in the east of today's Turkey.

A tradition from early Christian times locates the biblical mountains Ararat near the ancient city of Kelainai (or Apamea Kibotos ) in southern Phrygia (today: Dinar in the western Turkish province of Afyonkarahisar ), this is first tangible in the Sibylline Oracle (1, 261). In the following, Apamea is mentioned by Julius Africanus and other Byzantine authors as the landing place of the ark; wooden remains are also mentioned (Io. Mal. 1, 4; Syncell. 22; Cedren. 1, 20 etc.). Many coins of the 3rd century from Apamea depict Noah with the ark. It is apparently mainly a local tradition.

According to the Koran ( Sura 11:44), the ark landed on Mount Cudi ( Cudi Dağı ) in the Turkish province of Şırnak .

The search for Noah's ark on Mount Ararat

Great Ararat , picture of the anomaly , 1949

According to the biblical tradition in Gen 8,4  EU , the ark settled on "the mountains of Ararat" (Hebrew הׇרֵי אֲרָרָט). This probably means the Urartian mountains and not specifically Mount Ararat . Numerous expeditions aimed at the “Great Ararat” in order to find the remains of Noah's Ark under the glacier-covered summit.

Until recently, the so-called Ararat anomaly on the western plateau of the Great Ararat is considered a remnant of the ark. This interpretation is not scientifically recognized. The topographical irregularity was first photographed by the American Air Force in June 1949 . It is difficult to access at around 4700 meters above sea level. M. and partly under glacier ice.

In 1968 Erich von Däniken wrote in his book Memories of the Future about the discovery of some antique wooden planks on the south side of the Ararat. He is probably referring to the find by the Frenchman Fernand Navarra, who together with his son in 1955 unearthed "a piece of wood about 1.5 m long". However, it later emerged that Navarre had orchestrated the find of the beam.

In 2010 a sensational find on Mount Ararat by a Chinese team in October 2009 was reported. There was a video, various photos from "the interior of the ark" and a piece of cypress wood dated to an age of 4800 years. The discovery appears doubtful because the Kurdish mountain guide and entrepreneur Ahmet Ertugrul is said to have led the researchers to the site for a fee of 120,000 €. The theologian and archaeologist Randall Price claims to have located some Kurdish workers in the area who were hired by Ertugrul to use trucks, mules and finally on foot to haul wood up the mountain in order to use it to create a “tree” between rocks and glacial ice. Ark “to build. Believing that it was the backdrop for filming, the workers were happy about this order. It was only after the discovery was announced that some of them were amazed that the site was claimed to be the "real ark". For the construction of the construction, snow and glacier ice were melted away, so that after a few months it would appear that the artificially aged wood had been in the ice for a long time.

The "Noah's Ark" near Doğubeyazit

Durupınar, with the alleged "Noah's Ark", Eastern Turkey, 2007
The rock formation at Doğubeyazıt , another perspective, 2009

In 1959, the Turkish air force captain İlhan Durupınar discovered a conspicuous geological formation near the city of Doğubeyazıt in eastern Turkey , which resembles a ship's hull . It is located 27 kilometers south of the Ararat on a mountain flank of the Tendürek Dağı volcano at 2004 m above sea level. M., is around 160 meters long and is now called Durupınar after its discoverer .

In 1977, amateur archaeologist Ron Wyatt claimed that the structure was Noah's Ark. Wyatt went on an expedition to the remarkable site in 1985 with geologist Ian Plimer , creationist John Baumgardner and others. A research team led by David F. Fasold joined them, who then passed twelve thin sections of the rock samples to the petrologist Lorence G. Collins for examination. Collins found no evidence of petrified wood .

Analysis of rusty iron parts mistaken for rivets, bolts, and washers, which Noah allegedly forged, revealed oxidized, titanium-containing magnetites . This stone comes from the volcanic rocks ( andesite and basalt ) that are common in eastern Turkey . The magnetite had accumulated in soapy layers within the sediment sequences that make up the structure. Some of the sediment deposits consist of lahars (volcanic mud flows) with embedded volcanic blocks. This created the impression of the walls, upper deck, gunwale and railing of a ship.

Subsequent investigations by other geologists at the site showed that the structure in question is clearly in the form of rock. The creationist John D. Morris came to the conclusion on the basis of external and own investigations that “there is a completely satisfactory geological explanation for this structure and no evidence of archaeological significance.” He also found no signs of petrified wood. The "boat shape" was also created by the erosive activity of mud flows. In addition, the structure is traversed in its central part by a white, microfossil- bearing limestone band (see the 2nd picture).

Three other structures, comparable in size and shape, can be found near the Little Ararat.

Even today, some believe the formation to be a remnant of the biblical Noah's Ark. However, the Bible describes the ark as a rectangular box. The “ark” at Doğubeyazit, on the other hand, is streamlined. In addition, it is about 50 percent larger than one would expect from the dimensions of the Bible, unless one uses the ancient Egyptian cubit (52.4 cm) as a measure of length.

The Cudi Dağı as the landing site of the ark

The Cudi Dağı mountain range near Şırnak .
Ruins of the monastery on Cudi Dağı, 1909, photo by Gertrude Bell .

Several “ark researchers” believe the Cudi Dağı near Sirnak (Turkey) to be the mountain on which the ark stranded. The mountain is now near the border with Syria and Iraq. The historian Josephus wrote that the ark landed in Armenia ( Ant. I, 3.5), but he narrowed down the geographical location to the "mountain of the Kordyeans" (ἐν τῇ Ἀρμενίᾳ πρὸς τῷ ὄρει τῶν Κορδυαίων I) (Ant , 3.6). This is located south of Lake Van . In Roman times, the province of Armenia included what is now south-eastern Turkey. In the past decades, Johannes Lepsius , Gertrude Bell and the geologist Friedrich Bender have documented the remains of a settlement on the summit of the Cudi. You speak of a "Noah's Ark monastery".

However, it is uncertain whether the Koran meant the Cudi Dağı in today's Turkey or a mountain in Arabia. It is possible that the name from the Koran was subsequently transferred to the mountain near Şırnak.

Understand the ark literally?

With the beginning of the comparison of the biblical story in a naturalistic context, a detachment from the literal interpretation of the Bible took place. In the 15th century, Bishop Alonso Tostando wrote a detailed description of the inner workings of the ark, taking into account the disposal of faeces and fresh air circulation. The well-known geometry scholar Johannes Buteo calculated the interior dimensions of the ship in the 16th century and also ensured that there was enough space on board for flour mills and ovens.

In the 17th century it became necessary to combine literal interpretation with colonization and exploration of America; the newly discovered animal species of Asia and Africa also had to be integrated into the minds of the naturalists and interpreters of the Bible. Since there was only one ark, which could therefore only be stranded in one place, the entire animal world must have repopulated the earth from one point after the flood. The obvious explanation was: After the destruction of the Tower of Babel , every people took "their" animals with them to their new home. But one consequence of this answer was strange: "Why then did the natives of North America take rattlesnakes with them, and not horses?" Wondered Sir Thomas Browne in 1646.

Biblical scholars such as Justus Lipsius (1547–1606) and Athanasius Kircher (approx. 1601–1680) also began to scrutinize the story of Noah's Ark in order to reconcile Bible text and science. The resulting hypotheses turned out to be important when studying the geographical distribution of plants and animals. Both Bible scholars thus provided an indirect spark for the burgeoning biogeography of the 18th century. Naturalists began with the thesis that Mount Ararat was equipped with different climatic zones, which made it possible for a wide variety of animals to live there. However, when the local climate changed, the animals had to flee and moved to more favorable areas, up to their present-day habitats, and so colonized the whole earth.

Another problem was the steadily increasing number of known and described animal species. Kircher and the earlier explorers had no trouble getting all of the animals that lived at the site of the biblical story into one ship. But just a few decades later, with the discovery of new countries and territories, John Ray (1627–1705) was faced with a significantly larger number of species. From 1700 onwards only a few naturalists could justify a literal interpretation of the story of Noah's Ark.

At the beginning of the 21st century, more than a million animal species had been described. Creationists like Reinhard Junker consider this difficulty solvable by postulating that many of today's animal species have evolved from the so-called "basic forms" within a few thousand years due to microevolution . So there were relatively few animals enough to explain today's biodiversity.

Attempts at reconstruction

“Johan's Arche” in Schagen
Bow view

The Dutchman Johan Huibers has built the ship described in the Bible according to the size specifications from GenEU on a scale of 1: 2 for almost 850,000 euros . Johan's Ark is 70 meters long, 9.60 meters wide and 12.70 meters high. It was made from 1200 trees. The builder is already planning another 1: 1 replica.

The Dutchman Aad Peters bought the replica on a pontoon and expanded it into a church adventure world over four floors. He and his team are now visiting various ports in Europe, but without “wanting to be missionary”.

After the ship was first shown in the Netherlands, the replica was anchored from July 13, 2011 to September 30, 2012 in the Rheinauhafen in Cologne . Then, for example, Emden , Hamburg , Rendsburg , Kiel and Lübeck were visited.

In the hull of the ship, life -size wooden figures distributed over the four floors around a symbolic tree of life should make various biblical stories understandable to visitors .

In May 2007, the environmental organization Greenpeace built a model of Noah's Ark on Mount Ararat at an altitude of 2,500 meters to warn of an impending climate catastrophe. The replica is ten meters long, four meters wide and four meters high. In the future it will serve as a refuge for mountaineers.

Noah's Ark in Film and Literature

  • In his poem The Victory of Life (published 1912) Josef Viktor Widmann addresses Noah's strife and his fate as - together with his family - the only survivor of the Flood.
  • In the US feature film The Bible (1966), John Huston builds the ark as Noah.
  • In the cartoon In der Arche is the worm in (1988) the story is worked out in a child-friendly manner.
  • The television production Noah's Ark - The Greatest Adventure of Mankind (1999), which was created as a German-American co-production with numerous well-known actors, is almost three hours long and offers the most extensive and elaborate film adaptation of a Bible adaptation of the subject to date.
  • In the animated film Fantasia 2000 (2000), a short film deals with the ark and Noah's assistants, portrayed by Donald Duck , and the rescue from the Flood. The film segment is accompanied by Edward Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance Marches - marches 1, 2, 3 and 4 .
  • In the comedy Evan Almighty (2007), God instructs the politician Evan Baxter ( Steve Carell ) to build an ark for the impending flood within a short period of time.
  • In the TV movie Die Arche Norman , Tony Danza as Norman Waters builds an ark.
  • The Bible film Noah's Ark by Jean-Claude Bragard was released on DVD in 2008 .
  • The writer and comic artist Ralf König processed the story of Noah's Ark satirically in the comic "Archetyp" (Ralf König: Archetyp. Rowohlt, 2009, ISBN 3-498-03549-5 )
  • In the 2012 US feature film , arks are built due to sudden strong continental drifts.
  • In the US feature film Noah from 2014, Russell Crowe as Noah builds the ark.
  • The municipal coat of arms of Arch represents an ark.


The semi-documentary novel Schindler's List , on which the feature film was based, is being published in the English and Australian versions under the title Schindler's Ark .

See also


Interpretation of the narrative

  • Jürgen Ebach : Noah - The story of a survivor. Evangelical Publishing House: Leipzig 2001, ISBN 978-3-374-01912-0 .
  • Irving L. Finkel: The Ark Before Noah: Decoding the Story of the Flood. Hodder & Stoughton: London 2014, ISBN 978-1-4447-5705-7 .
  • Meinolf Schumacher : Blanking the guilt. The Ark story and the question of accepting the unclean . KulturPoetik 20 (1), 2020, pp. 42–58 ( PDF ).

Whereabouts of the ark

  • Charles Berlitz : The Search for Noah's Ark. Zsolnay: Vienna, Hamburg 1987, ISBN 978-3-552-03924-7 . (215 pages)
  • Lorence D. Collins, David F. Fasold: Bogus 'Noah's Ark' from Turkey Exposed as a Common Geologic Structure. Journal of Geoscience Education (Volume 44) 1996, pp. 439-444.
  • David F. Fasold: The Ark of Noah. Wynwood Press: New York (NY) 1988, ISBN 978-0-922066-10-0 . (331 pages)
  • Timo Roller: The riddle of Noah's Ark. SCM R. Brockhaus: Witten 2014, ISBN 978-3-417-26588-0 . (264 pages)
  • Fernand Navarra: I found Noah's ark (original title: J'ai trouvé l'arche de Noé , translated by Cajetan Freund and Sonja Hess), extended new edition, Fix, Schorndorf 1978, ISBN 3-87228-070-2 . (German first edition: Scheffler, Frankfurt am Main 1957)

Ancient oriental parallels

  • Rüdiger Kurth: Noah's Ark and Utnapishtim's Ark. Seaworthy and symbolic. Munich 2003, ISBN 978-3-640-15718-1 . (Student thesis in the Department of Archeology, Philipps University Marburg)
  • Stefan M. Maul : The Gilgamesh Epic - Newly translated and commented. CH Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-52870-8 .

Web links

Commons : Noah's Ark  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Notes and individual references

  1. Discovered Noah's Ark Wyatt Archaeological Research
  2. Flavius ​​Josephus: Jewish Antiquities , Book 1, 3rd Chapter.
  3. Flavius ​​Josephus: Jewish Antiquities , Book 1, Chapter 3, Section 5.
  4. Flavius ​​Josephus: Jewish Antiquities , Book 1, Chapter 3, Section 6.
  5. Flavius ​​Josephus: Jewish Antiquities , Book 1, Chapter 3, Section 6.
  6. Flavius ​​Josephus: Jewish Antiquities , Book 20, Chapter 2, Section 2.
  7. Wolfram von Soden : The old Babylonian Atramḫasis myth In: Otto Kaiser u. a .: TUAT, Volume III - Wisdom Texts, Myths, Epics : 3.1 Wisdom Texts. Gütersloher Verlaghaus Mohn, Gütersloh 1990, ISBN 3-579-00072-1 , pp. 637-639.
  8. Stefan M. Maul: The Gilgamesh epic. P. 14.
  9. Stefan M. Maul (see literature), notes 58–59, p. 186.
  10. Irving Finkel: The Ark before Noah, p. 358f: "Draw out the boat that you will make on a circular plan." (Transcription of the cuneiform script also published here)
  11. Norbert Clemens Baumgart: Article Arche . At: (Section 4.2.1. Coins from Apamea, March 2013). Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  12. See the overview for the years 1701–2005 under: Mount Ararat Search Expeditions & Early Ascents , accessed on April 26, 2015.
  13. ^ Report of an expedition and satellite photos ( Memento from December 24, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  14. Noah's Ark Lies on Mount Ararat - Astonishing Proof, The Ararat Anomaly Uncovered! April 28, 2014, helicopter shot of the anomaly
  15. Erich von Däniken: Memories of the future. Düsseldorf 1968, p. 80.
  16. Fernand Navarra: I found Noah's ark. Schondorf 1978, ISBN 3-87228-070-2 .
  17. Timo Roller: The Riddle of Noah's Ark , Brockhaus: Witten 2014, ISBN 978-3-417-26588-0 , p. 49.
  18. Researchers claim to have found Noah's Ark , Die Welt, April 27, 2010, accessed April 25, 2015.
  19. Timo Roller: Noah's Ark - »Made in China« ,, published on December 22, 2010, updated on September 27, 2012, accessed on April 26, 2015.
  20. Noah's Ark has been found in Turkey on Mount Ararat 2010 , accessed April 26, 2015.
  21. Noah's Ark - "Made in China" ,, published December 22, 2010 Updated on September 27, 2012, accessed April 26, 2015.
  22. Lorence D. Collins, David F. Fasold: Bogus 'Noah's Ark' from Turkey Exposed as a Common Geologic Structure . Journal of Geoscience Education (vol. 44) 1996, pp. 439-444. - Collins' investigations into "The Ark" were documented in a National Geographic television program "The Truth Behind Noah's Ark".
  23. John D. Morris: The Search for Noah's Ark - Status 1992 . In: Impact No. 231 (Sept. 1992), quoted from the German translation, Baiersbronn 1993.
  24. See Murat Avci: The Formation and Mechanisms of the Great Telçeker Earthflow . Ankara no year (PDF, 1.2 MB)
  25. AA Snelling: Amazing 'Ark' exposé. In: Creation ex nihilo, Vol. 14, No. 4 (1992), pp. 26-38.
  26. Paul Veraguth: Noah's Ark. The story of the discovery. Thun (Switzerland) 2011
  27. Russell R. Standish, Colin D. Standish: Holy Relics or Revelation. Hartland Publications: Rapidan (Virginia) 1999, pp. 106 and pp. 230-231.
  28. Timo Roller: The riddle of Noah's Ark: Expedition to the mountains of Ararat. Brockhaus: Witten 2014, ISBN 978-3-417-26588-0 .
  29. Stefan Timm: Eusebius and the Holy Scriptures: The scripts of the onomasticon of the biblical place names. de Gruyter: Berlin and New York 2010, ISBN 978-3-11-022600-3 , p. 49.
  30. Timo Roller: The riddle of Noah's Ark: Expedition to the mountains of Ararat. Brockhaus, Witten 2014, ISBN 978-3-417-26588-0 , p. 122 ff.
  31. M. Streck: D̲J̲ŪDĪ. In: Encyclopaedia of Islam New Edition. Brill: Suffering
  32. ^ Peter Sitte, Elmar Weiler, Joachim W. Kadereit, Andreas Bresinsky, Christian Körner: Textbook of botany for universities. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 2002 (35th edition), ISBN 3-8274-1010-X , p. 10.
  33. Reinhard Junker: Did all animals fit into Noah's Ark? , November 12, 2011, accessed November 8, 2016.
  34. The ark kütt!, June 8, 2011, accessed April 28, 2012 .
  35. Noah's Ark ,, accessed September 20, 2011.
  36. ^ Ararat Declaration: Climate protection is a human right , Sigrid Totz, Greenpeace (archive), 2007.
  37. Published in: Gedichte , Frauenfeld 1912, pp. 69 f.