Letter to the Hebrews
|Acts of the Apostles|
The Epistle to the Hebrews is a book of the New Testament , it has been divided into 13 chapters since the Middle Ages. Although there is no scientific consensus on any of the literary-historical questions about the author, the circle of recipients, the dating or even the literary genre of the script entitled Πρὸς Έβραίους, historical probabilities can be weighed up and reasons given for the various hypotheses.
Because the oldest manuscripts ( Papyrus 46 , Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus ) classified the letter to the Hebrews among the letters of Paul , the early Eastern Church tradition attributed the script to Paul . However, as Origen and Clemens of Alexandria already noted, this is very unlikely because of the completely different style - for example a vocabulary of 1000 different words with 3000 words compared to the rather limited one used by Paul. Nevertheless, during the Middle Ages and in the Catholic Church until 1914 it was assumed that the letter to the Hebrews was the Greek translation of an original Hebrew letter from Paul. Because of the different nature of the theology and the different historical situation (for example, in Gal 1:12, Paul insists on his own direct experience of revelation, while the author ad Hebraios describes himself in Heb. 2,3 as the hearer of the disciples of Jesus) this is excluded today. The following were suggested as possible authors: Apollos , Priscilla , Luke or Clement of Rome , Barnabas , Peter , Philip, Judas, Aristion, Timothy. But because neither of the named (if any works have been preserved by them at all) nor any other document comparable to the Letter to the Hebrews has survived, i.e. it is completely unique in form and content and nothing is said about the author in the letter itself, none of these hypotheses can be verified become. Due to the excellent Greek style, the extensive vocabulary and the thorough knowledge of the Old Testament in the form of the Septuagint , the author is assumed to be a Greek-educated Jewish Christian who belonged to the Hellenistic wing.
The letter is not a pseudepigraphy , since no alleged author is given, even if the naming of Timothy (Heb 13:23) might suggest that Paul was the sender.
Whether the heading “To the Hebrews” refers to the original recipient is controversial. Although this title has been handed down in all manuscripts and since Tertullian, it could also express a very early general conviction regarding the purpose of writing because of the “Hebrew” content. Because of the warning about relapse, the addressees could not have been Jews who were yet to be converted. The most widespread is the adoption of a Jewish Christian addressees, less because of the familiarity with the details of the Temple cult, which also Gentile Christians must have been known as because of the always presupposed recognition of Jewish premises, such as the existence of the Levitical Priestertumes whose institution by Moses the Recipients found sufficient, whereas the necessity of creating a priesthood according to the order of Melchizedek had to be proven to them by means of scriptures (Heb. 7:14). There is also the interpretation that the letter to the Hebrews was not written for any specific congregation and situation, but for Christians in general who have lost their initial enthusiasm and are in the second or third generation. A relationship to the scriptures discovered in Qumran is no longer assumed. Because of the sentence “The brothers from Italy greet you” (Heb. 13:24) in the end of the letter - provided that it was not added by another hand because of the style break - it is commonly assumed that the author was in Italy (Rome) and the Letter sent outside of Italy. Against this, however, speaks that the writer of a letter (the brothers as a collective of authors are difficult to introduce), in order to say anything more about his place at all, would have to name his current specific whereabouts and not a whole country, so that the country only states the origin of the author or individual members from his community who only sent greetings. Ultimately, there is no evidence for any of the cities named as places of dispatch or destination.
Because the first Epistle of Clement, written around AD 96, extensively quotes the Epistle to the Hebrews and contains allusions to it, this can be considered a safe term ante quem . A more precise dating depends on how the description of the Jewish temple cult is judged. If the letter to the Hebrews refers to the institutions and customs of the Herodian temple that still exist, it must have been written before the destruction of Jerusalem (AD 70). If, on the other hand, the Letter to the Hebrews only refers to the sacrifice regulations in the Book of Leviticus as the typology of sacrifice, breaking off the concrete sacrifice practice in Jerusalem is meaningless. The advocates of early dating assume that the Letter to the Hebrews wants to prove that Christ had overcome sacrificial service, which presupposes that temple and sacrificial service still exist as actual competition. Thus they assume a date between 60 and 70 AD. Hebrews 10.32ff indicates the persecution of Christians under Nero (64 AD). This would suggest that the letter could be dated between 64 and 70 AD. The majority opinion, however, is that the mention of the victims is only related to the Old Testament cult of sacrifice, since the text does not name a specific situation of sacrifice, but deals with timeless ritual practice, even if it speaks of the continued existence of the cult until the author's presence . The persecutions mentioned in the letter could either mean local threats to the communities or the persecutions at the time of the Roman emperor Domitian (81–96 AD). This would result in a drafting between 80 and 90 AD. In terms of content, the fact that there are no names for the church offices yet speaks in favor of the early dating, but rather general heads (Heb. 13: 7, 17) are mentioned. Also the strong expectation (Heb 9:26; 10:25:37) and the first proclamation (Heb 2: 3) still heard by ear witnesses (apostles) of Jesus speak for an early time.
The conception of the Epistle to the Hebrews as a letter, that is, as a written message from a sender to one or more specific recipients, suggested as a matter of course by its designation and position in the New Testament canon , is questionable. Because only in the last four verses (Heb. 13: 22-25) can this form be established, while the rest of the rest has no letter character. The genre of the letter to the Hebrews is thus the letter of art (epistle), i.e. a literary work intended for the public that wants to give itself the formal appearance of a letter (cf. Goethe's suffering of young Werther). The assumption that the end of the letter from Heb. 13 as a secondary addition should be separated by a later scribe or the author himself is unlikely. Overall, one can deduce from the author himself, from a literary point of view, that the writing is a rhetorically sophisticated teaching lecture or a sermon in which theological treatise and parenetic invitation from the listener alternate. Therefore, with regard to the literary origin, a speech written down afterwards or a piece intended for the oral lecture should be assumed.
The different subdivisions of the Hebrew into individual sections and trains of thought can be reduced to two possible basic patterns. Some assume a concentrically ordered structure in the manner of a chiasmus (ABCBA), which is symmetrically arranged in several nested bowls around the center of Christ as high priest . The mutual relationship between the individual pieces is established using brackets.
Outline Albert Vanhoyes
- a. Introduction (1,1–4) according to → z.
- I. Another name than that of the angels (1,5-2,18) → V.
- II. A. Jesus, credible high priest (3,1–4,14) → IV. B.
- II. B. Jesus, compassionate high priest (4.15-5.10) → IV. A.
- II. P. Introductory admonition (5.11–6.20) → III. f.
- III. A. Jesus, high priest according to the order of Melchizedek (7.1–28) → III. C.
- III. B. reaches completion (8.1–9.28) middle
- III. C. Author of eternal salvation (10.1-18) → III. A.
- III. f. final admonition (10.19–39) → III. p.
- IV. A. The faith of the ancients (11: 1-40) → II. B.
- IV. B. The necessary stamina (12: 1–13) → II. A.
- V. Straight paths (12.14–13.19) → I.
- z. Conclusion (13.20-21) → a.
- (13,22-25 are not considered as secondary)
However, with increasing refinement and detailed parallelisms and cross-references, it becomes questionable to what extent the author was able to construct the text so thoroughly or whether an exaggerated analysis and addiction to order is trying to bring coincidences into an artificial system.
The others reckon with two large sections, the first consisting of the development of a theological teaching and the second, in the form of a long parenesis, dealing with the implementation in the lives of the believers, which can be derived from the previous doctrines.
Outline Donald Guthries
- I. The superiority of the Christian faith (1,1-10,18)
- A. God's revelation through the Son (1: 1-4)
- B. The Son's Superiority Over Angels (1: 5–2, 18)
- 1. Christ is higher in his nature (1.5-14)
- 2. A warning of apostasy (2, 1–4)
- 3. Humiliation and Glory of Jesus (2.5–9)
- 4. His work for the benefit of man (2: 10-18)
- C. Jesus' superiority over Moses (3: 1-19)
- Genesis the servant and Jesus the son (3: 1-6)
- 2. Representation of the failure of God's people under Moses (3: 7-19)
- D. Jesus' superiority over Joshua (4: 1–13)
- 1. The greater rest that Joshua could not secure (4: 1–10)
- 2. The urgency of seeking this calm (4.11-13)
- E. A major high priest (4.14-9.14)
- 1. Our great high priest (4: 14-16)
- 2. Comparison with Aaron (5: 1-10)
- 3. A warning speech as an interlude (5.11–6.20)
- 4. The order of Melchizedek (7: 1–18)
- 5. The servant of the new covenant (8: 1–13)
- 6. The Greater Glory of the New Order (9.1-14)
- F. The Mediator (9.15-10.18)
- 1. The meaning of his death (9,15v22)
- 2. His entry into a heavenly sanctuary (9.23-28)
- 3. His self-offering to others (10.1-18)
- II. Admonitions (10.19-13.25)
- A. The Present Position of the Believer (10: 19-39)
- 1. The new and living way (10: 19-25)
- 2. Another warning (10: 26-31)
- 3. The value of past experience (10.32-39)
- B. Faith (11: 1-40)
- 1. His nature (11: 1-3)
- 2. Examples from the past (11.4–40)
- C. Discipline and Its Benefits (12: 1-29)
- 1. The need for discipline (12: 1-29)
- 2. Avoiding moral impermanence (12: 12-17)
- 3. The benefits of the new covenant (12: 18-29)
- D. Final instruction (13: 1-25)
- 1. Admonition Concerning Community Life (13: 1-3)
- 2. Exhortation Concerning Private Life (13: 4-6)
- 3. Admonition Concerning Religious Life (13: 7-9)
- 4. On the new altar of Christians (13: 10-16)
- 5. Closing words (13: 17-25)
- A. The Present Position of the Believer (10: 19-39)
This classification cannot be fully carried out either, since theological considerations are again inserted within the admonition, and vice versa. The question of literary structure is important in that it is accepted differently depending on its aim and the climax of the writing. It makes a very big difference whether the main purpose of Pareneesis is to encourage the reader, for which theology only forms the theoretical basis, or whether the Christocentric high priestly considerations as an end in themselves represent the writer's actual communication. A middle way is represented by the position, according to which both, doctrina and parenesis, complement each other and make up the content of writing, namely from hearing the word of God to spiritual penetration and the confession of following and taking heart in one's own life.
Use of Old Testament scriptures
Of all the New Testament books, most of them, namely 23, contain direct quotations and allusions, especially from Leviticus , the Psalms and the prophets. The text is largely that of the Septuagint , although individual deviations are not uncommon. Where the two traditional main variants (Alexandrinus and Vaticanus) differ from one another, Hebrew often has a further version that agrees with evidence from Church Fathers. This led to the thesis that Hebrew used a more original form of the Septuagint than that received in the Bible manuscripts. Adjustments to the Masoretic text seem to have been made by chance rather than consciously; In any case, the question of whether the author was even able to speak Hebrew cannot be answered. Quotations are always given anonymously, without specifying the context or the place in the Old Testament. Even sentences that follow one another are quoted as if they were completely independent of one another, e.g. Heb 2:13 according to Isa 8:17, 18 or Heb 10:30 according to Dtn 32,35,36. Either the author has used passages that are familiar to him from memory, which is unlikely due to the overall high level of faithfulness to the text, or he used a Florilegium without knowing the original context in detail. Conscious changes that originate from himself can also be detected; However, they do not change the meaning of the statement, but should fit a quote grammatically better into the letter or underline what is particularly important at the selected passage for the sake of clarity.
High priest theology
The peculiarity of the theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews compared to the rest of the New Testament canon consists in the singular use of the title of high priest for Christ. Just as the high priest of the Jerusalem temple made the sin offering to atone for the people on the day of atonement ( Yom Kippur ) and entered the holy of holies , Christ brought about the redemption and reconciliation of men with God by allowing himself to be crucified. But unlike in the temple cult, where the sacrifices had to be performed again and again and were therefore ineffective because they only represented images and shadows of heavenly things, similar to the Platonic doctrine of ideas, this sacrifice was unique and had erased sins once and for all . Therefore, Christ and the new covenant mediated through him dominate the old covenant at Sinai and the Aaronic and Levitic priesthood constituted in the Torah , which are declared to be out of date and outdated. A priesthood in the traditional Jewish sense could not be asserted of Jesus because he came from the tribe of Judah and not from the tribe of Levi. That is why this high priesthood does not correspond to the Levitical order, but to the order of Melchizedek , who still stood above Abraham as “priest of the highest God” because he blessed him and received donations from him. The entrance of the High Priest in the Holy of Holies is interpreted as placing ourselves before God Christ, where he is now as before his incarnation and in caused by him creation to its right to the Parousia sit that in strong expectation is hoped very soon.
The canonicity of the Letter to the Hebrews was controversial not only because of its unknown author, but also because of a certain content-related statement. The impossibility of repentance and conversion for Christians who have fallen away after baptism, expressed in Hebrews 10: 26–31, was seen by many as a contradiction to the gospel. Especially in the Western Church, in the context of the experience with the heretical Novatians , who emphatically taught this impossibility of repentance, the letter was long considered dubious. The speculation of the sacrificial death of the Hebrews was taken up in the Middle Ages by Anselm of Canterbury in Cur deus homo and for a long time formed an important interpretation tradition in the Catholic understanding of the Eucharist. The motif of the high priesthood forms the first verse in the hymn "To the Eternal High Priest". On the evangelical side, despite the appreciation of the letter by Luther and Calvin, there were problems with the apparent overemphasis on the cult, because it only promotes work righteousness and because of the The letter differs considerably from the Pauline doctrine of justification . That is why Martin Luther put it in an appendix to his German-language New Testament along with three other writings that appeared to be of little value to him. In the Eastern Church, however, the letter was accepted early; The doctrine of Christ as eternal high priest formulated here and the detailed assignment of Old Testament rites to Christian beliefs play a prominent role in Eastern Church theology and mysticism.
- Letter to the Hebrew Luther Bible 1984 at the German Bible Society .
- Information about the letter to the Hebrews bibelwissenschaft.de
- Barbara Aland, Kurt Aland: Novum Testamentum Graece , 27th edition, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-438-05115-X , p. 686.
- William MacDonald : Commentary on the New Testament, CLV: Bielefeld 1997, p. 1189.
- DH 3591-3593.
- first in Luther, WA 10 I / 1, 143.
- Adolf von Harnack ZNW 1 (1900).
- Eusebius, Church History VI, 14, 2-4 and 25, 11-14.
- Tertullian, De Pudicitia 20.
- For the first time: James Moffat: An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament , Edinburgh ³1918, p. 448.
- FF Bruce, The Epistel to the Hebrews , London / Grand Rapids 1964, XXVII.
- Martin Dibelius, Der himmlische Kultus after the Epistle to the Hebrews , in: Message and History II , Tübingen 1965, pp. 160–176, here p. 161.
- Erich Gräßer: Der Hebräerbrief 1938-1963 , in: ThR NF30 (1964), pp. 138–236, here p. 176.
- Feld, EdF 228, pp. 12-14.
- Donald Alfred Hagner: The Use of the Old and New Testament in Clemens of Rome (Suppl. NT 35), Leiden 1973, pp. 179-195.
- Feld, EdF 228, 15-16.
- first: A. Deissmann, Licht vom Osten, p. 207.
- Donald A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo: Introduction to the New Testament . 1st edition. Brunnen Verlag, Giessen 2010, ISBN 978-3-7655-9541-7 , p. 721 .
- Michel: Critical Commentary , p. 24.
- For the first time: L. Vaganay: Le plan de l'Epître aux Hébreux , in: Mémorial Lagrange, Paris 1940, pp. 269–277, here p. 270.
- Albert Vanhoye, La Structure littéraire de l'Epître aux Hébreux, Paris 1963.
- Donald Guthrie: The Letter to the Hebrews. An Introduction and Commentary (Tyndale New Testament Commentaries), Leicester / Grand Rapids 1983, pp. 58-59. in the translation field, EdF 228, pp. 27-28.
- Heinrich Zimmermann: The Confession of Hope. Tradition and editing in Hebrews (BBB47), Cologne 1977, p. 24.
- Kenneth J. Thomas: The Old Testament Citations in Hebrews , in: NTS 11 (1965), pp. 303-325.
- FC Synge: Hebrews and the Scriptures , London 1959, pp. 53-54.
- JC McCullough: The Old Testament Quotations in Hebrews , in: NTS 26 (1979/80), pp. 363-379 (here: p. 378).
- Guido Telscher: Sacrifice from Mercy , Würzburg 2007.
- Heinrich Zimmermann: The High Priest Christology of the Hebrew Letter , Paderborn 1964.
- Praise to God. Catholic prayer and hymn book. Edition for the Archdiocese of Bamberg, No. 883.
- Opera Omnia, CO 55.5.
- Helmut Feld: The Letter to the Hebrews . Income from research 228. Wiss. Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1985 ISBN 3-534-07503-X (research report)
- Watson E. Mills: Hebrews . Bibliographies for Biblical Research, New Testament Series 20. Mellen Biblical Press, Lewiston NY et al. a. 2001 ISBN 0-7734-2482-2
- Otto Michel : The letter to the Hebrews . Critical-exegetical commentary on the New Testament 13th Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 13th edition (7th edition of this new interpretation) 1975 ISBN 3-525-51600-2
- Herbert Braun : To the Hebrews . New Testament Handbook 14. Revised. Mohr, Tübingen 1984 ISBN 3-16-144790-5
- Harald Hegermann: The letter to the Hebrews . Theological commentary on the New Testament 16. Deichert, Leipzig 1988 ISBN 3-374-00042-8
- Christian Rose : The Letter to the Hebrews (The Message of the New Testament). Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2012, ISBN 978-3-7887-3166-3
- Erich Gräßer : To the Hebrews . Evangelical-Catholic Commentary on the New Testament 17. Zurich / Neukirchen-Vluyn.
- Franz Delitzsch : The Letter to the Hebrews . With an escort by Otto Michel . Reprint d. 1st edition from 1857, published by Dörffling u. Franke, Leipzig. Brunnen-Verl., Gießen u. a. 1989 ISBN 3-7655-9225-0
- Claus-Peter March: Letter to the Hebrews . The new Echter-Bibel 16. Echter-Verl., Würzburg 1989, 2nd edition 1990 ISBN 3-429-01213-9 ISBN 3-429-01213-9
- William RG Loader: Faith On Probation. Hebrews and James . Biblical interpretation for practice 25th publ. Kath. Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 1990 ISBN 3-460-25251-0 (application-oriented)
- August Strobel : The Letter to the Hebrews . The New Testament German 9.2. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 13th edition (4th edition of this arrangement) 1991 ISBN 3-525-51374-7 (generally understandable )
- Hans-Friedrich Weiß: The letter to the Hebrews . Critical-exegetical commentary on the New Testament 13. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 15th edition (1st edition of this interpretation) 1991 ISBN 3-525-51625-8
- Dieter Schneider: Jesus, beginner and finisher of faith. Access to the Letter to the Hebrews . R.-Brockhaus-TB 510. Brockhaus, Wuppertal u. a. 1994 ISBN 3-417-20510-7 (generally understandable )
- Fritz Laubach : The letter to the Hebrews . Wuppertaler Studienbibel.NT 16. Brockhaus, Wuppertal 1994 (generally understandable, application-oriented)
- Søren Ruager: Letter to the Hebrews . Edition C Biblical Commentaries 22. Hänssler, Neuhausen-Stuttgart 2nd edition 1995 ISBN 3-7751-1096-8 (generally understandable , application-oriented)
- Frederick F. Bruce : The Epistle to the Hebrews . The New International Commentary on the New Testament . Eerdmans, Grand Rapids MI, 5th ed. 1997 ISBN 0-8028-2514-1
- Paul Ellingworth: The Epistle to the Hebrews. A Commentary on the Greek Text . The New International Greek Testament Commentary. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, et al. a. 1993, repr. 2000 ISBN 0-8028-2420-X
- David A. de Silva: Perseverance in Gratitude. A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary on the Epistle "to the Hebrews" . Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, et al. a. 2000 ISBN 0-8028-4188-0
- Craig R. Koester: Hebrews. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary . The Anchor Bible 36. Doubleday, New York et al. a. 2001 ISBN 0-385-46893-8
- Martin Karrer: The Letter to the Hebrews . Vol. 1: Chapters 1, 1–5, 10 . Ecumenical paperback commentary on the New Testament 20.1. Gütersloher Taschenbücher 520. Gütersloher Verl.-Haus u. a., Gütersloh 2002 ISBN 3-579-00520-0
- Gerd Schunack: The Letter to the Hebrews . Zurich Bible Commentaries 14. Theol. Verl., Zurich 2002 ISBN 3-290-14747-9
- Knut Backhaus : The Letter to the Hebrews . Regensburg New Testament, Pustet, Regensburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-7917-2208-5
- Helmut Feld: Martin Luther's and Wendelin Steinbach's lectures on the Epistle to the Hebrews. A Study of the History of New Testament Exegesis and Theology . Publications of the Institute for European History Mainz 62. Steiner, Wiesbaden 1971
- Kenneth Hagen: A Theology of Testament in the Young Luther. The Lectures on Hebrews . Studies in Medieval and Reformation Thought 12. Brill, Leiden 1974 ISBN 90-04-03987-2
- Kenneth Hagen: Hebrews Commenting from Erasmus to Bèze , 1516–1598 . Contributions to the history of biblical exegesis 23. Mohr, Tübingen 1981 ISBN 3-16-143341-6
- Ernst Käsemann : The wandering people of God. An investigation into the letter to the Hebrews . FRLANT 55 = NF 37. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen (1st edition 1939) 4th edition 1961
- Heinrich Zimmermann : The high priest-Christology of the Hebrews. Schöningh Verlag, Paderborn 1964.
- Erich Gräßer : Faith in the Letter to the Hebrews . Marburg theological studies 2. Elwert, Marburg 1965
- Friedrich Schröger: The author of the letter to the Hebrews as an interpreter . Biblical research 4. Pustet, Regensburg 1968
- Otfried Hofius : Katapausis. The idea of the eschatological resting place in the Letter to the Hebrews . WUNT 11. Mohr, Tübingen 1970
- Gerd Theißen : Investigations into the letter to the Hebrews . Studies on the New Testament 2. Mohn, Gütersloh 1969
- Jukka Thurén: The Hebrews praise offering. Studies on the structure and purpose of Hebrews 13 . Acta Academiae Aboensis A / 47.1. Åbo Akad., Åbo 1973 ISBN 951-648-063-2
- Heinrich Zimmermann: The Confession of Hope: Tradition u. Editing in the Letter to the Hebrews. Hanstein-Verlag, Cologne-Bonn 1977, ISBN 3-7756-1046-4 (Bonn biblical contributions 47).
- Keijo Nissilä: The high priest motif in Hebrews. An exegetical investigation . Writings of the Finnish Exegetical Society 33. Helsinki 1979 ISBN 951-95184-8-7
- Franz Laub: Confession and Interpretation. The parenetic function of Christology in the Letter to the Hebrews . Biblical research 15. Pustet, Regensburg 1980 ISBN 3-7917-0663-2
- Mathias Rissi: The theology of the letter to the Hebrews. Your anchoring in the situation of the author and his readers . WUNT 41. Mohr, Tübingen 1987 ISBN 3-16-145164-3
- Albert Vanhoye: Structure and Message of the Epistle to the Hebrews . Subsidia biblica 12th ed. Pontificio is. Biblico, Rome 1989 ISBN 88-7653-571-3
- Walter G. Ubelacker: The letter to the Hebrews as an appeal . Vol. 1: Studies on 'exordium', 'narratio' and 'postscriptum' - Hebr. 1-2 u. 13.22-25 . Coniectanea Biblica, New Testament Series 21. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm 1989 ISBN 91-22-01251-6
- Marie E. Isaacs: Sacred Space. An Approach to the Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews . JSNTSup 73. Academic Press, Sheffield 1992 ISBN 1-85075-356-3
- Erich Gräßer: Departure and promise. Collected essays on the Letter to the Hebrews. For the 65th birthday with a bibliography of the author . Edited by Martin Evang and Otto Merk. BZNW 65. de Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 1992 ISBN 3-11-013669-4
- John Dunnill: Covenant and Sacrifice in the Letter to the Hebrews . MSSNTS 75th University Press, Cambridge et al. a. 1992 ISBN 0-521-43158-1
- George H. Guthrie: The Structure of Hebrews. A Text-Linguistic Analysis . Supplements to Novum Testamentum 73. Brill, Leiden u. a. 1994 ISBN 90-04-09866-6
- Hermut Löhr: Repentance and sin in the letter to the Hebrews . BZNW 73. de Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 1994 ISBN 3-11-014202-3
- Christian Rose : The cloud of witnesses. An exegetical and historical study of Hebrews 10.32–12.3 . WUNT 2/60. Mohr, Tübingen 1994 ISBN 3-16-146012-X
- David Arthur de Silva: Despising Shame. Honor Discourse and Community Maintenance in the Epistle to the Hebrews . Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 152. Scholars Press, Atlanta GA 1995 ISBN 0-7885-0200-X
- Knut Backhaus: The new covenant and the development of the church. The slide counter - interpretation of the letter to the Hebrews in the context of early Christian theology history . New Testament treatises NF 29. Aschendorff, Münster 1996, ISBN 978-3-402-04777-4
- David Wider: Theocentrism and Confession. Investigations into the theology of God's speaking in Hebrews . BZNW 87. de Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 1997 ISBN 3-11-015554-0
- Herbert W. Bateman IV: Early Jewish Hermeneutics and Hebrews 1: 5-13. The Impact of Early Jewish Exegesis on the Interpretation of a Significant New Testament Passage . American University Studies 7/193. Lang, New York et al. a. 1997 ISBN 0-8204-3324-1
- Jon Laansma: “I will give you rest”. The Rest Motif in the New Testament with Special Reference to Mt 11 and Heb 3-4 . WUNT 2/98. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1997 ISBN 3-16-146639-X
- N. Clayton Croy: Endurance in Suffering. Hebrews 12: 1-13 in Its Rhetorical, Religious, and Philosophical Context . MSSNTS 98. University Press, Cambridge et al. a. 1998 ISBN 0-521-59305-0
- Konrad Taut: Instructions for understanding scripture? The scriptures according to the letter to the Hebrews . THEOS 20. Kovač, Hamburg 1998 ISBN 3-86064-676-1
- James Kurianal: Jesus Our High Priest. Ps 110.4 as the Substructure of Heb 5.1-7.28 . European University Theses 23/693. Lang, Frankfurt a. M. u. a. 2000 ISBN 3-631-36032-0
- David R. Anderson: The King-Priest of Psalm 110 in Hebrews . Studies in Biblical Literature 21. Lang, New York a. a. 2001 ISBN 0-8204-4574-6
- Victor (Sung-Yul) Rhee: Faith in Hebrews. Analysis within the Context of Christology, Eschatology, and Ethics . Studies in Biblical Literature 19. Lang, New York a. a. 2001 ISBN 0-8204-4531-2
- Richard W. Johnson: Going Outside the Camp. The Sociological Function of the Levitical Critique in the Epistle to the Hebrews . JSNTSup 209. Sheffield Acad. Press, London a. a. 2001 ISBN 1-84127-186-1
- Barnabas Lindars: The Theology of the Letter to the Hebrews . New Testament Theology. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge et al. a. Repr. 2001 ISBN 0-521-35487-0
- Iutisone Salevao: Legitimation in the Letter to the Hebrews. The Construction and Maintenance of a Symbolic Universe . JSNTSup 219. Sheffield Acad. Press, London a. a. 2002 ISBN 1-84127-261-2
- Jon M. Isaak: Situating the Letter to the Hebrews in Early Christian History . Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity 53. Mellen Press, Lewiston NY et al. a. 2002 ISBN 0-7734-6900-1
- Wilfried Eisele: An unshakable empire. The Middle Platonic transformation of the Parousia idea in the Letter to the Hebrews . BZNW 116. de Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 2003 ISBN 3-11-017595-9
- Radu Gheorghita: The Role of the Septuagint in Hebrews. An Investigation of Its Influence with Special Consideration to the Use of Hab 2: 3-4 in Heb 10: 37-38 . WUNT 2/160. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2003 ISBN 3-16-148014-7
- Patrick Gray: Godly Fear. The Epistle to the Hebrews and Greco-Roman Critiques of Superstition . Academia Biblica 16. Brill, Leiden / Boston 2004 ISBN 90-04-13075-6
- Tomasz Lewicki: »Do not turn away those who speak!« Word of God and Parakles in Hebrews . Paderborn theological studies 41. Schöningh, Paderborn 2004 ISBN 3-506-71326-4
- Amy-Jill Levine (Ed.): A Feminist Companion to the Catholic Epistles and Hebrews . Feminist Companion to the New Testament and Early Christian Writings 8. T. & T. Clark, London u. a. 2004 ISBN 0-8264-6682-6
- Claus-Peter March: Studies on the Letter to the Hebrews . Stuttgart biblical essays 39th Ed. Kath. Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 2005 ISBN 3-460-06391-2
- Rainer Kampling (ed.): Perseverance in the promise. Studies on the Letter to the Hebrews . Stuttgarter Bibelstudien 204th Verl. Kath. Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-460-03044-5
- Guido Telscher: Sacrifice out of mercy. Heb 9: 11-28 in the context of biblical atonement theology . Echter, Würzburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-429-02891-6 .
- Sebastian Fuhrmann: Forgive and forget. Christology and the New Covenant in Hebrews. WMANT 113. Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen 2007, ISBN 978-3-7887-2190-9 .
- Sascha Flüchter : Gen 15.6 in the Letter to the Hebrews from the perspective of a socio-historical reception history . In: Ders .: The crediting of faith for justice. On the way to a socio-historical reception history of Gen 15.6 in New Testament literature ". TANZ 51. Francke, Tübingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-7720-8373-0 , pp. 209-269.