|Hebrew ( עִבְרִית)|
Israel , State of Palestine Poland Global liturgical language for Judaism
|Official language in||
Recognized minority language in Poland
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
heb (New Hebrew), hbo (Biblical, Rabbinical Hebrew)
The basis of all later forms of development of Hebrew is the language of the holy scriptures of the Jews , the Hebrew Bible , whose source scripts were written during the 1st millennium BC. And were continuously edited and expanded and finally codified around the turn of the ages. (Old) Hebrew is therefore often equated with the term “Biblical Hebrew”, even if this is less based on linguistic history than literary history: Old Hebrew as the language of most of the Old Testament. In the Bible becomes languageשְׂפַת כְּנַעַן sefat kena'an (“language of Canaan”, Isa 19:18) orיהודית jehudith (“Jewish”; Isa 36:11 2Ki 18:26 + 28 2Chr 32:18 Neh 13:24). After the destruction of the Jerusalem temple by Nebuchadnezzar II in 586 BC. Chr. And the subsequent Babylonian exile was the local official language Aramaic among the Jews in circulation, so that the Hebrew henceforth in competition was to Aramaic and many influences absorbed by it.
After the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in AD 70, the center of Jewish life shifted from Judea to Galilee and into exile. From around the year 200 Hebrew ceased to be an everyday language. It remained a sacred language , but was never used exclusively for liturgical purposes, but also for the preparation of philosophical, medical, legal and poetic texts, so that the vocabulary of Middle Hebrew could expand over the centuries. It is also attested that the scattered Jewish communities used Hebrew to communicate with one another.
The renewal of Hebrew with the aim of establishing it as the Jewish national language in Palestine began in the late 19th century on the initiative of Eliezer Ben-Jehuda . In 1889 he founded the “Council of the Hebrew Language” in Jerusalem, the forerunner of the Academy for the Hebrew Language , with the aim of reviving the language of the Bible, which has hardly been spoken for about 1700 years. In the period that followed, modern Hebrew ( Ivrit ) emerged, the differences between it and Biblical Hebrew being extremely small in terms of typeface and morphology , but sometimes serious in terms of syntax and vocabulary.
There are three levels of development: Old, Middle and New Hebrew. There is also a more literary division into Biblical Hebrew, Mixed-Near Hebrew, Medieval Hebrew and Modern Hebrew. This classification is common in academic Hebrew classes.
Ancient Hebrew is closely related to the Phoenician-Punic language as well as the other Semitic varieties of the Near Eastern Mediterranean coast; most linguists today consider Canaanite (with Hebrew as one of several dialects) and Phoenician to be the same language. From a linguistic point of view, (Old) Hebrew is a southern Canaan dialect of the 1st millennium BC. BC, which was in a dialect continuum with the Canaanite languages Moabite , Ammonite , Edomite, Ugarite , Phoenician , etc. The oldest known Hebrew text is the Gezer calendar from 925 BC, written on a clay tablet . BC, which is exhibited today in Istanbul. There is older evidence of the related dialects.
The most famous work in ancient Hebrew is the Jewish Bible, the Tanach (called the Old Testament in Christian usage ). The Dead Sea Scrolls are among the oldest surviving copies of Biblical texts . They were found in Qumran in 1947 and date from the 3rd century BC. They show numerous differences to the codified Jewish Bible today and also include writings that are not included in the canon of the Jewish Bible.
Middle Hebrew is the language of late Biblical texts as well as the Hebrew parts of rabbinical literature and medieval Jewish literature. It was largely shaped by the Hebrew- Aramaic diglossia relationship, which was decisive from the Babylonian exile to the end of the rabbinical epoch.
As Imperial Aramaic, Aramaic became the administrative language in the Persian Empire . The core area of this language was previously the Syrian region around Damascus. For about 700 years, Aramaic established itself as a colloquial language that crossed the ethnic and political borders of the Middle East, to which Greek competed after Alexander the Great's victory over the Persians. It was not until the appearance of Arabic that both languages were almost completely pushed back. The Jews used Aramaic for Bible translations ( Targumim ) and in the Talmud . Like Hebrew, Aramaic belongs to the northwest branch of the Semitic languages and is therefore closely related to Hebrew. In the Middle Hebrew phase, numerous Aramaic expressions and idioms were adopted into Hebrew, but above all the Aramaic script , which is still in use today as a square script , while the Arameans developed their script into different italics and gave up the square script. The syntax also changed fundamentally in this phase (transition from the structure predicate-subject-object to subject-predicate-object as well as from the paratactic, i.e. main clause preferring syntax to the hypotactic principle, i.e. main clause-subordinate clause constructions). Middle Hebrew includes late Biblical Hebrew and the Hebrew of rabbinical literature ; H. the works of Jewish scholars, especially Palestine and Babylonia after the destruction of the Second Temple (70 AD).
For almost two millennia, Hebrew was not the mother tongue, but mostly the second or third language of Jews, that is, of educated Jewish men in all parts of the diaspora. Much time in traditional Jewish education was devoted to reading the Torah , Mishnah , Gemara, and rabbinical commentaries in the Hebrew (and partly Aramaic) original. The most important contribution to the preservation of Biblical Hebrew comes from the Masoretes , who from the 7th to the 10th century AD added vowels , accents and so-called teamim to the biblical text written only with consonants , that is, indications for the liturgical chant in worship . Since the corresponding signs mainly consist of dots, one speaks of "punctuation" (Hebrew "Nikud"). The most important Masoretes worked in the 9th / 10th. Century AD in Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee .
Two families in particular are significant here: Ben Ascher and Ben Naftali. After texts had already been punctured in Babylonia and Palestine, Aaron ben Moshe ben Ascher created the most detailed and thorough puncturing system that finally prevailed. The generally recognized Jewish Hebrew Bible text, which Christian theologians have also used as the basis for exegesis of the Old Testament since the 16th century, goes back to the Ben Ascher family. In the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia , the Masoretic text is printed according to the oldest complete manuscript of this text form, the Codex Leningradensis . Paul Kahle's research into various Masoretic systems and the comparison with Greek transcriptions of the Hebrew in the Septuagint and the Hexapla of Origen have shown that the Masoretes of Tiberias did not follow the common, traditional pronunciation of Hebrew in their punctuation, but in part an ideal philological construct created that should primarily meet religious needs.
The history of modern Hebrew is divided into two periods, which, however, were not valid for all of Jewry. The Jewish Enlightenment in the 18th and 19th centuries brought significant innovations (a turn away from the rabbinical tradition and the emphasis on the supposed purity and originality of the biblical style of language) . Century. There was also a renaissance of Hebrew among Jews in other regions, for example in Iraq, without being influenced by developments in Central Europe. Another new beginning, which ultimately led to the re-establishment of an idiom passed on in the native language in Palestine, was brought about by the Zionists from the end of the 19th century. This form of language is usually referred to as Modern Hebrew or Ivrit. However, the word Ivrit in Hebrew itself, without the addition of a qualifying adjective, denotes the entire Hebrew language of all periods; New Hebrew is called ha-Ivrit ha-chadascha in Hebrew.
Modern Hebrew (Ivrit)
Outside of Israel, Ivrit is usually understood to mean the most recent phase of development of New Hebrew: Israeli Hebrew, which emerged as a result of the Enlightenment and Zionism, is the result of a revival of the level of development of the biblical language that the Masoretes of Tiberias developed with their vocalization system, but based on a later, more Middle Hebrew syntax, which also has influences from European languages.
The relatively few specifically ancient Hebrew forms are understood in Israel and taught in school, but not used in everyday language (e.g. pause forms ); in addition, many biblical words have a different meaning today. In particular, the ancient Hebrew aspect system of the verb has given way to a tense system since Middle Hebrew; the ancient Hebrew aspects were not taken over into the modern language in the return to Biblical Hebrew in modern times.
Many consider Hebrew to be an example of a successful transformation of an old literary and sacred language into a modern national language . This was commented on by David Ben Gurion , the first Prime Minister of the State of Israel , with the following statement: "If Moses came back today and asked for a piece of bread, one would understand him." Such a view was partly also held by Hebraists and Semitists (Ullendorff) , but is controversial (Brockelmann).
In this context, critics refer u. a. on the pronunciation of today's Hebrew, which is untypical for Semitic languages, which only reveals the specific Semitic sounds in spelling but not in phonetics (i.e. differentiates between Aleph and Ajin , Kaf and Qof , Thet and Taw , Chet and Khaf, etc.) ) and thus has significantly fewer sounds than most other Semitic languages. The aforementioned pairs of letters form homophones in Hebrew today. Only Israelis with an Arabic mother tongue occasionally still differentiate some of these sounds. A comparable development can only be seen in Maltese , which, due to its isolation from Arabic and its centuries-old connection to the Italian language area, has "Europeanized" in some respects, especially in the field of phonetics.
For the grammar of modern Hebrew see Ivrit .
Like all Semitic languages, Old Hebrew is basically one of the case languages. Since the case inflection in the Canaanite group of the Semitic language ceased to exist, however, as early as the 10th century BC Chr. No longer uses cases to distinguish between subject and object , but the object can optionally be marked with a special nota objecti , which is only possible with determined objects. However, inflection plays an important role in the formation and derivation of verbs , nouns , the genitive construction Status constructus , which in Hebrew Smichut ( סְמִיכוּת - "Support") is called.
Examples of the genitive connection (Smichut):
bájit (בַּיִת) = House; lechem (לֶחֶם) = Bread; bējt lechem (בֵּית־לֶחֶם) = House of Bread ( Bethlehem ).
In genitive combinations, the definite article is placed before its last component:
alija (עֲלִיָּה) = Repatriation, repatriation; no`ar (, נוֹעַר, נֹעַר) = Youth; alijat ha-no`ar (עֲלִיַּת הַנּוֹעַר) = the return (to Israel) of the youth.
Ownership can be expressed using the classic short form (noun with pronominal ending) or a longer, circumscribing phrase,
e.g. B. from: son =בֵּן ben : my son =בְּנִי bni orהַבֵּן שֶׁלִּי have scheli .
The latter literally means: the son who is of me. Here, a new preposition (“von”) has emerged from a relative clause (sche… = der, die, das) and the preposition le-, which is still unknown in Biblical Hebrew. The pronominal ending of the 1st person singular (mein, mir, mich) can be recognized by both “bni” and “scheli”.
The Hebrew language has two grammatical genders or genera : male and female. Female nouns and names usually end with ... a (ה ...) or ... t (ת ...). Example: Sarah (שָׂרָה), `Ivrith (עִבְרִית). There are, however, some exceptions, for example the word "lájla" (לַיְלָה- Nacht) with the letter "He" and is nevertheless grammatically masculine. Feminine nouns can also have masculine endings. Abstracts are mostly assigned to the female gender.
Mostly the last syllable is emphasized , in some cases also the penultimate syllable, with foreign words also other syllables (אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטָה univérsita "University"). The stress is (in New Hebrew) weakly phonemic, so there are occasional pairs of words that differ only in the stress (בִּירָה birá "capital",בִּירָה bíra "beer"). Some personal names can be emphasized in two different ways, giving them different emotional overtones.
Hebrew nouns and adjectives can use the definite article הַ ..."Ha" can be defined. Indefinite nouns or adjectives have no article at all. The specific article is written with the associated word. Example:נוֹעַר no`ar = youth,הַנּוֹעַר hano`ar = the youth. If the article is put in front, the following consonant usually receives a point (“ Dagesch forte ”), which indicates doubling. The article is preceded by consonants that cannot be doubled with a long -a (“qametz”).
In addition to Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew verbs have three tenses: past , future, and present . Strictly speaking, only past and future are real conjugations with forms for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd person in the singular and plural, while the participle is used for the present . Here, like the Hebrew adjective, each verb has four forms: masculine singular, feminine singular, masculine plural, feminine plural. The person is indicated by adding the personal pronoun. An example of the formation of the participle:
|כּוֹתֵב אֲנִי-אַתָּה-הוּא (aní, atá, hu) kotév||(I, you, he) [m.] write, write, write (literally: I (m.), you (m.), he is a writer)|
|כּוֹתֶבֶת אֲנִי-אַתְּ-הִיא (aní, at, hi) kotévet||(I, you, she) [f.] write, write, write (literally: I (f.), you (f.), she ( Sg .) a writer)|
|כּוֹתְבִים אֲנַחְנוּ-אַתֶּם-הֵם (anáchnu, atém, hem) kotvím||(we, you, you) [m.] write, write, write (literally: we (m.), you (m.), she (m. pl .) writers)|
|כּוֹתְבוֹת אֲנַחְנוּ-אַתֶּן-הֵן (anáchnu, atén, hen) kotvót||(we, you, you) [f.] write, write, write (literal: we (f.), you (f.), she (f. pl .) writers)|
In ancient Hebrew a clear distinction between “present”, “past” and “future” is not possible. The finite verb distinguishes between two types of action, divided into two conjugations, which are traditionally called "perfect" and "imperfect":
- Perfect = completed, ascertainable action (in post-Biblical Hebrew: past)
- Past tense = unfinished, outstanding action (in post-Biblical Hebrew: future).
In addition, there are two derivatives of these conjugations in Biblical Hebrew that turn their meaning into the opposite:
- Imperfectum Consecutivum = completed, ascertainable act
- Perfectum Consecutivum = unfinished, outstanding action.
The respective Consecutivum-Form differs from the normal form of the perfect or imperfect in that the copula "and" is placed in front. In the case of the Imperfectum Consecutivum, the following consonant is also doubled (Hebrew מְדֻגָּשׁ, m'duggash), and the emphasis often shifts to the penultimate syllable. In the Imperfectum Consecutivum, stressed perfect forms are emphasized on the penultimate syllable. Because of the preceding “and”, Consecutivum-forms can only ever appear at the beginning of the sentence or half-sentence; no other part of the sentence, not even a negative, may precede it.
Modern grammars have given up the traditional terms “perfect” and “imperfect” because they try to describe the type of action in terms of content, which fails with the respective Consecutivum variant. The Perfectum Consecutivum does not describe a “perfect”, completed act, but on the contrary an “imperfect”, unfinished act. So the term “perfect” is imprecise. The same applies to "imperfect". The new names do not describe more the content, but only the outward form: The Perfect now called Afformativ - conjugation (abbreviated AK) and the imperfect Präformativ conjugation (PK). AK indicates that all forms of this conjugation (except for one) have an ending, i.e. an affix or afformative (sg .: kataw-ti, kataw-ta, kataw-t, kataw, katew-a; pl .: kataw -nu, ketaw-tem, ketaw-th, katew-u); PK indicates the prefix or prefix, the prefix, which all forms of this conjugation contain (sg .: e-chtow, ti-chtow, ti-chtew-i, ji-chtow, ti-chtow; pl .: ni- chtow, ti-chtew-u, ti-chtow-na, ji-chtew-u, ti-chtow-na). The Consecutivum forms are called AK or PK with Waw conversivum, i.e. reversing Waw. The letter Vaw stands for the copula “and”, which is written with this letter in Hebrew. PK with Waw conversivum (Imperfectum Consecutivum) is the typical narrative tense of the biblical texts and is therefore also called narrative .
The function of the Waw conversivum is only documented for Biblical Hebrew and has no equivalent in other Semitic languages, such as Arabic or Aramaic.
The basis for the derivation of all conjugation forms is the "root" (word stem), which is composed of the consonants that occur in all or most of the forms of the verb and its derivatives. In the Hebrew verb for "to write" these are:כָּתַב, so "ktw". Depending on which shape is to be created, the vowels typical for the shape are inserted in between; In many forms there are also typical conjugation prefixes and / or suffixes (cf. the forms of the participle and of AK and PK listed above). Accordingly, in Hebrew, as in all Semitic languages, conjugation takes place before, in and after the usually purely consonant word stem; most roots consist of three consonants.
In addition to AK, PK and participle, Hebrew has infinitive and imperative forms. The past and future tense II , however, are unknown. There are also almost no specific modal forms (subjunctive); they are almost always identical to PK (or derived from it by a slight change).
Unlike Latin or German verb stems, for example, Hebrew roots can be conjugated according to several patterns, e.g. B. as "intensive strain" or "causative". So apart from the conjugations called AK and PK, which denote action type or tense, there are other conjugations, each of which forms its own AK and PK as well as infinitives and imperatives. These additional conjugations (intensive stem, causative) vary the basic meaning of the root; they are the most important tool in creating new words and they are extremely productive. The following three examples of infinitives of the root "ktw" in different conjugations:
- לִכְתּוֹב lichtów : to write (basic meaning)
- לְהִתְכַּתֵּב lëhitkatéw : "write to each other", d. H. correspond (intensive strain)
- לְהַכְתִּיב lëhachtíw : “to give to write”, d. H. dictate, prescribe (causative)
The conjugations are also the basis of many noun formations, such as:
- מִכְתָּב michtáw : letter
- הַכְתָּבָה hachtawá : dictation
- הִתְכַּתְּבוּת hitkatwút : correspondence
(The change from k to ch in some of the forms mentioned is a common sound shift in Hebrew and occurs in the inflection of many words; the same letter is written in the Hebrew script.)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights , Article 1:
- .כל בני האדם נולדו בני חורין ושווים בערכם ובזכויותיהם. כולם חוננו בתבונה ובמצפון, לפיכך חובה עליהם לנהוג איש ברעהו ברוח של אחווה
- Kol benei ha'adam noldu benei chorin veshavim be'erkam uvizchuyoteihem. Kulam chonenu bitevuna uvematspun, lefichach chova 'aleihem linhog ish bere'ehu Berach shel achava.
- All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should meet one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Languages with strong Hebrew influences
In the centuries of the Diaspora , Jews used numerous languages such as Yiddish , Ladino or Judezmo , Karaim , Judaeo-Arabic and others, which, although not directly derived from Hebrew, have numerous Hebrew loanwords and were almost always written with the Hebrew alphabet. There are also some languages of social groups ( sociolects ) with a clear Hebrew influence (mostly secondary via Yiddish), for example Rotwelsch and Jenisch .
The connection between today's language and the Bible
Biblical quotes and allusions are still used in everyday language, especially in religious circles. The verses of the Song of Songs have been set to music in innumerable variations; At the onset of spring, chapter 2, verse 11 is often quoted: "For, behold, winter has passed, the rain is over, the flowers show themselves in the land."
Influences of Hebrew on German and vice versa
First names of Hebrew origin are widely used: Achim , Benjamin , Daniel , David , Hanna , Jakob , Joachim , Joel , Johann , Johanna , Jonas , Jonathan , Joseph , Judith , Maria , Michael , Miriam , Rebekka , Samuel , Sarah , Susanne and many other.
Some Hebrew words entered the German language via Yiddish , e.g. B. Tacheles from Hebrew tachlis = purpose, meaningful, meschugge from Meshuga = crazy / mad, malochen from Melachah = work, kosher from kascher = pure, capable, dufte probably tov = good, well-heeled possibly from batuach = sure Stuss from schtut = Nonsense (from: [old] ). Some expressions may also have a Hebrew origin. This includes knowing where Barthel gets the must that could have come into German via Rotwelsche. The meaning in this case would be "Knowing where to go with a crowbar (ברזל, barzel = iron) to get money ", so can crack a safe (מעות, ma'ot = change, in the Ashkenazi pronunciation maos, from which the slang expressions “moss” or “mice” for “money” are likely to come). On the other hand, the widespread derivation of the wish at the turn of the year A Happy New Year from Rosh Hashanah = “beginning (literally: head) of the year” is unlikely , because the word “Rosh” never appears in Jewish New Year wishes; both in Yiddish and in Hebrew you always wish “a good year”. A Hebrew origin of the expression It draws like pike soup , which supposedly goes back to hech supha ("strong wind"), can be ruled out with certainty : the word hech does not exist in Hebrew at all, and the word transcribed with suphaסופה(Storm) is pronounced sufa .
For historical reasons there are many words from business life included. Since for centuries the Jews in Christian Europe were not allowed any other sources of income than trade or money, these areas are important linguistic interfaces. This subheading includes the terms gravel in the sense of (pocket) money from kis = pocket; Broke out Peleta = escape, escape; Reibach from rewach = profit, or expressions of crime e.g. B. Ganove (from Hebrew ganav = thief). See also the list of German words from Hebrew and Yiddish .
When Ivrit was created at the end of the 19th century, expressions were borrowed from European languages (e.g. Sigarja = cigarette, telephone, Telewisija = television, etc.). The modern month names in Israel correspond to the German designations: January, February, March, etc. The only modification results from the month of August, which is pronounced Ogust , since the vowel connection au in Hebrew is unusual. The new formation iton ( newspaper ) from et = time is based on the German word. As an educational language in Eastern Europe, German played a not insignificant role indirectly in the revival of Hebrew in Palestine by the Central and Eastern European Zionists, especially in the expansion of the vocabulary. Colloquial Hebrew has also taken up a number of German and Yiddish expressions, e.g. B. "spritz", "Schluck", "Spitz", "Wischer" (for windshield wipers) etc. There are also some German expressions in the craft sector, such as "plug" or "dowel", which however - due to the im Hebrew missing Ü-sound - "thief" is pronounced.
- Protosinaitic script
- Phoenician alphabet
- Hebrew alphabet
- Hebrew letters: Aleph , Beth , Gimel , etc.
- Hebrew numbers
- Category: Hebrew
- Frank Matheus: Everyone has its time. Tense and aspect in the Biblical-Hebrew Verbal System , Spenner, Kamen 2011, ISBN 978-3-89991-126-8 . (KUSATU / B / supplements; 1)
- Hans Peter Stähli : Hebrew short grammar. Göttingen 1985.
- Wilhelm Gesenius , Emil Kautzsch , Gotthelf Bergstrasse : Hebrew grammar . 1813. 28th edition. Leipzig 1909, archive.org . Reprint: Hildesheim 1983, Georg Olms Verlag, ISBN 3-487-00325-2
- Rudolf Meyer : Hebrew grammar. Berlin 1992.
- Jutta Körner: Hebrew study grammar. Langenscheidt Verlag Enzyklopädie, Leipzig 1996, ISBN 3-324-00099-8 (in detail)
- Martin Krause, Michael Pitsch (ed.), Martin Rösel (ed.): Biblical-Hebrew teaching grammar. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2008. 2nd edition 2010. ISBN 978-3-11-019028-1 .
- Alexander B. Ernst: Brief grammar of Biblical Hebrew. 4th edition 2015, bound, 184 pages, Neukirchener Theologie. ISBN 978-3-7887-2321-7
- Wilhelm Gesenius: Hebrew and Aramaic concise dictionary on the Old Testament . 16th edition. Leipzig 1815 ( archive.org - reprint: Berlin 2008, Springer Verlag, ISBN 3-540-78599-X ).
- Ludwig Köhler, Walter Baumgartner : Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon for the Old Testament. 3. Edition. Leiden 1996.
- Georg Fohrer : Hebrew and Aramaic dictionary for the Old Testament. Berlin / New York 1997, ISBN 3-11-001804-7 .
- PONS Compact Dictionary Old Hebrew. Old Hebrew-German . Klett, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-12-517575-5 .
- Ernst Jenni: Textbook of the Hebrew Language of the Old Testament. Basel 1981, ISBN 3-7190-0706-5 . (Textbook designed for high schools)
- Frank Matheus: Introduction to Biblical Hebrew (I study grammar, II study book for group and self-study). Munster 1997.
- Heinz-Dieter Neef: Workbook Hebrew. Biblical Hebrew materials, examples and exercises. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-8252-4361-6 . (Textbook to prepare for the Hebraicum)
- Thomas O. Lambdin: Textbook Bible-Hebrew. 5th improved and supplemented edition. Brunnen, Giessen 2006.
To the history of language
- haUniversita haPetucha: Peraqim beToledot haLashon ha'Ivrit. 1-11. Tel Aviv.
- Wilhelm Gesenius: History of the Hebrew Language and Script. Olms 1973.
- Chaim Rabin : The Development of the Hebrew Language. Wiesbaden 1988.
- Eduard Yechezkel Kutscher: A History of the Hebrew Language. Jerusalem 1982.
- Angel Sáenz-Badillos: A History of the Hebrew Language. Cambridge 1996.
- Joel M. Hoffman: In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew Language. New York / London 2004.
- Ghil'ad Zuckermann : Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 978-1-4039-1723-2 / ISBN 978-1-4039-3869-5 .
- A new type of explanation for biblical Hebrew and in it the controversial question of verb functions / tense interpretation : Interpretation concept “Mathilde” , tested on the entire text of the original Joseph story. Short version (PDF; 813 kB; 249 pages): Different types of conjugation indicate different speech acts . The question of tense is inferred from further contextual evidence.
- Holger Gzella: Hebrew. In: Michaela Bauks, Klaus Koenen, Stefan Alkier (Eds.): The Scientific Biblical Lexicon on the Internet (WiBiLex), Stuttgart 2006 ff.
- www.hagalil.com - haGalil
- www.hebraicum.de (German)
- Bibliography Reference Works Hebrew (private site)
- www.nirdagan.com (English)
- www.hebrewlanguageguide.com (English)
- www.hebreu.org (French)
- Hebrew typography in German-speaking countries
- Gezer's calendar - the oldest known Hebrew inscription to this day
Textbooks, dictionaries and the like
- Overview of the Verbal System in Biblical Hebrew (PDF; 67 pages)
- German-Hebrew and Hebrew-German dictionary (under construction)
- Biblical Hebrew Course (as individual PDF files)
- Word studies for the Hebrew of the Old Testament
- Phonetically transcribed modern Hebrew course (with verb roots and derived verbs)
- Dictionary German-Hebrew and Hebrew-German (Modern Hebrew)
- English-Hebrew dictionary with declensions (Milon)
- DAVAR Hebrew Dictionary (Freeware, English)
- Gesenius's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon , referenceable a . a. via links in the text of the Old Testament
- Alan Wood's Unicode Resources: Hebrew (English)
- Distance learning Hebrew ( sample pages )
- The current form "lájla" was probably created by monophthonging an original form * "lájlaj".
- Karl-Heinz Best : Quantitative studies on the Yiddisms in German. In: Yiddistik Mitteilungen 36, 2006, pages 1–14; Karl-Heinz Best: Hebraisms in German. In: Glottometrics 27, 2014, pages 10–17 (PDF full text ).
- wikt: know where Barthel gets the must . However, Wiktionary offers a total of 13 explanations.