Present participle Active

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The present active participle , PPA for short (not to be confused with the perfect active participle ), is a special verb form . The PPA expresses a certain time relationship: simultaneity .

The PPA form expresses that a certain activity takes place simultaneously with the predicate of the corresponding sentence, regardless of the tense in which it is used.

Example in Latin :

In the Latin language go the endings that to the -nt be appended after Mischdeklination (except the participles are adjectives used, as it is in the ablative singular -i instead of -e).
Latin German meaning
Barbari accedunt canentes. The barbarians approach singing. The barbarians come up and sing.
Barbari accesserunt canentes. The barbarians came singing. The barbarians came up and sang.

In the German grammar, the PPA corresponds to the participle .

Formation of the present participle active

Present stem + identifier (-nt) + ending of the mixed or consonantic declension , in the nominative shortened to (-ns).


  • a- Conjugation : vocare = to call ⇒ voca-ns = to call
  • e-Conjugation: monere = mahnen ⇒ mone-ns = mahnend
  • i-Conjugation: audire = to hear ⇒ audi-e-ns = to hear
  • Consonantic or mixed conjugation: mittere = send ⇒ mitt-e-ns = send
  • short vocal i-conjugation: capere = grasp ⇒ capi-e-ns = grasp
  • Special form: ire = going ⇒ ie-ns = going

translation to German

Latin example: Lucius arcas ferrens per Romam currit.

  • Literally: Lucius hurries through Rome carrying boxes. or Lucius carrying boxes hurries through Rome.
  • With an adverbial sentence : Lucius rushes through Rome while carrying boxes. Or: Lucius is rushing through Rome because he is carrying boxes.
  • With a relative clause : Lucius, carrying boxes, hurries through Rome.
  • With an assignment : Lucius rushes through Rome carrying boxes.
  • With a prepositional expression , whereby the participle is substantiated : While carrying boxes, Lucius hurries through Rome.

See also