Letter from Paul to Titus
|Acts of the Apostles|
The Epistle to Titus is a book of the New Testament of the Christian Bible . It has been divided into three chapters since the Middle Ages and is one of the shortest books in the Bible. The letter itself claims to have been written by the apostle Paul . The addressee was Titus who worked for him for many years.
The authorship of Paul is often disputed today (see pastoral letters ).
After greeting his friend and colleague, Paul reminds him of the task of organizing the church in Crete . The chiefs to be appointed (rulers, overseers, teachers, elderly, wise, sensible and experienced men, today more like [shepherds]) should therefore be impeccable and (only) have a wife and believing children. This passage (Tit 1,6) is often quoted by critics of celibacy and its content is based on 1 Tim 3,1–7.
The task was particularly difficult because, according to Titus' letter, there was a strong Jewish community in Crete, which caused some confusion for newly converted Christians. (Here the well-known paradox is quoted in which a Cretan claims that all Cretans are liars, see also the paradox of Epimenides .)
Living together in the community: There are different age groups and social classes in the community. These should behave according to their roles. The passage Tit 2, 3–5 is often used by opponents of feminist theology .
(11–15) Real life is only possible through the grace of God.
As Christians, too, we are part of society and must adhere to the regulations of the authorities.
Paul will send a representative to Titus so that he can visit him in Nicopolis.
- Hébert Roux: The letter of Titus . Translated from the French by Hans Helmut Esser. Biblical studies 40. Neukirchener Verl., Neukirchen-Vluyn 1964
- Joachim Jeremias , August Strobel : The letters to Timotheus and Titus. The letter to the Hebrews . The New Testament German 9. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen u. a. 11th edition (1st edition of this new version) 1975, ISBN 3-525-51327-5 (generally understandable )
- Victor Hasler: The letters to Timothy and Titus . Zurich Bible Commentaries 12, TVZ: Zurich 1978, ISBN 3-290-14721-5
- Joseph Reuss: The Letter of Titus . Spiritual reading 17. Düsseldorf (1966) 1984, ISBN 3-491-77117-X (generally understandable, application-oriented)
- Udo Borse: 1st and 2nd Timothy, Titus . Stuttgart small commentary: New Testament 13th ed. Kath. Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 1984, 3rd edition 1999 ISBN 3-460-15431-4 (generally understandable)
- Norbert Brox : The pastoral letters. 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus . Regensburg New Testament. Pustet, Regensburg 1989
- Otto Knoch : 1st and 2nd Timothy, Titus . The new Echter-Bibel 14th Echter-Verlag, Würzburg 2nd edition 1990, ISBN 3-429-01139-6
- Jerome D. Quinn: The Letter to Titus. A New Translation with Notes and Commentary and an Introduction to Titus, I and II Timothy, the Pastoral Epistles . The Anchor Bible 35. Doubleday, New York et al. a. 1990, ISBN 0-385-05900-0
- Helmut Merkel: Die Pastoralbriefe (NTD 9.1), Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 13th edition 1991
- Hans Bürki: Paul's second letter to Timothy, the letters to Titus and Philemon . Wuppertal Study Bible. NT 15. Brockhaus, Wuppertal 1994 (generally understandable, application-oriented)
- Gordon D. Fee: 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus . New International Biblical Commentary. NT Series 13. Hendrickson, Peabody 1995, ISBN 0-943575-10-9
- Fritz Grünzweig : 2nd Timothy, Titus, Philemon . Edition C Bible Commentary New Testament 19. Hänssler, Neuhausen-Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-7751-1544-7 (generally understandable , application-oriented)
- Jouette M. Bassler: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus . Abingdon New Testament Commentaries. Abingdon Press, Nashville 1996, ISBN 0-687-00157-9
- John RW Stott: The Message of 1 Timothy and Titus. The Life of the Local Church . The Bible Speaks Today. Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester 1996, ISBN 0-85111-172-6 (application-oriented)
- I. Howard Marshall: A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles . International Critical Commentary. T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh 1999
- William D. Mounce: Pastoral Epistles . Word Biblical Commentary 46. Word Books, Waco TX et al. a. 2000
- Peter Gorday (Ed.): Colossians, 1-2 Thessalonians, 1-2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon . Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture. New Testament 9th 2000, ISBN 1-57958-134-X
- George W. Knight III: The Pastoral Epistles. A Commentary on the Greek Text . The New International Greek Testament Commentary. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids Reprint 2000, ISBN 0-8028-2395-5
- Raymond F. Collins: 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus. A Commentary . Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville 2002
- Lorenz Oberlinner: The letter of Titus . Herder's theological commentary on the New Testament 11.2, Freiburg i. Br. 2002
- Stefano Cotrozzi: Exegetical Guide to the Epistles of Titus and Philemon. A word-for-word overview of all interpretation and translation variants (Biblia et Symbiotica 16), Bonn 1998, ISBN 3-926105-95-X
- Donald A. Hagner: Titus as a Pauline Letter. in: Society of Biblical Literature 1998 Seminar Papers. Part two. Society of Biblical Literature. Seminar Paper Series 37. Scholars Press, Atlanta 1998, pp. 546-558
- Giuseppe De Virgilio (Ed.): Il deposito della fede Timoteo e Tito . Supplementi alla Rivista biblica 34.Dehoniane, Bologna 1998.
- Günter Kettenbach: The healthy teaching and drug addiction. A study on the letter of Titus . European university publications 23/659. Lang, Frankfurt a. M. u. a. 1999, ISBN 3-631-34534-8
- Bonnie Thurston: The Theology of Titus. In: Horizons in Biblical Theology 21 (1999), pp. 171-184.
- Gerd Häfner: "Useful for teaching" (2 Tim 3:16). The role of scripture in the pastoral letters in the context of Paul’s reception . Herder's Biblical Studies 25. Herder, Freiburg i. Br. 2000
- Raymond F. Collins: The Theology of the Epistle to Titus. In: Ephemerides theologicae Lovanienses 76 (2000), pp. 56-72.
- Carl Joachim Classen: A Rhetorical Reading of the Epistle to Titus (1997). In: Ders .: Rhetorical Criticism of the New Testament (WUNT 128), Mohr Siebeck: Tübingen 2000, pp. 45-67.
- Rüdiger Fuchs: Unexpected differences. Do we need to revise our views on "the" pastoral letters? Biblical monograph 12. Brockhaus, Wuppertal 2003, ISBN 3-417-29480-0
- Rüdiger Fuchs: Is 'agape the goal of instruction' (1.Tim 1,5)? - on the different use of the AGAP and PHIL word stems in the letters to Timothy and Titus. In: Yearbook for Evangelical Theology 18 (2004), pp. 93–125.
- Ray Van Neste: Cohesion and Structure in the Pastoral Epistles . JSNTSup 280. T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh 2004.
- Abraham J. Malherbe: Paraenesis in the Epistle to Titus. In: James Starr, Troels Engberg-Pedersen (ed.): Early Christian Paraenesis in Context (BZNW 125), de Gruyter, Berlin 2004, pp. 297-317.
- Heinz Warnecke: [Re-evaluation of the sources:] Der Titusbrief In: Heinz Warnecke; Thomas Schirrmacher: Paul in the Storm. About the shipwreck of exegesis and the rescue of the apostle on Kephallenia . 2nd Edition. VTR, Nuremberg 2000, ISBN 3-933372-29-1 , p. 134-138 .
For further references see also pastoral letter