Epistle of Paul to the Philippians
|Acts of the Apostles|
V. 1–2: Sender, recipient, input greeting
V. 3–11: The eschatological day of Christ
Verses 12-26: What the Christian gains through suffering
V. 27-30: The readiness of the Christian community to suffer
Verses 12-18: God creates human salvation
V. 1–11: Warning of a relapse into legality
Verses 12-17: The goal of the Christian faith
Verses 1–9: Reminder to unite
Verses 10–20: Paul thanks the Philippians for their gift
V. 21-23: Final greeting
Since around 1960 the view has spread (through Walter Schmithals, among others ) that the letter to the Philippians of the NT is the result of joining two or three letters from Paul to the Philippians. One argument for this are breaks in the letter; some perceive the section from 3.2 to 4.9 as an insertion. Various hypotheses of division were put forward by a number of New Testament scholars, but they did not prevail. Werner Georg Kümmel found the arguments for such hypotheses "by no means convincing"; According to his assessment, there is "insufficient reason to doubt the unity of the traditional Phil". Udo Schnelle describes the uniformity of Philippians as being controversial in research. After naming the arguments for the division hypotheses, he judged: “These arguments cannot convince.” After discussing the arguments, he concludes “that the phil must be understood as a literary and also theological unit ”.
The ancient Macedonian city that we call Philippi today was called Colonia Augusta Iulia Philippensis at the time of Paulus . It was created by Philip of Macedonia on the site of the older Kraenides (Κρηνίδες) and has stood since about 167 BC. Under Roman rule. Under her it was a two-fold Roman colony foundation. First by Marcus Antonius 42 BC Founded as a so-called supply colony (opposite: settlement colony for Roman city citizens) for the settlement of discharged mercenaries. BC by Emperor Augustus , who used their renewed colonization "to stabilize his personal rule and that of the Roman Empire".
The political character of a Roman colony does not correspond to that of an independent polis , rather it sees itself as “a daughter community grown out of the law of the city of Rome”. The power-political decision-making bases for the establishment of Roman colony (settlement colonies of Roman city citizens and supply colonies of discharged Roman mercenaries and officers) existed in the time of the republic (from 509 BC) either in the deduction of a lex (senatorial law) or in the time of the civil wars after 133 v. In a magistrate decision.
According to Acts of the Apostles (Acts) 16.12 EU , Philippi (Φίλιπποι) is called "a city (πόλις) of the first district of Macedonia, a (Roman) colony". Paul founded the first Christian church on European soil in Philippi. In 1st Thessalonians 2.2 EU Paul writes that he “suffered and was mistreated” in Philippi. The author of the Acts of Paul reports on Paul's journey from Philippi to Corinth . In this city Paul reports about forced labor that he had to do in Philippi. Acts 20.6 EU mentions that Paul left Philippi by ship on his last voyage to Jerusalem . Also Polycarp wrote two letters to the church at Philippi.
- D. Martin Luther 's interpretation of the epistle . edited by Eduard Ellwein, vol. 3: The letters to the Ephesians, Philippians and Colossians, Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1973, 360 pp., ISBN 978-3-525-55633-7
- Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer : Critical exegetical handbook on the letter to the Philippians . 1st edition, 1847, As: Critical exegetical commentary on the New Testament, edited by Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, ninth section, first half, Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1847, XIV, 146 pp.
- Carl Nicolaus Kähler : Interpretation of the Epistle Pauli to the Philippians in 25 sermons. Schwers, Kiel 1855, 294 S. OCLC 45973779 OCLC 602292469 ( online ).
- Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer: Critical exegetical handbook on the letters to the Philippians, Colossians and Philemon . 2nd, improved and increased edition. 1859, As: Critical exegetical commentary on the New Testament, edited by Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, ninth department Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprechtn Göttingen 1859, VI, 343 pp.
- The Apostle Paul's letter to the Philippians . Translated and explained by Karl Joseph Müller, with a license from the Reverend Archbishop of Freiburg, Verlag Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1899, VIII, 348 pp.
- Paul's letter to the Philippians . Designed by Paul Ewald , 1. u. 2nd edition 1908, As: Commentary on the New Testament, edited by Theodor Zahn , Vol. 11, Verlag Deichert, Leipzig 1908, 220 pp.
- Adolf Schlatter : Explanations on the New Testament . Vol. 12: The letters to the Thessalonians and Philippians. The letters of Peter and Judas, Verlag der Vereinsbuchhandlung, Calw 1910, ISBN 978-3-7668-0191-3
- To the Thessalonians I, II. To the Philippians . Explained by Martin Dibelius . As: Handbuch zum New Testament, edited by Hans Lietzmann , Vol. 3.2., Verlag JCB Mohr, Tübingen 1911, 64 pp.
- Paul's letter to the Philippians . Published by Paul Ewald, 3rd, reviewed and enlarged edition 1923, obtained from Gustav Wohlenberg, As: Commentary on the New Testament, published by Theodor Zahn, Vol. 11, Verlag Deichert, Leipzig 1923, VIII, 238 pp.
- To the Thessalonians I II. To the Philippians . Declared v. Martin Dibelius, Als: Handbuch zum New Testament, edited by Hans Lietzmann, 2nd, completely revised edition 1925, vol. 11, Verlag JCB Mohr, Tübingen 1925, 2, 76 pp.
- Karl Barth : Explanation of the letter to the Philippians . Verlag Christian Kaiser, Munich 1928, 126 pp.
- The letters to the Philippians, to the Colossians, and to Philemon . Translated u. explained by Ernst Lohmeyer, 8th ed. d. Revised 1930, As: Critical-exegetical commentary on the New Testament, founded by Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, Dept. 9, Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1930, 4, 194, 202 pp.
- To the Thessalonians I II. To the Philippians . Declared v. Martin Dibelius, 3rd, revised edition 1937, As: Handbuch zum New Testament, edited by Hans Lietzmann, Vol. 11, Verlag JCB Mohr, Tübingen 1937, 98 pp.
- The letter to the Philippians. Interpretation v. Joachim Gnilka . As: Herder's theological commentary on the New Testament, founded by Alfred Wikenhauser, Vol. 10.3., Verlag Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1968, XXII, 226 pp.
- The letters to the Philippians, to the Colossians, and to Philemon . Translated u. explains v. Ernst Lohmeyer, 14th edition 1974 and 8th edition of the revision 1930, As: Critical-exegetical commentary on the New Testament, founded by Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer, Dept. 9, Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1974, 4, 194 , 202 pp.
- Heinrich Schlier: The letter to the Philippians . As: Criteria, Vol. 54, Johannes-Verlag, Einsiedeln 1980, 82 pages, ISBN 978-3-89411-214-1
- Ulrich B. Müller: Paul's letter to the Philippians . 1st edition 1993, As: Theological hand commentary on the New Testament, new version, edited by Erich Fascher , Joachim Rohde, Udo Schnelle and Christian Wolff, Volume 11.1, Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 1993, XVIII, 211 pp.
- The letters to the Philippians, Thessalonians and Philemon . translated and explained by Nikolaus Walter, Eckart Reinmuth and Peter Lampe, In: Das Neue Testament deutsch, edited by Peter Stuhlmacher and Hans Weder, Vol. 8.2, Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1998, 232 pp. ISBN 978-3-525- 51381-1
- Ulrich B. Müller: Paul's letter to the Philippians . 2nd, improved edition 2002, As: Theological hand commentary on the New Testament, edited by Erich Fascher, Joachim Rohde, Udo Schnelle u. Christian Wolff, Vol. 11.1, Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2002, XVIII, 216 S., ISBN 978-3-374-01463-7
- Wilfried Eckey: The letters of Paul to the Philippians and to Philemon. A comment . Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2006, XIV, 242 pp., ISBN 978-3-7887-2145-9
- Otto Schmitz: To understand Philippians 1, 21 . In: New Testament Studies. Georg Heinrici on his 70th birthday (March 14, 1914), offered by colleagues, friends and students, As: Investigations on the New Testament, published by Hans Windisch, Volume 6, Verlag JC Hinrichs, Leipzig 1914, XVI, 272 pages, p 155-169
- Adolf Deißmann : On the Ephesian captivity of the apostle Paul . In: Anatolian studies. Presented to Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, edited by William Hepburn Buckler and William Musgrave Calder, University Press, Manchester 1923, XXXVIII, 480 pages, pp. 121–127
- Ernst Lohmeyer: Kyrios Jesus. An examination of Philippians 2: 5-11 . As: meeting reports of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences. Philosophical-historical class, 1927/1928, issue 4, Verlag Winter, Heidelberg 1928, 90 pages
- Percy Neale Harrison: Polycarp's two epistles to the Philippians . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (England) 1936, XII, 356 pp.
- Paul Collart : Philippes. Ville de Macédoine depuis ses origines jusqu'à la fin de l'époque romaine . Boccard publishing house, Paris 1937, XII, 558 pp.
- Paul Lemerle: Philippes et la Macédoine orientale à l'époque chrétienne et byzantine. Recherches d'histoire et d'archéologie . Boccard publishing house, Paris 1945, VI, 568 pp.
- Ernst Käsemann : Critical Analysis of Philippians 2.5–11 . In: Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche, Volume 47, 1950. pp. 313-360, (reprinted in: ders .: Exegetical experiments and reflections . Volume 1, Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1960, 316 pages, pp. 51-95 .)
- Günther Bornkamm: The Philippians as a Pauline collection of letters . In: Neotestamentica et Patristica, a gift from the friend, presented to Professor Doctor Oscar Cullmann on his 60th birthday, Brill publishing house. Leiden (Netherlands) 1962, XX, 330 pages, pp. 192-202
- Otfried Hofius: The Christ hymn Philippians 2.6-11 . Investigations into the form and statement of an early Christian Psalm, as: Scientific investigations on the New Testament, Volume 17, Verlag JCB Mohr, Tübingen 1976, 118 pages
- Berthold Mengel: Studies on Philippians. Investigations on the situational context with special consideration of the question of the holistic or uniformity of a Pauline letter , Als: Scientific investigations on the New Testament, second series, vol. 8, Verlag JCB Mohr, Tübingen 1982, 344 pp., ISBN 978-3-16 -144533-0
- Rudolf Pesch: Paul and his favorite church. Paul - seen again. Three letters to the saints in Philippi . As: Herder library, volume 1208, Freiburg im Breisgau 1985, 126 pages
- Günter Klein: Anti-Paulinism in Philippi. A sketch of the problem . In: Jesus' speech about God and its aftermath in early Christianity, contributions to the proclamation of Jesus and the kerygma of the church, commemorative publication for Willi Marxsen on his 70th birthday, edited by Dietrich-Alexander Koch, Gerhard Sellin and Andreas Lindemann, Mohn Verlag, Gütersloh 1989 , 476 pages, pp. 297-313
- Otfried Hofius: The Christ hymn Philippians 2.6-11. Investigations into the form and meaning of an early Christian psalm . 2nd, expanded edition 1991, As: Wissenschaftliche Studium zum Neuen Testament, Volume 17, Verlag JCB Mohr, Tübingen 1991, 170 pages, ISBN 978-3-16-145672-5
- Lukas Bormann : Philippi. City and Christian community at the time of Paul . As: Supplements to Novum Testamentum, ed. by Abraham J. Malherbe and David P. Moessner, Vol. 78, Verlag EJ Brill. Leiden (Netherlands) 1995, X, 248 pages, ISBN 90-04-10232-9
- Peter Pilhofer : Philippi. Volume 1: The first Christian community in Europe . As: Scientific studies on the New Testament, Volume 87, Verlag JCB Mohr, Tübingen 1995, XXII, 316 pages, ISBN 978-3-16-146479-9
- Peter Pilhofer: Philippi. Volume 2: Catalog of the inscriptions by Philippi . As: Scientific studies on the New Testament, 2nd, revised and supplemented edition, Volume 119, Verlag JCB Mohr, Tübingen 2009, XVIII, 1196 pages, ISBN 978-3-16-149163-4
- Read Philippians letter online (Luther 1984) These and over 40 other current and historical Bible translations at Bibleserver.com .
- Peter Pilhofer: Lecture notes , Erlangen 2009.
- Information about the Philippians letter bibelwissenschaft.de
- Horst Balz: Art. Philippians letter , in: TRE vol. 26, 1996, p. 507.
- Werner Georg Kümmel: Introduction to the New Testament . 20th edition, Heidelberg 1980, p. 292f.
- Udo Schnelle: Introduction to the New Testament . 7th edition, Göttingen 2011, pp. 157–159.
- after Collart: Philippes . Paris 1937: "Colonia Iulia Augusta Philippensis".
- after Bormann, Philippi , Leiden 1995.
- Bormann, p. 19.
- Bormann, p. 30.
- Harrison: Polycarp's two epistles to the Philippians . 1936.