Nominativus cum infinitivo

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The nominativus cum infinitivo (Latin = nominative with infinitive , also NcI ) is a syntactic appearance of the Latin language with certain similarities to the AcI . If verbs such as dicere, videre, putare, tradere and ibere appear in the passive voice, it is an NcI. The noun phrase in the nominative is the subject of the whole sentence ( matrix sentence ); the verb therefore congruent with him in person and number . The subject of the embedded set is a set of matrix coreferential , but is not expressed.

An analogous construction can be found in English as well as in ancient Greek .



  • Caesar in Gallia vicisse dicitur. / Romani in Gallia vicisse dicuntur.
    • 'It is said that Caesar / the Romans were victorious in Gaul. (literally)'
    • 'It is said that Caesar / the Romans were victorious in Gaul' or
    • 'Caesar / the Romans are said to have triumphed in Gaul'

The subject of the matrix sentence is Caesar (in the nominative), and the verb dicitur conjugates with it (3rd person singular). The embedded sentence is underlying Caesar in Gallia vicit with the same subject Caesar . However, this is deleted when it is embedded, and the verb occurs in the infinitive perfect vicisse (without identification of person and number).

The NcI is particularly found in the following verbs:

  • dicor: they say that I; I have to
  • existimor: you believe that I
  • putor: you think that I
  • iubeor: I am commanded
  • videor: I seem
  • hator: I am taken for ...; they think I am ...
  • existimor: one appreciates (me); i ...

Usually the verbs leading to an NcI are in the 3rd person passive, e.g. B .:

  • dicitur: one narrates that he / she ... or it is narrated (literally)
  • putatur: one believes that he / she ... or it is believed (literally)
  • videtur: he / she / it seems ...
  • traditur: one narrates that he / she ... or it is narrated (literally)

This construction can also be found in ancient Greek.

Ancient Greek

  • "ἀλήθεια ἐν οἴνῳ εἶναι λέγεται."
    • 'It is said that there is truth in wine.' or
    • 'They say that there is truth in wine' or
    • 'There should be truth in wine.


  • Caesar is said / the Romans are said to have won in Gaul.