The term Messiah ( Hebrew משיח Mashiach or Moshiach , Aramaic ظيهىتيه , in Greek transcription Μεσσίας , the Greek translated Χριστός Christós , Latinized Christ ) comes from the Tanakh and means " anointed one ". In the Bible this is above all the rightful, God-appointed King of the Israelites , whose throne, according to Jer 33,17 EU , should always be occupied by a follower of David for eternity . (also 2 Sam 7.13 EU ) From this arose since the prophet Isaiah (~ 740 BC) and especially since the end of the Israelite kingship (586 BC) the expectation of a future Messiah who would finally realize YHWH's will, bring all Jews together, free them from foreign rule, bring about a kingdom of justice and freedom.
The early Christianity moved into the biblical Messiah promises of Jesus of Nazareth and called him, according to the Greek Septuagint as Christos (Christ). In Christianity , the belief that Jesus is the anointed / Christ became the name of Jesus Christ . According to the New Testament , Jesus as Israel's Messiah is at the same time the reconciler between God and men and the Redeemer of the whole world.
In the Tanach , this sovereign title denotes the person chosen and authorized by God with special tasks for his people Israel . After the fall of the kingdom of Judah (586 BC), some biblical prophets also announced a savior and peace-maker of the end times , others announced that one day a descendant of King David would rule over Israel and Judah just like him as an anointed, rightful king would redeem the Jews from foreign rule. Over time, both ideas began to mix.
Maschiach always translates the Septuagint as Christos . After Judea came under Roman rule, people appeared there several times who claimed to be the Messiah, thus triggering unrest, which Flavius Josephus reports. Even Jesus of Nazareth was in the Gospels with the Greek title Christos referred, which was Latinized later to "the Christ." With the creed “ Jesus Christ ”, which finally became a proper name , the followers of Jesus expressed that God had started to fulfill the prophetic promises in this person. For this reason, it was very important to his followers that Jesus descended from King David in a direct male line. The fact that the term “Messiah” at the time of Jesus could (also) be interpreted as a claim to earthly power could be concluded from the fact that the Romans executed him as Rex Judaeorum because they believed him to be a political rebel. However, whether a messianic claim by Jesus and / or a corresponding reproach of his opponents was actually made during his lifetime is still controversial in New Testament science. Since Paul at the latest, Christians no longer understood the Messiah or Christ to be the prophesied liberator and king of the Jews, but the redeemer of all humanity.
The interpretations of the biblical term have developed further and further apart in the period that followed due to the mutual delimitation of Judaism and Christianity. The hope of final world peace linked to a human individual also had an impact on political ideologies in many cases (see also Messianism ).
In the Tanakh one finds either historical persons who exercised political power over the Jews and are called Maschiach (Messiah), but to whom there were no end-time expectations of salvation, or end-time expectations of salvation from a savior and mediator who is not called Mashiach . The first Mashiach was therefore Saul, the first king over Judah and Israel.
The term "anointed" comes from an ancient oriental ritual of anointing high officials. In the Bible, however, no king anoints a successor, minister, or vassal. Rather, through his prophets, God calls a previously unknown or oppositional person ( 1 Sam 16.13 EU ; 2 Sam 2.4 EU ; 2 Kings 9.3 EU and others) as the future ruler before his acclamation by the people. Accordingly, the term combination of anointed YHWHs denotes the rightful kings of Israel “chosen” by God ( Ps 2.2 EU ; Ps 18.51 EU ; Ps 20.7 EU ; Ps 132.10.17 EU ).
The prophet Samuel anoints Saul as a savior from the threat of the Philistines on behalf of God ( 1 Sam 10.1f EU ). After the first military successes, a lottery election confirmed Saul ( 1 Sam 10.21 EU ), after another a tribal assembly made him king ( 1 Sam 11.15 EU ). In his farewell speech, Samuel hands him over his theopolitical leadership position ( 1 Sam 12,3.5 EU ). Therefore Maschiach probably originally referred to a prophetically appointed politico-military leader who was supposed to take over and consolidate the earlier pre-state role of the spontaneous and situationally appearing, charismatic " judges " to save God's people from external enemies. God's spirit immediately overtook the judges ; now the gift of the spirit was regarded as a result of the anointing by a prophet ( 1 Sam 10.1.6 EU ; 1 Sam 16.13 EU ; 2 Sam 23.1f EU ), and was therefore an expression of an indirect theocracy .
In the southern kingdom of Judah , which according to the Tanach, unlike the northern kingdom of Israel, formed a stable royal dynasty, the anointing often appears before or at an accession to the throne ( 2 Sam 19.11 EU ; 1 Kings 1.39 EU ; 2 Kings 11.12 EU ). It placed the future king under God's protection and thus made him inviolable ( 1 Sam 24.7.11 EU ; 2 Sam 1.14ff EU ; Ps 89.21ff EU ), but also obliged him to obey God's will for Israel ( 1 Sam 9.16 EU ). The anointed leader was seen as an earthly servant and representative of God, who was supposed to care for the people of God, rule them fairly, protect them from foreign rule and free them from oppression. If he failed, God could "reject" him by a prophet announcing God's judgment, for example defeat against foreign rulers or replacement.
Maschiach means someone who is “authorized” to lead Israel according to God's will: Biblically, the king is always under God. Maschiach thus ultimately became the designation of the rightful, legitimate ruler over the Jews from a biblical point of view. Therefore, after the fall of the kingship, a foreign ruler, the Persian king Cyrus , could occasionally be called Mashiach , the executor of God's will for Israel ( Isa. 45.1 EU ).
During or after the Babylonian exile , the orphaned title was transferred to the high priest . These were previously also consecrated by anointing for their temple service, but not designated as “anointed ones ” ( Ex 29 EU ; Lev 4,3ff.16 EU ). But now they received political powers instead of the king, which is why in the most recent, at the earliest from 200 BC. Books from the Old Testament, which were written in the BC and were later included in the Tanach ( 1 Chr 29.22 EU . Cf. later also Sir 45.15 EU ; 2 Makk 1.10 EU ), the title Maschiach is consequently also used on them. But there was also criticism: The alleged desecration of the temple by Antiochus IV Epiphanes (around 170 BC) ended this tradition , at least in the opinion of the author of the book of Daniel : the temple will only be consecrated again in the future kingdom of God ( Dan 9 , 25 EU ).
Only very rarely are prophets anointed in the Bible ( 1 Kings 19:16 EU ); Isaiah ( Tritojesaja ) is figuratively referred to as being anointed by God's Spirit ( Isa 61.1 EU ). The patriarchs are also once called “prophets and anointed ones” in Ps 105,5 EU .
The end-time savior
In view of the end of kingship (586 BC), Israel's prophets not only announced its future renewal, but also increasingly an eschatological savior whose coming would change everything. For them this savior was also a person chosen by God, but in contrast to all previous leaders it was supposed to bring about a radical change towards the shalom (peace, salvation, good for all). Its task should not be temporary, limited and revocable, but final and eternal. These saviors were not intended to be political rulers. That is probably why the prophets avoided calling this figure Mashiach .
The prophecies of an end-time savior are:
- Isa 9,1–6 EU (the beginning of this promise can often be seen in Isa 8,23 EU )
- Isa 11 : 1-10 EU
- Wed 5.1-5 EU
- Hos 2.2f EU
- Jer 23,5f EU
- Hes 34,23f EU
- Hes 37.22ff EU
- Hag 2.22f EU
- Sach 3,8ff EU
- Sach 6,12 EU
- Sach 9,9f EU
At the same time, however, older texts relating to anointed kings were reinterpreted in and after the exile to refer to the future savior or supplemented with eschatological prophecies of salvation, including:
- the promise of the eternal succession to the throne of the David dynasty ( 2 Sam 7,12ff EU )
- the royal psalm Ps 2 EU
- Amos' promise of salvation ( Am 9.11f EU )
- the promise of a successor to David in the bileamer count ( Num 24.17 EU )
- the promise of a future ruler to the tribe of Judah ( Gen 49.10 EU ).
It is controversial whether or not
- the prophecy of Immanuel ( God with us , Isa 7,14ff EU ),
- the so-called Servant Songs in Deutero ( Isa 42.1-4 EU ; Jes 49.1 to 6 EU ; Jes 50.4 to 9 EU ; Jes 52.13 to 53.12 EU ) and
- the vision of the coming of the human-like after the final judgment ( Dan 7,13f EU )
to be related to the Savior and Judge of the end times. Judaism has always rejected the latter as an “ idiosyncrasy of Christian teaching” as, in its view, wrong.
- Isa 9: 1-6
- is considered the first real messianic prophecy. The prophet Isaiah proclaimed it around 730 BC. As good news to the people of Israel, oppressed by the Assyrians . He prophesies that the oppression will end soon, as in the day of Midian (Judge 7), and of the end of all tyranny (v.4)
"Every boot that comes with a clamor and every coat draped in blood will be burned and consumed by fire."
and the birth of a child whom God has determined to be the future ruler on David's throne. Isaiah gives him throne names that were not customary in Israel for earthly kings, but were reserved for God himself (v.5): the one who plans wonderful things , mighty God, eternal Father, prince of peace. His rule would reach far and bring peace without end ; it will be based on right and righteousness - observance of the Torah - and will therefore last from now on into eternity (v.6). Isaiah is known for the method of presenting many of his messages through the use of prophetic names (Isaiah 7: 3; 7:14; 8: 3). In the above verses he explains his message by formulating a prophetic name for King Hezekiah († 697 BC).
- Isa 11: 1-10
- carries out the reign of the Messenger of God based on the law of God: He will emerge from the stump of Jesse (v.1). Since God's spirit rests on this “scion”, it will unite all the virtues of king such as wisdom , insight, determination, knowledge and fear of God (v.2). These would enable him to judge the poor righteously, regardless of appearance and rumor, but to beat the violent criminals : only with the rod (scepter) of his mouth , i.e. with the judgment itself (v.4). This justice will transform the whole creation and lift the curse of Gen 3: Wolves and sheep, children and poisonous snakes live together in harmony (v.6ff). The whole earth will know God, so that nobody does wrong anymore (v.9). The ruler will stand there as a sign that moves the peoples to ask about God (v.10).
The historical origin and occasion of these promises of salvation are unclear. There are no ancient models, as the great oriental empires proclaimed god-like sovereign titles to exaggerate and secure an existing kingdom, not as an unexpected hope for the future for an impotent, defenseless people of the oppressed. A declaration from the promise of perpetual succession to the throne to David (2 Sam 7,12ff) falls short: Isaiah's “Prince of Peace” is neither a new conqueror and great ruler like King David nor a god. Because he no longer wages war, but only rules after God himself has eliminated the violence of war by enforcing and maintaining God's holy legal order without his own power. Recourse to David's father Jesse reveals criticism of the David's dynasty, which appears here as a cut tree, although it still existed.
Extra-Biblical Messiah Expectations
Between about 200 BC In AD 100, only persons from pre-state salvation history and the whole people of God Israel, but no longer kings were called anointed ones : not even King David, not even where his anointing with “holy oil” is mentioned ( Ps 151 : 4ff EU ). This shows a distrust in applying the title to figures in politically experienced history. "In the time of Jesus and the early Christians, the only one who can be described as anointed one is someone who is unique and unaffected by God."
The Maschiach title is documented in 17 of the Dead Sea Scrolls (written 250 BC - 40 AD). There it was only referred once to a future Scion of David (4Q PB), otherwise always to a future high priest. 1QS IX, 9–11 ( congregation rule ) speaks of the messiahs of Aarons and Israel in the plural: This linked to the promise of Zechariah by the two harmoniously ruling oil sons Zech 4.14 EU and shows a theological opposition to the Hasmoneans ruling at that time . Their regents united priestly and royal office, but without being anointed, i.e. without being legitimized by God. They, the Herodians, and their opponents striving for Jewish rule called themselves not anointed but king . Even high priests of that time were not anointed.
The Psalms of Solomon 17 and 18 (largely written in the second half of the 1st century BC) contain the most comprehensive early Jewish description of the expected work of an anointed of the Lord as the future king of salvation and descendant of David, who drove the sinful heathen from Palestine, but at the same time triggers the pilgrimage to Zion . He himself recognizes God as his King, is instructed by him and places his trust exclusively in him. In his work he is dependent on God, who has made him strong, wise and just with holy spirit (PsSal 17: 32-40).
The apocalyptic pictorial discourses of the Ethiopian Book of Enoch (approx. 50 AD) connect two mediator figures promised in the Tanach unbalanced next to each other: the savior on the royal throne of David (Isa 9) and the man-like from heaven (Dan 7), without him "Son of David" to call.
In the book of 4th Ezra (around 100 AD) the Messiah is a savior for a time. For the faithful who have survived end-time catastrophes, he creates 400 years of peace, at the end of which he, together with all people, dies before a new world time awakens (4 Ezra 7: 28-29).
The Aramaic biblical manuscripts from the 2nd century ( Targumim ) make explicit references to the Messiah of the Tanach - probably also under the impression of Christian tradition. For example, “Scion” is translated into “Messiah” in Zech 3, 8 EU , and the servant of God Deutero-Isaiah is identified with the Messiah, even Isa 53.5 EU is rewritten with the reference to a new building of the temple “And he will build the sanctuary that had been profaned by our debts and given up by our sins. "
In Syrian Baruch (early 2nd century AD) the Messiah is assigned two meanings. On the one hand, after his return to God, the righteous come to new life in unanimity (syrBar 30: 1ff), on the other hand, with his accession to the throne at the end of an era of humiliation he initiated, an era of harmonious Sabbath rest begins (SyrBar 73: 1f).
In the post-biblical Jewish writings, Mishnah and Talmud , as well as in prayers and liturgies, the Messiah hope is given an important place. The eighteen supplication prayer asks with the 14th petition for the restoration of the temple city of Jerusalem and the throne of David. The 15th request is:
"Let the scion of your servant David soon sprout up, raise his scepter through your liberation, for we hope for your liberation all day long."
A similar request is also found in the kaddish . In the morning prayer of the Sabbath liturgy it says:
"Nothing is beside you, our Redeemer, in the days of the anointed, and none is like you, our deliverer, when you animate the dead."
Here it becomes clear that the messianic dispensation still falls into human history, while the resurrection of the dead remains God's business alone. According to the 1st commandment, the savior for Jews can only be a human being, not a god, part of God or demigod . Even after his appearance he cannot be worshiped, since prayer is due only to the one, only God.
After negative experiences with many Israelite kings and the fall of kingship and the first temple, the meaning of the term shifted: The anointed one would be a new teacher, similar to Moses and Elijah . The presumed Qumran community already knew such a teacher of justice with ultimate wisdom and assertiveness. The Zealots expected a political liberator for the Jews from the foreign rule of the Greeks and Romans. Perhaps the designation of Simon Bar Kochba as the "son of light" expressed such a Messiah expectation. After the fall of the Second Temple in AD 70, this political Messiah expectation resigned.
Systematisation of the Messia expectation
In Judaism, the Mashiach is generally expected to be human and not divine and to fulfill certain criteria and tasks that will fundamentally change the world forever. If a person appearing or revered or presumed to be Maschiach does not meet one of these conditions and dies, he cannot be recognized as the Maschiach. He must be according to various biblical statements
- Being a Jew ( Dtn 17.15 EU ); ( Num 24.17 EU )
- belong to the tribe of Judah ( Gen 49.10 EU )
- a direct male descendant (son after son) of King David ( 1 Chr 17.11 EU ; Ps 89.29-38 EU ; Jer 33.17 EU ; 2 Sam 7.12-16 EU ) and be King Solomon ( 1 Chr 22.10 EU ; 2 Chr 7.18 EU )
- gathering the Jewish people from exile in Israel ( Isa 11.12 EU ; Isa 27.12f EU )
- rebuild the Jewish temple in Jerusalem ( Wed 4.1 EU )
- the World Peace bring ( Isa 2.4 EU ; Isaiah 11.6 EU ; Mi 4.3 EU )
- bring all of humanity to recognize the one and only God and to serve him ( Isa 11,9 EU ; Isa 40,5 EU ; Zef 3,9 EU ).
“And my servant David will reign over them, and they will be a shepherd for all of them, and they will walk in my judgments and keep and do my statutes. They will live in the land that I gave to Jacob, my servant ... I want to make a covenant of peace with them, which will last for them forever, I want to keep and increase them, and I will place my sanctuary in their midst Eternity, my abode will be among them, and I will be their God and they will be my people. And from this the peoples will see that it is I who sanctify Israel, if my sanctuary remains in their midst, forever. "
According to the Jewish view, in contrast to Christianity, the coming of the Messiah is still ahead.
In the New Testament (NT) the Greek title Christos occurs 531 times, the Greek Aramaic-Hebrew term Messiah occurs twice (Jn 1.41; 4.25). It appears in all NT scriptures, but is missing in the Logia source and in the apocryphal Gospel of Thomas . Neither report of Jesus' death and resurrection .
The title appears particularly often in the Passion Reports of the Gospels and in Paul's letters . These connect it above all with Jesus' salvation death and at the same time relate it to the biblical expectation of salvation, although this did not know a suffering Messiah (1 Cor 15: 3)
"Christ died for us according to the scriptures."
Birth and childhood of Jesus
- According to the Gospel of Matthew , Jesus was born as the son of David in Bethlehem , from where, according to Mi 5.1, the future Savior of Israel was to come. After fleeing to Egypt , after the death of Herod, Joseph returned with Mary and the child to the land of Israel and settled in Nazareth ( Mt 2,1-23 EU ):
"For what was said through the prophets was to come true: He will be called a Nazora."
- However, this promise does not exist in the Tanakh. Nazareth may not even exist at the time of the prophets. Christian exegetes here sometimes find an allusion to the "offspring (Hebrew nezer ) Isais" - David's father - from Isa 11.1 (e.g. standard translation ).
"The Redeemer will come from Zion, who will turn away the ungodly nature of Jacob."
- For Paul, through his vicarious atoning death on the cross , Jesus freed people from the threatening curse of the Torah, which threatens everyone who does not fully fulfill it (Gal 3:13). It is enough, therefore, to believe in Jesus and to confess to him in order to be saved. The Hebrew wording of the quote in the Tanakh contradicts this:
"But a Redeemer will come for Zion; for those in Jacob who repented from apostasy, saith the Lord."
- According to Jewish belief, the Maschiach will therefore not relieve the believing, observant Jews of the sins, but when they turn away from their sins, then he will come.
- In the Gospel of John , the idea of the Messiah as King of Israel (John 1:49) is viewed as inadequate. Behind this is the secret that Jesus is actually the preexisting Son of God . Earthly-royal expectations of the guarantee of basic needs are rejected ( Joh 6,15 EU ), and Jesus describes himself to Pilate as the king of truth, whose kingdom is not of this world and therefore non-violent ( Joh 18,36f. ELB ). The idea of the Messiah is spiritualized and - similar to Paul and the other Gospels - connected with the idea of redemption through death on the cross: Faith in Jesus as the Christ gives eternal life (Jn 20:31).
Whether Jesus called himself Messiah is controversial. The Gospels reveal the following
- An expectation of the Messiah was brought to Jesus: by John the Baptist ( Mt 11.3 EU : the coming ), by his followers (Mk 8.29: the Christ ), by the poor in the people (Mk 10.47: Son of David ; Mk 11 , 10: Rule of David ) and from opponents (Mk 14,61: the Christ, Son of the Blessed One ).
- The proclamation of the kingdom of God and its presence in healings aroused messianic hopes (cf. Mt 11: 3–5). These need not have arisen from a misunderstanding, but the “Davidic kingship of the end times” was understood in the apocryphal Psalm 17 of Solomon as the liberation of Israel from enemies, upheaval of social conditions, just rule and “earthly representation of the kingship of God”. Similar ideas are not only shown by Luke's possibly secondary concept of Messiah, which is concentrated in the Magnificat . While especially in the tradition of Rudolf Bultmann Jesus' work was understood as apolitical, since the 1970s at least some of the mentioned references to a (Davidic) kingship have often been considered authentic.
- However, Jesus only expected the establishment of the kingdom of God from God, not from the use of military means (despite Lk 22.36 EU ). If the entry into Jerusalem (Mk 11: 1-10) is viewed as historical, it was perhaps , according to Ed Parish Sanders, a conscious claim by Jesus to the kingship, similar to what Simon bar Giora later made. Unlike him, however, with the donkey ride, Jesus would have referred to the powerless Messiah of disarmament in Sach 9 : 9f. EU reminds. The washing of the feet also represents a serving king, and there are corresponding teachings to the disciples ( Mk 10.42ff. EU ).
- According to Mk 8.29, Simon Peter , one of the twelve first called disciples of Jesus, already known as the Messiah during his lifetime. Peter reproached him for the subsequent announcement of suffering and death (Mk 8: 31f). After Jesus' death, the Emmaus disciples expressed disappointment that he had not brought the hoped-for earthly liberation of Israel (Lk 24:21).
- In the mouth of Jesus the title appears only rarely and indirectly (Mk 9.41; Mt 16.20; Lk 4.41). According to Mark's concept of the Messiah's secret , he forbade the demons to proclaim him as the Son of God (Mk 1.34; 3.11f). His disciples were also supposed to keep his messianism a secret until the resurrection (Mk 8.30; 9.9). Only in his answer to the Messiah question of the high priest Kajaphas during the nightly interrogation before his crucifixion did he introduce himself as the Messiah (Mk 14,62):
"It is I, and you will see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of power and coming with the clouds of heaven."
Accordingly, he did not understand his work as a Davidic national kingship, but in the sense of the apocalyptic of the Book of Daniel as an anticipation and affirmation of the promise of the coming of the human-like after the final judgment , which would free from all - not only Roman - tyranny. His execution by the Romans on the Jewish Passover feast speaks for a Messiah claim by Jesus . According to Mk 15.26, Pontius Pilate had a placard placed on the cross of Jesus with the reason for his death sentence: the King of the Jews (cf. Jn 19:19; INRI ).
According to the Gospels, some of the first disciples saw Jesus in a new guise as living after his death and became so certain that God raised him from the dead and exalted him to his right hand. Among other things, following the messianic Psalm 110 , this was understood as a confirmation of the appointment of Jesus as the royal priestly judge of the end times.
New Testament research has long held a radically skeptical view that Jesus was made Messiah only after Easter because of the belief in the resurrection. Today, an at least implicit claim to the Messiah by Jesus is usually accepted, explaining the reported reactions to his work - the confession of Peter, the pilgrims' jubilation when entering Jerusalem, the death sentence of the Sanhedrin and the order to execute Pilate. It is taken into account that the entire NT tradition comes from early Christians who were convinced of Jesus' resurrection and messianicism. Even with the symbolic temple cleansing , which is mostly regarded as historical today, Jesus may have made an implicit Messiah claim, since apocryphal Jewish texts from the Dead Sea (e.g. PsSal 17:30; 4Q flor 1: 1–11) from the Messiah a future cleansing and New construction of the temple expected. Occasionally, starting points for the later theology of a suffering Messiah are even seen here: Jesus provoked the rejection of his call to return associated with the temple action and the temple word about future destruction ( Mk 13.1f. EU ) and thus delivered himself to his execution. Because he believed that God's saving act could only prevail if his addressees failed to turn back through “his atoning death as an eschatological substitute for the atonement cult of the temple”.
With the equation Jesus (is) Christ , which has become a proper name, Christians acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah expected by Israel, who was sent into the world as the Son of God by the Father. Jesus accepted the title Messiah, but clarified its meaning more precisely: “Coming down from heaven” (Jn 3, 13), crucified and then risen, he is the suffering servant of God who gives his life “as a ransom for many” (Mt 20 , 28).
The term Son of God, which appears in the NT next to the Messiah title, and which in the Tanakh stands for the entire people of Israel chosen from slavery and the desert era (Hos 11: 1), was further developed in patristicism into a doctrine of the Trinity and Trinity . With this the separation from Judaism was finally completed and dogmatically fixed. At the same time, Christian theology adhered to the unity of the Old and New Testaments: The God of Israel is and remains as the Father of Jesus Christ the creator and redeemer of the whole world (called Salvator mundi in Latin ).
Christianity sees the promises fulfilled in a different sense than they were meant according to the Jewish interpretation in the Tanakh and has accordingly changed the content and meaning of the concept of the Messiah. According to Pope Benedict XVI. Jesus himself is the “renewed Torah”, who fulfilled God's will revealed in the Torah and made it possible to keep it through grace . The focus is now on the vicarious act of salvation of Jesus Christ, which reconciled people to God and brought about justification . Traditionally, this was contrasted with a Jewish idea that salvation was achieved by fulfilling the Torah commandments . Today it is widely recognized - not only in a New Perspective on Paul - that the covenant of God with his people is also at the beginning in Judaism . This then demands obedience to the law, but even in the case of transgressions it is possible to remain in the covenant by means of atonement provided for in the Torah. According to this, there is no difference in the ethical-practical attitude, but only in their symbolic justification.
The first Christians expected the second coming, the return (Greek parousia ) of the Messiah Jesus, the end of the world and the judgment of the world in the near future . This hope was expressed in the final writing of the New Testament canon, the apocalyptic revelation of John (cf. Matth. 24).
The early Church saw itself as the heir to the promises to Israel and Judaism as a rejected, outdated religion destined to merge into Christianity. However, since the Holocaust, this substitution theology has gradually given way to a new approach in the major churches , in which Christian theologians recognize the Jewish faith in the Messiah as an independent, unfulfilled expectation shared by Christians (such as the Catholic theologian Johann Baptist Metz and the Protestant theologian Jürgen Moltmann ).
Even for liberal Christians, the confession of Jesus as the Christ of God cannot be given up, which they do not interpret as an exclusive opposition, but rather as a bridge to Judaism that is obligatory for solidarity and dialogue. German Jewish theologians in particular, such as Martin Buber or Pinchas Lapide , recognized Jesus as the just Jewish teacher of the Torah, who made many people from the peoples believe in Israel's God.
Buber is said to have suggested to Christians with a wink:
“We are all waiting for the Messiah. They believe he has already come, has gone again and will come back some day. I believe that it hasn't come yet, but that it will come at some point. So I'm going to make you a suggestion: let's wait together. Then when he comes, we just ask him: have you been here before? And then I hope to stand very close to him to whisper in his ear: 'Don't answer'. "
For many believers of both religions, however, the contradictions of belief remain mutually irreconcilable: the biblical Maschiach was never presented as someone who should be worshiped. According to Deut 13: 2-6, whoever leads people to believe in people as gods, is subject to God's wrath. According to Mk 16:16 a. a. whoever does not believe in Jesus Christ will be condemned at his return in the final judgment. In particular, some evangelical Christians make the return of Christ dependent on a previous conversion of all people to Jesus Christ, and ultimately of all Jews.
In the Koran , Jesus of Nazareth is mentioned as Isa bin Maryam (Jesus, son of Mary) and asالمسيح / al-Masīḥ , referred to as "the Messiah" (the anointed). (Sura 3: 44-49 , 4: 170-174 ). According to the Koran, however, Jesus is neither the Son of God nor part of a trinity , but “merely” a prophet and a servant of God.
In Islam , or in Muslim popular belief, due to the tradition of Islamic scholars ( Alim ), the expectation is widespread that Jesus will come again on Judgment Day against the unbelievers and, together with the descendant of Muhammad, Mahdi , will defeat the Antichrist . However, the various faiths in Islam differ slightly in their views.
- Messiah , an oratorio by Georg Friedrich Handel .
- Messiah , an epic by Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , which depicts the passion and resurrection of Christ in twenty chants and 20,000 verses.
- The Messiah , an oratorio by Georg Philipp Telemann based on texts by Klopstock.
- Hebrew Bible
- Messiah and Messianism. In: Concilium. International journal of theology. Ostfildern-Ruit 29.1993. content ( memento from June 23, 2008 in the Internet Archive )) (
- Roger Liebi : The promised savior. Messianic prophecy - its fulfillment and historical authenticity. ( Memento from October 1, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Schwengeler, Berneck 1983, Beröa, Zurich 1994 (PDF online; 542 kB).
- Hartmut Gese : The Messiah. In: On Biblical Theology. Old Testament Lectures. Contributions to Protestant theology. Vol. 78. Kaiser, Munich 1977, pp. 128–151, Mohr, Tübingen 1983. ISBN 3-16-144700-X .
- Werner H. Schmidt : Old Testament Faith in its History. Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2004 (9th edition), pp. 207–215. ISBN 3-7887-0655-4 ( The Messiah ).
- Ernst-Joachim Waschke : The anointed (= studies on Old Testament theology: supplements to the journal for Old Testament science, 306). Walter de Gruyter, 2001, ISBN 3-11-017017-5 .
- New Testament
- Jürgen Moltmann : The way of Jesus Christ. Christology in Messianic Dimensions. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 1989, ISBN 3-579-01931-7 .
- Carsten P. Thiede : The uncomfortable messiah. Who Jesus really was. Brunnen-Verlag, Giessen 2006, ISBN 3-7655-3876-0 .
- Otfried Hofius : Is Jesus the Messiah? Theses. In: The Messiah. Yearbook of Biblical Theology. Vol. 8. Neukirchener Verl., Neukirchen-Vluyn 1993, ISBN 3-7887-1465-4 , pp. 103-130.
- Wilhelm Breuning (Ed.): The Messiah. Yearbook for Biblical Theology (JBTh), Volume 8, Neukirchener Verlag 1993, ISBN 3-7887-1465-4 .
- Jewish Messiah Expectations
- Henri Cazelles: Old Testament Christology. On the history of the Messiah idea. Einsiedeln 1983, ISBN 3-265-10262-9 .
- Nathan Peter Levinson : The Messiah. Kreuz, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-7831-1333-4 .
- J. Neusner, W. Green, E. Frerichs (Eds.): Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of Christian Era. Cambridge 1987, ISBN 0-521-34146-9 (English).
- Reinhold Mayer: Was Jesus the Messiah? History of the Messiahs of Israel in three millennia. Bilam, Tübingen 1998, ISBN 3-933373-01-8 .
- Israel Knohl: The Messiah Before Jesus: The Suffering Servant of the Dead Sea Scrolls. University of California Press, 2001, ISBN 0-520-23400-6 (English).
- Ludwig (Lajos) Venetians: The Messiah Hope of Judaism. Metzler, Peter W., Duisburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-936283-11-2 .
- Jewish-Christian messiah dialogue
- Clemens Thoma : The Messiah Project. Theology of Jewish-Christian Encounters. Pattloch, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-629-00626-4 .
- Hans Huebner: The "Messiah of Israel" and the Christ of the New Testament. in: Kerygma and Dogma. Göttingen 27/1981, pp. 217-240 .
- Ekkehard W. Stegemann (ed.): Messiah ideas among Jews and Christians. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-17-012202-9 .
- Martin Karrer : The anointed. The basics of the title of Christ. Vandenhoeck + Ruprecht, Göttingen 1997, ISBN 3-525-53833-2 .
- Joseph Jacobs, Moses Buttenwieser: Messiah. In: Isidore Singer (Ed.): Jewish Encyclopedia . Funk and Wagnalls, New York 1901-1906.
- Jona Lendering: Messiah (historical article, English)
- Jonathan Magonet: Jewish Messianic Expectations
- Siegfried Kreuzer: Messianism / Messiah (pdf 2004; 74 kB)
- The Messiah in Judaism
- Ernst-Joachim Waschke: Messiah (AT). In: Michaela Bauks, Klaus Koenen, Stefan Alkier (Eds.): The Scientific Biblical Lexicon on the Internet (WiBiLex), Stuttgart 2006 ff.
- Sebastian Hollstein: Heilande - there can't be just one , Spektrum.de, March 30, 2018
- Hans Hermann Henrix: “Are you the one to come, or should we expect someone else?” (Mt 11: 2). Our faith in Christ and the Jewish hope for the Messiah
- Moderamen of the Reformed Covenant: We and the Jews - Israel and the Church. Guiding principles in the encounter between Jews and Christians (May 12, 1990)
- Klaus-Peter Lehmann: The new strategy of the Messiah according to the New Testament: Salvation of Israel from its enemies through reconciliation of the peoples in the body of Christ ( Memento from December 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Dieter Zeller: Messiah / Christ. In: Michaela Bauks, Klaus Koenen, Stefan Alkier (Eds.): The Scientific Biblical Lexicon on the Internet (WiBiLex), Stuttgart 2006 ff.
- Karl Heinrich Rengstorf: Theological glossary of terms for the New Testament . Ed .: Lothar Coenen. 9th edition. R. Brockhausverlag, Wuppertal 1993, ISBN 3-417-24800-0 , Χριστός, p. 760 : “Christ is the Latin form of the Greek Χριστός, which in turn is the Greek equivalent of aram in LXX and NT. is meschīcha. This in turn corresponds to the Hebrew māschiach and denotes someone who has been solemnly anointed to an office. "
- Rabbi Tovia Singer on Isaiah 53: Who is the Suffering Servant?
- Tovia Singer: Rabbi singer answers frequently asked questions . 2012 Outreach Judaism. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Larry Levey: The Scriptural Messiah . Jews for Judaism. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Gerald Sigal: Suffering Servant . Jews for Judaism. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Gerald Sigal: Who is the child in Isaiah 9: 5–6 . Jews for Judaism. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Werner H. Schmidt: Old Testament Belief , Neukirchener Verlag, 4th edition 1982, p. 211.
- Martin Karrer: Jesus Christ in the New Testament , 1998, p. 137.
- MG Abegg, The Messiah at Qumran , 1995, pp. 125-144.
- Gerd Theißen, Annette Merz: Der Historische Jesus S. 464.
- Jostein Ådna: Jesus' position on the temple: The temple action and the temple word as an expression of his messianic mission (Scientific research on the New Testament 2), Mohr / Siebeck, Tübingen 2000, ISBN 3-16-146974-7 , p. 65f.
- 4th Ezra
- Jostein Ådna: Jesus' position on the temple: The temple action and the temple word as an expression of his messianic mission (Scientific research on the New Testament 2), Mohr / Siebeck, Tübingen 2000, ISBN 3-16-146974-7 , p. 78 f., 81 ff.
- Syrian Baruch
- Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan: The Real Messiah . Jews for Judaism. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- Aryeh Kaplan: The real Messiah? a Jewish response to missionaries , New ed. Edition, National Conference of Synagogue Youth, New York 1985, ISBN 1-879016-11-7 .
- Well-known NT theology and Wolfgang Stegemann: Jesus und seine Zeit , 2010, ISBN 978-3-17-012339-7 , pp. 62–66.
- J. Weiß: The Sermon of Jesus from the Reiche of God , Göttingen 3 1964, p. 9; quoted from Wolfgang Stegemann: Jesus and his time. 2010, p. 344f. “Misunderstanding” refers to Theißen / Merz 3 2001, p. 402.
- W. Stegemann, 2010, pp. 338-345.
- Peter Stuhlmacher: Characteristic forms of the proclamation of Jesus , in: Biblical Theology of the New Testament Volume 1: Foundation: From Jesus to Paulus , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1992, ISBN 3-525-53595-3 , p. 84.
- Jostein Ådna: Jesus' position on the temple , pp. 425-430 and 440.
- KKKK, No. 82, KKK 436-440
- Wolfgang Stegemann: Jesus und seine Zeit , 2010, pp. 220f., 263-266, 275f.
- quoted from Reinhold Boschki, Dagmar Mensink (ed.): Culture alone is not enough. The work of Elie Wiesel - Challenge for Religion and Society , Münster 1998, p. 39; Sources given by Hanspeter Heinz: Result of a research stay in the USA. On the Jewish declaration “Dabru Emet”. A Jewish Statement on Christians and Christianity ( Memento from July 9, 2011 in the Internet Archive )