Infinite verb form
The term infinite verb form (opposite terms : finite verb form , personal ending , personal form ) summarizes the forms of a verb that are not conjugated according to person and number , tense or mode , even if they can be inflected for other features . At the sentence level, however, a clear personal reference can also be made with infinite verb forms, e.g. B. in AcI : You heard the doctor coming (= the doctor is coming), or in control constructions (infinitive clauses in the aftermath ): I forbid you to go there. (= You shouldn't go there).
Infinite verb forms of German
There are four infinite verb forms in German:
- Simple infinitive , fly
- to- Infinitive: to fly
- Past participle (also participle II), flown
- Inflective (also ericative), fly
It is also sometimes included
- Present participle (also participle I), flying
According to the part of speech, this participle always behaves as an adjective.
|verbal||adjectival: predicative||adjectival: attributive||interjective|
|infinitive||I want and will fly .|
|to-infinitive||He's trying to fly .|
|Participle II / verbal ( "Supin" )||He flew . It bothered . He is disturbed been .|
|Past participle||The aircraft noise is annoying||my flying self|
|Participle I with zu (cf. gerundive )||the route to be flown|
|Participle II / adjectival||The aircraft is unhandled . (" State passive ")||the unhandled plane|
Infinite verb forms in general
|Half participle||in East Baltic languages|
|participle||general||German: going, gone|
|Present Active Participle (PPA)||Latin|
|Past Participle Passive (PPP)||Latin|
|Active participle future (PFA)||Latin|
|Past participle||in German||going|
|Past participle||in German||went|
|Quasi-participle||in Baltic languages|
|Transgressive (adverbial participle)||in Slavic and Baltic languages|
|Verbal nouns||in German
and in island Celtic languages
|German: am working; the work|
- Joachim Sabel: The German verbum infinitum. In: Deutsche Sprache , 29.2 (2001): 148–175.
- The term "Supin", which comes from the Scandinavian grammar, is also used by G. Bech for the verbal participle II of German; see Gunnar Bech (1955): Studies on the German verb infinitum. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
- The term supinum and the explanation of the difference to the participle II can already be found in: New comments on the twelfth piece of the Swabian magazine 1775, pages 627, 628, in: Swabian magazine of learned things on the year 1776, Seventh Book, Stuttgart, Mit Erhardischen Schriften, the word which I call Supinum is of course very different from the syntax according to the Latin Supino; the formation, however, is all the more similar to the same, as the Participium praeteriti is made directly from it, apart from the motion and declination, without any further change. But it is not the participium itself, because there are many verbs that have the supinum and yet no participium praeteriti: Hurit, coughed, lived, slept, etc. are not participies because they are not capable of motion or declination. The Participiis have both. In addition, the French grammarians are on my side, who call you eu, été, aimé, bati, vendu, udg Supina, whose usage is almost like that of my Supini in German.