Epistle of Paul to the Romans
|Acts of the Apostles|
The Epistle of Paul to the Romans (short Romans , abbreviated Rom ) is a book of the New Testament of the Christian Bible . The letter was written in Corinth by Paul from Tarsus . The letter is one of those seven letters from Paul whose authenticity is hardly disputed. In it, Paul presents a draft of a fundamental theme of the four Gospels without, as in his other letters, referring to specific questions or conflicts in the recipient community with recommendations. As a presentation of the Christian message of salvation, this letter was highly valued in all epochs of church history.
Place and time of origin
The letter was probably written in Corinth in the winter of 54/55 or in the spring of 55 or 57 AD, where Paul stayed for three months during his third missionary trip . That speaks u. a. that the mentioned Gaius, who had taken Paul in at the time of the writing of the letter (16.23 EU ), is probably identical with the Corinthian Gaius, who was baptized by Paul according to 1 Cor 1.14 EU . Tertius wrote the letter on Paul's dictation (16:22 LUT ). Phoibe from the nearby port city of Kenchreai , which also had a Christian community, apparently brought the letter to Rome (16.1 EU ).
The exact time of writing is not mentioned in the letter, but it was apparently written after the collection for the Jerusalem early church was completed and Paul was about to leave for Jerusalem "to render service to the saints," that is, at the end of his second stay in Greece and during the winter before his last visit to Jerusalem (15.25 LUT ;. cf. Acts 19:21 LUT ; 20,2f.16 LUT ; 1 Cor 16.1-4 LUT ). Most theologians dated it to AD 55/56, possibly a year or two later.
In theological research it is controversial whether Phoebe was the bearer of Romans. Because Paul mentions in Rom 16 : 1-2 EU that Phoebe is coming to Rome and asks the Roman community for a warm welcome to Phoebe. It is uncertain whether she ever got there.
The Christianity was in Rome first among the many Diaspora - Jews and Jewish synagogue communities, which also proselytes , found followers joined and God-fearing Gentiles. But at the time of the Romans, Christians were no longer tolerated in the synagogues . Disputes in this regard seem to have led to the deportation of the Jews from Rome under Emperor Claudius , reported by Suetonius .
The church to which Paul wrote consisted of both Jewish and Gentile Christians . The church must have reached a considerable size and was divided into several, presumably independent, house churches (Rom. 16: 5, 10f.14f.). The fact that a third of the named women are women, such as the apostle Junia , could be an indication of the important role women played in the early Church of Rome. The fact that the parishioners had to pay taxes ( Rom 13.6 EU ) and the mostly not typically Roman names suggest that most of them were not Roman citizens , but peregrini , freedmen or slaves like "those from the house of ( Non-Christians) Narcissus who are in the Lord ”(16.12 LUT ).
In contrast to the addressees of his other letters, Paul had neither founded the Roman church nor knew it. Individual members such as Prisca and Aquila , who had left Rome because of the edict of Claudius, were already known to him from Greece. Since he intended to visit Rome on a further mission trip, which had the aim of the western Mediterranean area ( Rom 15,24 EU ), the letter served to prepare this visit. He dealt less with specific problems in the congregation than is the case in the other letters. Instead, he detailed his theology.
Paul sometimes uses the form of a diatribe , which was common in his time , when he writes as if he were answering heckling. The text is structured accordingly like a discussion. The form suggests that Paul suspected misunderstandings about his theology, which he wanted to prevent before coming to Rome himself. During the course of the letter, Paul changes the contact person several times: In part he seems to address the Jewish Christians, then to Gentile Christians and sometimes to the whole congregation.
Similar to Jesus, Paul works with the stylistic device of the parable , but no dependence can be recognized. For example, he often applies the image of the relationship between master and slave , which relates to the position of man towards sin or grace.
He frequently backs up his statements with quotations from the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, especially from the Book of Isaiah . The Greek Old Testament usually served as a basis . The form of the interpretation reveals its theological stamping both by Hellenistic Judaism and by the Pharisees in Jerusalem.
- 1,1–7 - prescript (sender - addressee - greeting)
- 1.8 to 17 - preface (thanks - Please - history - event - Target)
- Rom 1.18 EU - Rom 3.20 EU - All people are under sin
Röm 3,21 EU - Röm 5,21 EU - Salvation applies to all people, justification of believers (examples Abraham and Adam )
- 3.21-3.29 in the death of Jesus the righteousness of God is revealed (death on the cross or atonement - resurrection)
- 4 Justification using the example of Abraham ( Brit Mila - faith)
- 5 Hope of the Justified
- 8.31 - 8.39 God's love in Jesus Christ
Rom 6 : 1–23 EU - Baptism
- 6.1-7.6 Deliverance from sin
Rom 7,1 EU - Rom 8,39 EU - Liberated from the law - renewed by the spirit
- 7.7 - 7.25 Adam's guilt and hardship
- 8.1 - 8.30 salvation of believers
Rom 9,1 EU - Rom 11,36 EU - The role of the people of Israel in God's plan
- 9.1-9.29 Israel's election
- 9.30 - 11.2 Israel's stubbornness
- 11.13 - 11.30 Israel's salvation
- Rom 12,1 EU - Rom 15,13 EU - shaping the life of the community, answer of the believers
- Röm 15,14 EU - Röm 16,23 EU - End paränese and greetings
- Rom 16 : 25-27 EU - final hymn (not contained in all manuscripts)
“Because I am not ashamed of the gospel, it is God's power for the salvation of every believer, both the Jew first and the Greek. For God's righteousness is revealed in it out of faith to faith, as it is written: But the righteous will live by faith. "
This verse sums up the most important statements of Romans: Justification through faith in Jesus Christ applies to Jews and non-Jews alike. According to Paul, all people are guilty and responsible to God for their sins. Only through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ can humanity attain salvation. God is therefore at the same time the just judge and the one who makes just. In response to God's free, sovereign, and gracious saving act, people can be justified by faith.
Many of Paul's explanations in Romans find their forerunners in earlier Pauline letters, especially Galatians and the Corinthians. But in no other letter is the problem of sin and justification presented in such detail as here.
All people are sinners
At the beginning of his letter (1.18-3.20), Paul states that all people are sinners. The heathen did not know about the law, but they should have recognized and worshiped God from his creation as creator. Since they did not do that, but instead worshiped creatures as idols , “God gave them up in the wrong way, so that they do what is wrong” (1.28 LUT ). But the Jews also sinned, although they had the law as the standard for godly action. Thus Paul states that “no man can be righteous before God by the works of the law. For through the law comes knowledge of sin ”(3.20 LUT ).
In 5,12-21 LUT and 7,7-25 LUT Paul expands the topic of sin further. Sin is personified as the power to which man is subject. However, Paul does not absolve him of personal responsibility. Nor does he draft the thesis of an original sin , but derives sin from the first sin.
Justification by faith, not law
Instead, righteousness before God comes from God himself alone, through faith in his Son, Jesus Christ . As an example of the possibility of obtaining justice without the law, Paul mentions in chapter 4 Abraham , the progenitor of the Jewish people. Contrary to outward appearances, he trusted God's promise that he should become the father of many peoples ( Gen 17.5 EU ), and thus obtained the promise. The circumcision was not the cause of him by God awarded justice but only outward sign of God's covenant with Abraham. In the same way, Christians are supposed to believe that Jesus died and rose again for the forgiveness of their sins, and for the sake of this faith obtain righteousness with God (4:22–23 ESV ). This is why Paul calls Abraham the father of all believers, both Jews and Greeks.
In 5,12-21 LUT Paul contrasts Adam and Jesus Christ as antitype : As through the disobedience of one single, namely Adam, who took the forbidden fruit in the garden of Eden , death came upon all people, so the obedience of one liberates , Jesus Christ, all men from the power of sin.
He who believes in Jesus dies with Jesus through baptism and is thus withdrawn from the power of sin (6.3–11 ESV ). He lives in Jesus Christ and is free from the law (7,6 LUT ). So he has changed his domain and is no longer under law and death, but under grace. The Holy Spirit , who is in the Christian (8.1–17 LUT ), should now determine his life. In chapters 12 to 15, Paul describes what the Christian way of life looks like in concrete terms . The focus is on the commandment to love one's neighbor (13.8-10 LUT ). Jesus already presented this Christian ethic in his Sermon on the Mount.
The people of Israel as well as the coexistence of Jewish and Gentile Christians
One aspect of Romans that is particularly emphasized in the period after the Holocaust and that runs through the entire letter is the tense relationship between Christians of Jewish and non-Jewish origin in the early Christian communities. Some of the Christians who came from Judaism demanded that those Christians who had previously been pagans also allow themselves to be circumcised and obey the Jewish way of life, that is, obey the Sabbath and the dietary laws . Paul now states that Jews and Gentiles alike are sinners whom God saved through Jesus' death and resurrection. Therefore keeping these commandments is soteriologically irrelevant. Although the Torah applies to the Jews as a standard of godly life, it does not protect against sin (3.19–20 EU ; 7.23 EU ).
Chapters 9-11 in particular deal with the role of those Jews who do not believe in Jesus as the Messiah and in his resurrection. Paul, himself an "Israelite, of the family of Abraham, from the tribe of Benjamin " (11.1 LUT ), emphasizes that Israel's election, the covenant that God made with Abraham, and the Torah continue to be and irrevocably valid (9, 4–13 EU ). God only hardened some of the Jews in order to give the Gentiles the opportunity to hear from Jesus and to find faith (11: 11.25-32). Only then will Israel be saved. In the interpretation of this text there is a contradiction between the widespread traditional view that only a remnant of Israel, namely the Jews who profess Jesus as the Messiah, is meant, and the opinion held by recent research that all of Israel has been saved would. According to Klaus Wengst , this should happen regardless of the profession of Jesus Christ. Others like Berndt Schaller believe that the Jews would recognize the coming Jesus as the Messiah on Judgment Day .
As a consequence of Israel's special role in God's plan, Paul demands mutual acceptance from Jewish and Gentile Christians in the church. Although he calls those who cannot sit at a table without a guilty conscience with people who do not adhere to the Jewish dietary laws, weak, he asks the so-called strong to show consideration for their conscience (14.1 - 15.7). This corresponded to the comparison negotiated at the so-called Apostolic Council between Paul on the one hand and Peter and the Lord Brother James on the other.
List of charisms
A new theme begins with Rom 12: 1; Paul “appeals” to the Romans to make himself available to God, for God works with Christians and he does so through the charisms entrusted to Christians . This is followed by a list of seven charisms ( Rom 12.6–8 EU ), the second longest list in the NT (after 1 Cor 12.8–10 EU ). The next section begins with “real love” - this is perhaps the heading for the following activities, including: a. “Persevering in prayer”; these activities follow one another descriptively, not in command form ( Rom 12: 9-19 EU ).
Obedience to state power
A particularly controversial section of Romans is 13.1–7 EU . The authorities , by which not only the ruler, but also his officials etc. are meant, appears in it as the servant of God for the protection of the good and for the punishment of the bad. Everyone has to obey her. Paul does not problematize the form of government or the legitimacy of rule. For centuries, the text was therefore considered to justify any form of arbitrary state rule.
Today's exegetes often take into account the time of the writing of Romans. In view of the difficult political situation after the expulsion of the Jews from Rome, Paul may have called for loyalty to the Roman state. After all, the young Christian community was in need of protection.
Paul mentions three instances here that judge and restrict people: His conscience (as an inner court of justice), the authorities and God's judgment at the end.
The epistle to the Romans had an impact on church history like no other biblical book. The first commentary on the Epistle to the Romans , though - apart from a few Greek fragments - only received in a shortened version by Rufinus, comes from Origen . In it he refutes u. a. the teachings of Marcion , who sees Paul as an opponent of all law. Origen, on the other hand, emphasizes the continuity of the Old and New Testaments. The focus of his interpretation is the dialogue between Jews and Christians. For Origen, life in the spirit proves itself in the killing of the earthly body through asceticism .
Augustine of Hippo was converted to Christianity by reading 13.13–14 EU . From 5.12 EU he developed the doctrine of original sin , which became decisive for the further development of Christian doctrine. In the dispute with Pelagius , he established the polarity of grace and law from Romans.
However, the epistle to the Romans had its greatest impact during the Reformation . Martin Luther formulated his doctrine of justification mainly with reference to the letter to the Romans . While reading Romans, more precisely: when studying 1.16 + 17 LUT , he realized that only God's grace and not good works allow people to be righteous before God, which later became a central element of the Reformation. He found the central elements and thoughts of Christianity summarized in Romans and assessed the letter as so central that, even if one did not know any other biblical book, one would already be shown Christ and experience everything that was important. Philipp Melanchthon called it the compendium theologiae christianae , the summary of Christian theology. Calvin made a similar assessment . In the following centuries, a dogmatic and doctrinal understanding of Romans prevailed in the Protestant churches.
John Wesley , one of the co-founders of Methodism , experienced an internal conversion through Luther's preface to Romans . Karl Barth's commentary on the Romans influenced theology in the 20th century. There are a number of Roman epistle lectures by well-known theologians.
Critical literary considerations
Walter Simoni's (1990) literary-critical analysis of the Letter to the Romans led to the thesis that the entire work is not a uniform Pauline letter, but the result of an editing process, the three stages of which are reflected in the text and can thus be reconstructed:
- Paul, imprisoned in Rome , wrote his treatise, to which the sections Rom 1.18 EU to Rom 11.35 EU belonged.
- On the occasion of an internal dispute between Jewish and Gentile Christians about the food commandments and the observance of the Sabbath commandments, a Roman Jewish Christian transformed this treatise into a letter around the year 90 AD.
- After Markion's excommunication , this Pauline epistle was expanded to include the sections Rom 13.1-7 EU and Rom 16.17-20 EU and finally by a final editor (around 90 AD), who then added Rom 16.1-16 EU inserted, completed and brought into its current form.
According to this thesis, the introduction to Rom 1 : 1–17 EU is not Pauline either . Simonis' thesis is largely rejected by current New Testament research.
Jaroš (2008) comes to a similar conclusion to Simonis , who in a mathematical-statistical analysis of the letters to the Romans, Corinthians and Hebrews raises clear doubts about the sole original origin of the letters by Paul. He made use of the method developed by Wilhelm Fucks and Joseph Lauters (1965) ( quantitative literary studies or quantitative linguistics ).
- Horst Balz : Letter to the Romans. In: Theological Real Encyclopedia . 29 (1998), pp. 291-311 (comprehensive overview).
- Watson E. Mills: Romans. Bibliographies for Biblical Research, New Testament Series 6. Mellen Biblical Press, Lewiston et al. a. 1996, ISBN 0-7734-2418-0 .
- Michael Theobald : The Letter to the Romans. Results of research 294th Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2000, ISBN 3-534-10912-0 (good introduction to the state of research).
- Werner de Boor : Paul's letter to the Romans (= Wuppertal Study Bible . NT 7). Brockhaus, Wuppertal u. a. 12th edition 1995, ISBN 3-417-25007-2 (generally understandable , application-oriented)
- CEB Cranfield: A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans , 2 volumes. ICC. T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh 1979.
- Joseph A. Fitzmyer: Romans. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (= The Anchor Bible 33). Doubleday, New York et al. a. 1993, ISBN 0-385-23317-5 .
- Emil Fuchs : Paul's letter to the Romans . Edited by Claus Bernet and Klaus Fuchs-Kittowski. Hamburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-8300-8683-3 .
- Ernst Käsemann : To the Romans (= New Testament Manual, Volume 8a). Mohr (Siebeck), Tübingen, 4th reviewed edition, 1980.
- Walter Klaiber : The Romans (= The Message of the New Testament). Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn, 2nd edition, 2012, ISBN 978-3-7887-2378-1 (generally understandable)
- Heiko Krimmer : Letter to the Romans (= Edition C Bible Commentary New Testament 10). Hänssler, Neuhausen-Stuttgart 1996, (generally , application-oriented)
- Klaus Haacker : Paul's letter to the Romans (= theological hand commentary on the New Testament 6). Deichert, Leipzig 2nd edition 2002, ISBN 3-374-01718-5 .
- Gerhard Jankowski : The great hope. Paul to the Romans. An interpretation. Alektor, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-88425-069 8 (generally understandable , with a focus on the relationship between Jews and Gentiles)
- Eduard Lohse : The letter to the Romans (= critical-exegetical commentary on the New Testament 4). Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen 15th edition (1st edition of this interpretation) 2003, ISBN 3-525-51630-4 .
- Otto Michel , The Letter to the Romans (= critical-exegetical commentary on the New Testament 4). Göttingen 14th edition 1978.
- Rudolf Pesch : Letter to the Romans (= The New Real Bible 6). Echter-Verlag, Würzburg 3rd edition 1994, ISBN 3-429-00844-1 (generally understandable )
- Erik Peterson : The letter to the Romans (= selected writings 6). From the estate, ed. by Barbara Nichtweiß with the assistance of Ferdinand Hahn. Echter, Würzburg 1997, ISBN 3-429-01887-0 .
- Wilhelm Pratscher : A document makes history. The Epistle to the Romans of the Apostle Paul . In: Wiener Jahrbuch für Theologie 7, 2008, pp. 167–180, ISBN 978-3-8258-1596-7 .
- Adolf Pohl : The letter of Paul to the Romans (= Wuppertaler Studienbibel.NT supplementary sequence 6). Brockhaus, Wuppertal 1998, ISBN 3-417-25026-9 (generally understandable , application-oriented)
- Douglas J. Moo: The Epistle to the Romans (= The New International Commentary on the New Testament). Eerdmans, Grand Rapids 2nd ed. 1998, ISBN 0-8028-2317-3 .
- Heinrich Schlier : Der Römerbrief (= Herder's theological commentary on the New Testament 6). Herder, Freiburg i. Br. 2002.
- Eckhard J. Schnabel : The letter of Paul to the Romans. Chapters 1–5 (= Historical-Theological Interpretation (HTA)). SCM-Verlag 2015 (scientific and practice-oriented)
- Thomas R. Schreiner: Romans (= Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament 6). Baker Books, Grand Rapids 1998, ISBN 0-8010-2149-9 .
- Peter Stuhlmacher : The letter to the Romans (= The New Testament German 6). Göttingen 15th edition 1998, ISBN 3-525-51372-0 (generally understandable )
- Ulrich Wilckens : The letter to the Romans (= Evangelical-Catholic commentary on the New Testament 6). Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn u. a. 1978–1982 (most detailed commentary)
- Ben Witherington III (with Darlene Hyatt): Paul's Letter to the Romans. A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary . Eerdmans, Grand Rapids 2004, ISBN 0-8028-4504-5 .
- Dieter Zeller : The letter to the Romans . (Regensburg New Testament), 1985.
- Petrus Abelardus : Expositio in epistolam ad Romanos. Latin - German. Commentary on Romans , 3 volumes (= Fontes Christiani 26). Herder, Freiburg 2000.
- Karl Barth : The letter to the Romans . 15th ed. Theol. Verlag, Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-290-11363-9 .
- Johann Albrecht Bengel : Gnomon. Interpretation of the New Testament in ongoing notes . Vol. 2: Letters and Revelation. Stuttgart 8th edition 1970, pp. 1–130.
- Jean Calvin : The Letter to the Romans. A commentary (= Calvin study edition, 2 volumes, volume 5.1). 3rd edition Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2012, ISBN 978-3-7887-2100-8 .
- Jean Calvin : The Letter to the Romans. A commentary (= Calvin study edition, 2 volumes, Vol. 5.2). 2nd edition Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2010, ISBN 978-3-7887-2175-6 .
- Martin Luther : Preface to Romans. 1522 . Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen 1982.
- Origen : Commentarii in epistulam ad Romanos. Latin and German. Commentary on Romans , 6 volumes (= Fontes Christiani 2). Herder, Freiburg i. Br. 1990-1999.
- Adolf Schlatter : God's justice. A comment on Romans . 6th edition Calwer Verlag, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-7668-3113-5 .
- Gary W. Burnett: Paul and the Salvation of the Individual (= Biblical Interpretation Series 57). Brill, Leiden u. a. 2001, ISBN 90-04-12297-4 .
- William S. Campbell: Paul's Gospel in an Intercultural Context. Jew and Gentile in the Letter to the Romans (= Studies on the Intercultural History of Christianity 69). Lang, Frankfurt a. M. u. a. 1991, ISBN 3-631-42981-9 .
- Simon J. Gathercole: Where is Boasting? Early Jewish Soteriology and Paul's Response in Romans 1-5 . Eerdmans, Grand Rapids 2002, ISBN 0-8028-3991-6 .
- Volker Gäckle : The strong and the weak in Corinth and in Rome. On the origin and function of the antithesis in 1 Cor 8: 1-11: 1 and Rom 14: 1-15, 13 (= WUNT II / 200). Mohr (Siebeck), Tübingen 2004, ISBN 3-16-148678-1 .
- Anthony J. Guerra: Romans and the Apologetic Tradition. The Purpose, Genre, and Audience of Paul's Letter (= MSSNTS 81). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge u. a. 1995, ISBN 0-521-47126-5 .
- Friedrich-Wilhelm Horn : Letter to the Romans. WiBiLex, April 2011 (  on bibelwissenschaft.de)
- Gertrud Yde Iversen: Epistolarity and salvation history. A reception aesthetic interpretation of Romans (= interactive theology 2). Lit Verlag, Münster u. a. 2003, ISBN 3-8258-4928-7 .
- Bernhard Kaiser: Luther and the interpretation of the letter to the Romans. A theological and historical assessment (= Biblia et Symbiotica 9). Verlag für Kultur und Wissenschaft, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-926105-35-6 .
- Yeo Khiok-khng (Ed.): Navigating Romans through Cultures. Challenging Readings by Charting a New Course (= Romans through History and Cultures Series. T. & T). Clark Intl., New York et al. a. 2004, ISBN 0-567-02501-2 .
- Hermann Lichtenberger : The I of Adam and the I of humanity. Studies on the image of man in Romans 7 (= WUNT 164). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2004, ISBN 3-16-148276-X .
- Jacek Machura: The Pauline doctrine of justification. Positions of German-speaking Catholic exegetes in the interpretation of Roman letters of the 20th century (= Eichstätter Studies NF 49). Pustet, Regensburg 2003, ISBN 3-7917-1843-6 .
- Eduard Lohse : Theological ethics in the letter to the Romans of the Apostle Paul (= news of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen I. Philological-Historical Class 2004.6). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2004.
- John D. Moores: Wrestling with Rationality in Paul. Romans 1-8 in a New Perspective (= MSSNTS 82). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge u. a. 1995, ISBN 0-521-47223-7 .
- Lutz Pohle: The Christians and the State after Romans 13. A typological investigation of the more recent German-language interpretation of scriptures . Matthias Grünewald Verlag, Mainz 1984, ISBN 3-7867-1129-1 .
- Angelika Reichert: The letter to the Romans as a tightrope walk. An investigation into the drafting problem (= FRLANT 194). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-53878-2 .
- Michael Theobald: Studies on Romans (= WUNT 136). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2003, ISBN 3-16-148148-8 .
- Walter Simonis : The imprisoned Paul. The origin of the so-called Romans and other early Christian writings in Rome . Lang, Frankfurt a. M. 1990, ISBN 3-631-42024-2 .
- Shiu-Lun Shum: Paul's Use of Isaiah in Romans. A Comparative Study of Paul's Letter to the Romans and the Sibylline and Qumran Sectarian Texts (= WUNT II / 156). Mohr (Siebeck), Tübingen 2002, ISBN 3-16-147925-4 .
- Dierk Starnitzke: The structure of Pauline thinking in Romans. A linguistic-logical investigation (= BWANT 163). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-17-018531-4 .
- Krister Stendahl: The Legacy of Paul. A new perspective on Romans . Theological Publishing House, Zurich 2001, ISBN 3-290-17275-9 .
- Stanley K. Stowers: A Reading of Romans. Justice, Jews, and Gentiles . Yale University Press, New Haven et al. a. 1997, ISBN 0-300-07068-3 .
- Mikael Tellbe: Paul between Synagogue and State. Christians, Jews, and Civic Authorities in 1 Thessalonians, Romans, and Philippians (= Coniectanea biblica, New Testament series 34). Almqvist & Wiksell International, Stockholm 2001, ISBN 91-22-01908-1 .
- William O. Walker, Jr .: Interpolations in the Pauline Letters (= JSNTSup 213). Sheffield Academic Press, London a. a. 2001, ISBN 1-84127-198-5 .
- Klaus Wengst : "Rejoice, all of you peoples, with God's people!" Israel and the peoples as the theme of Paul - a walk through the letter to the Romans Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2008 (generally understandable)
- Angelika Winterer: Wrong sexuality - a controversial Pauline word. An exegetical study on Rom 1.26f. in the argumentation structure of Romans and in the cultural-historical-social-historical context (= EHS 23/810). Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2005 ISBN 3-631-53766-2 .
- Giorgio Agamben : The time that remains. A comment on Romans . Translated from the Italian by Davide Giuriato. edition suhrkamp 2453. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt a. M. 2006 ISBN 3-518-12453-6
- Klaus Berger : God's only olive tree. Reflections on Romans . Quell-Verlag, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-7918-1414-1 .
- Raniero Cantalamessa : Living as a new person. The spiritual message of Romans . Translated from the Italian by Ingrid Stampa . Herder, Freiburg i. Br. 2003, ISBN 3-451-28020-5 .
- Joachim Cochlovius : Life under the Sign of the Cross. An interpretation of Romans . Hänssler, Neuhausen-Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-7751-2651-1 .
- Walter Lüthi : The letter to the Romans . Brunnen-Verlag, Giessen u. a. 2001, ISBN 3-7655-3711-X .
- Gerd Theißen , Petra von Gemünden : The letter to the Romans. Accountability of a reformer. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2016, ISBN 978-3-525-51013-1 .
- Read Roman letters online (Luther 2017) These and over 40 other current and historical Bible translations at Bibleserver.com .
- Information on Romans at bibelwissenschaft.de
- Thomas Söding : God's grace and justice - The letter to the Romans. Script of the lecture in the summer semester 2009 
Notes and individual references
- see also List of Papyri of the New Testament and List of Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament
- Michael Theobald : The Letter to the Romans. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2000, ISBN 3-534-10912-0 , p. 27.
- Michael Theobald : The biblical women Junia and Phoebe. Without homeland rights in the Roman Catholic. Church? , in: Katholisches Sonntagsblatt No. 13, March 25, 2012. PDF Junia and Phoebe without home rights?
- Suetonius: Claudius 25.4; see. Acts 18,2 LUT .
- Peter Lampe : The city-Roman Christians in the first two centuries. Studies on social history. (WUNT 2/18), Mohr, Tübingen 1987; 2nd supplement A. ibid. 1989, ISBN 3-16-145422-7 , pp. 138-153.
- Theobald: Der Römerbrief , 2000, pp. 87-88.
- Armin D. Baum, Detlef Häußer, Emmanuel L. Rehfeld (ed.): The Jewish Messiah Jesus and his Jewish Apostle Paulus. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2016, ISBN 978-3-16-153872-8 , p. 305 f Digital reprint by the author with the permission of the publisher, accessed on April 24, 2016 
- Theobald: Der Römerbrief , 2000, p. 159.
- Klaus Wengst: “Rejoice, all you peoples, with God's people!” Israel and the peoples as the theme of Paul - a walk through the letter to the Romans . 2008, p. 137.
- Wengst: “Rejoice, all you peoples, with God's people!” 2008, pp. 185, 255–265.
- So u. a. Peter Stuhlmacher : The Letter to the Romans , p. 147
- Wengst: “Rejoice, all you peoples, with God's people!” 2008, p. 373.
- Berndt Schaller: The role of Paul in the relationship between Christians and Jews . In: Wilk / Wagner (ed.): Between Gospel and Election . WUNT 257; Tübingen 2009, pp. 1–36; P. 28.
- Franz Graf-Stuhlhofer : Basis preach. Basics of the Christian faith in sermons, plus a didactic homiletics for advanced students. VTR, Nuremberg 2010, chap. II, 16: “God works with us” (pp. 141–148). There also the explanation of the translation of parakaleo as “I appeal” instead of “I admonish”.
- Graf-Stuhlhofer refers to this: Basis preaching , 2010, pp. 145–148: “A Song of Songs for Love”.
- So James DG Dunn: Romans 13 : 1-7 - A Charter for Political Quietism? , Ex Auditu 2 (1986), 55-68, quoted in: World of the Bible. The portal for biblical interpretation (there are also further examples of recent interpretations of the text)
- Cf. Hubert Cancik : "All violence is from God". Römer 13 in the context of ancient and modern state doctrines , in: Burkhard Gladigow (Ed.): State and Religion , Düsseldorf 1981, pp. 53–74
- Klaus Berger : Commentary on the New Testament. Gütersloh 2011, p. 554.
- Sr. Theresia Heither OSB: Origen - a modern exegete .
- Augustine: Confessiones VIII 2, 2–4.
- Walter Simonis: The prisoner Paul. The origin of the so-called Romans and other writings in Rome. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main / Bern / New York / Paris 1990, ISBN 3-631-42024-2 , p. 9; 15th
- Walter Simonis: The imprisoned Paul. The origin of the so-called Romans and other writings in Rome. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main / Bern / New York / Paris 1990, ISBN 3-631-42024-2 , p. 82
- Karl Jaroš : The New Testament and its authors. An introduction (= UTB. 3087 Theology, Religion). Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-8252-3087-6 , pp. 153-154; 225-263
- Wilhelm Fucks, Joseph Lauter: Mathematical analysis of the literary style. In: Helmut Kreuzer , Rul Gunzenhäuser (ed.): Mathematics and poetry. Attempts on the question of an exact literary study. Nymphenburger, Munich 1965; 4th revised edition 1971, pp. 107-122.