As conjugation (from latin coniugatio , connection ' ), verbal inflection , verbal inflection or flexion of verbs is referred to in the grammar morphogenesis ( morphology ) of a verb (verb) according to the characteristics person, number, tense, mood, Genus verbi and optionally also Aspect . The conjugation or the inflection in general is a characteristic of inflected languages .
Conjugation in German
The conjugation in German is largely based on the classification of the verb in the class of weak and strong verbs . The latter is sometimes referred to as irregular , although the weak verbs also have irregularities and there are also mixed forms of both. In addition to the verb class, the assignment to the auxiliary verbs is relevant for the formation of the compound verb forms . For two-part verbs , their separability is also crucial.
The result of the conjugation of German verbs are verb forms that express the following five features: person , number , tense , modus and gender verbi . The infinite verb forms do not fit into this characteristic pattern ; that is, those of the infinitive and the participle . Some of them will be used to form compound verb forms; but sometimes also take on independent functions (e.g. infinitive construction in subordinate clauses, attributive participle) and are therefore to be used as conjugated verb forms. In the case of the infinitive in particular, however, this classification is not undisputed from a linguistic perspective.
The forms are created through defined personal endings, through changes in the verb stem (strong or irregular verbs) and through the composition with auxiliary verb forms:
|1st person (speaker)||I step e||I buy e a|
|2nd person (listener)||you step||you bought st a|
|3rd person (person / thing)||he kicks||he purchase t a|
|Number (s)||to step||shop|
|Singular (singular)||I step e he tr itt||you bought st one he buy t a|
|Plural (plural)||We'll kick s , they'll kick s||their purchase t one, they buy en a|
|Indicative (reality form)||I step e , we'll kick s||their purchase t one, they buy en a|
|Subjunctive I||I step e , you step et||I buy e one, you purchase et a|
|Future||du tr ä t est , we tr ä t s||he purchase te a *, you buy tet a|
|Imperative (command form)||tr itt (du)||purchase ( s ) (you) a|
- * Due to the equality of form with the indicative past tense , the subjunctive II is often paraphrased periphrastically in weak verbs: he would buy
|Tense (time)||to step||shop|
|Present (present)||I step e||I buy e a|
|Past tense (past)||I tr a t||I buy te a|
|Perfect (perfect present)||I have ge tret en||We have a ge buy t|
|Pluperfect (past perfect)||He had ge tret en||We had a ge buy t|
|Future I (future)||he will kick||we will shop|
|Future II (perfect future)||he is ge tret s have||he is a ge purchase t have|
|Genus Verbi ( diathesis )||to step||shop|
|active||I step e||I buy e a|
|passive||Process passive||I 'll ge t ret en||it is a ge purchase t|
|State passive||I 'm ge tret en||it is a ge purchase t|
|Past participle||step end||shopping end|
|Past participle||ge tret s||a ge purchase t|
one to buy
ge tret s have
ge tret s to have
|a ge purchase t have
a ge buys to have
This results in a large number of different forms of verbs, although not all combinations occur in one language or they occur to a different extent in linguistic usage. The (real) imperative, for example, is clearly identified by the additional indication of the number.
Each of these forms is precisely determined by specifying the mode, tense, gender, number and person.
- the bread will have been bought = 3rd person plural indicative future II state passive of shopping
- you almost stepped on something = 2nd person singular subjunctive II active from stepping
However, it is not always possible to clearly determine the form of a specific verb, as different forms can coincide. Here the linguistic context must dictate which form is meant.
When learning a language, it is often sufficient to memorize a few forms per verb and then use rules to create all the other forms from them. In particular, conjugation in this sense also denotes the group of verbs whose forms can be formed using uniform rules, a conjugation class .
Conjugation in other languages
Not all languages create verb forms with auxiliary verbs to the same extent as in German.
- Example with auxiliary verb: I love - I have loved (German)
- Example without auxiliary verb: amo - amavi (Latin)
Different conjugation classes are formed depending on the language. While in German a distinction is often made between strong and weak conjugation, there are e.g. B. in Latin other classes:
- a-conjugation: amare , laudare
- e-Conjugation: monere
- i-conjugation: audire
- short vowel i-conjugation: capere
- consonant conjugation: regere
- Conjugation of German verbs in the Wiktionary
- Verb: inflection , canoonet
- Verb tables with marked personal endings, stem changes and auxiliary verbs
- Conjugate English verbs online (all tenses in positive / negative form as well as in questions)
- Conjugate online verbs (deu, eng, fra, ita, spa)
- Conjugate verbs online (deu, eng, fra, ita, spa and much more)
- Elke Hentschel (Ed.): Deutsche Grammatik. Walter de Gruyter, 2010, p. 152.
- Rainer Hahn, Maria Anna Söllner: PONS: Student Verb Tables Latin. PONS GmbH, Stuttgart 2013, p. 10.
- Heike Voit, Joachim Neubold: PONS: Grammar in a nutshell: German PONS GmbH, Stuttgart, 2011, p. 64.
- Linda Keller: PONS: The great English grammar. PONS GmbH, Stuttgart 2015, p. 496.
- PONS: Powerful Russian language course. PONS GmbH, Stuttgart, 2012, p. 186.
- Irina Gubanova-Müller, Federica Tommaddi: PONS: Grammar in Pictures: German as a Foreign Language . PONS GmbH, Stuttgart 2015, p. 190.
- Duden: The primary school grammar. Duden, 2013, p. 35.
- Duden: Exercise sheets for school grammar | extra German. 5th – 10th Class. Duden, 2015, p. 8.
- Antje Kelle: mentor learning aid: German 5./6. Class. Grammar: building blocks and rules of our language. , 1997, p. 49.
- Joh. Christ. Aug. Heyse, KWL Heyse: Dr. Joh. Christ. Aug. Heyse's German school grammar or a brief textbook of the German language. Seventeenth edition, Hanover, 1851, p. 189.
- Raphael Kühner: Detailed grammar of the Greek language. Second edition, first section of the first part, Hanover 1869, p. 493.
- Rudi Conrad (Ed.): Lexicon of linguistic terms. VEB Bibliographisches Institut Leipzig, 1985, p. 124.
- Eisenberg Peter: The word . 4th edition. Stuttgart 2013, p. 179 .