Simultaneity or simultaneity in grammar means that the action that is described in a subordinate construction takes place at the same point in time or in the same period of time as the action of the higher-level construction. In addition, there is the term "simultaneity" with different meanings.
The simultaneity belongs next to the prematurity and the posteriority to the time conditions . Their use in a language depends on the timing of the action.
In German, the predicate of a clause is considered to be at the same time as the action described in the superordinate construction, if
- a corresponding (temporal) Conjunction as while , however , when , as often , and , if , as
- the use of the same tense in both constructions
From the point of view of the plot; if the event or happening in a subordinate clause ( protasis ) begins (largely) at the same time as the event expressed in the main clause ( apodosis ), one speaks of simultaneity.
Ex .: While the Wikipedians the article paraphrased ( past tense ), thought (past tense) it to the ongoing discussion extinguishing.
The present active participle also expresses the simultaneity of the superordinate action.
E.g .: The writing (PPA) Wikipedian stated (past tense) that his keyboard had to be cleaned.
In Latin, too, verb clauses are used
- Subjunctions like dum
- the use of certain tenses (see consecutio temporum )
marked as simultaneous to the action of the superordinate construction.
Example: Dum homo scribit , cogitat . - While the person writes, he thinks.
As in German, the present active participle expresses the temporal relationship of simultaneity. It can occur in constructions such as the Participium coniunctum or the Ablativus absolutus .
E.g . : Avia narrante puer cenabat . - While the grandmother was talking, the boy ate.
The infinitive present tense, z. B. can be used in AcI or NcI , also signals simultaneity.
E.g . : Puer aviculam volare videbat. - The boy saw the little bird flying / how the little bird flew.