The Latin grammar dealt with in a systematic form the characteristics of the Latin language . This can be assigned to the Italian branch of Indo-European ; their grammar shows many similarities with the other historically known languages of this family. It is also the basis of the Romance languages that developed from it.
Compared with the reconstructed grammar of Urindo-European , processes can be recognized that are mostly viewed as simplifications. This is reflected, for example, in the uniform suffixes for the formation of tenses and cases ( syncretism ), the reduction to five verb and six noun classes or the reduction from eight cases of the original language to six in Latin (category reduction). The terms that have historically evolved to describe and discuss the classical languages, including Latin, are widely used today in both linguistics and common parlance even for non-Indo-European languages.
The system presented here relates to “classical” Latin, a standardized literary artificial language that was essentially only used by contemporary Roman authors in the first century BC and is now taught in Latin classes in schools .
Word formation in Latin is primarily characterized by derivation , whereby both verbal roots (deverbative) and nominal roots (denominative) can be the starting point for derivations. There are a large number of word formation suffixes that can be used to form new nouns and adjectives. Verbs can also be derived from nouns.
As in German, the basic meaning of verbs and nouns can also be varied in Latin using a large number of prefixes.
By means of the suffix -sc be verbs Inchoativa formed.
Parts of speech
The parts of speech or classes of speech in the Latin language can initially be divided into inflectable (changeable) and non-inflectable words at a higher level. The inflected words of the Latin language can be divided into declinable words or nouns ( nouns including proper names , pronouns , adjectives , number nouns ) and conjugable words ( verbs ). Like all ancient Indo-European languages, Latin also has a rich theory of forms, which is associated with a correspondingly large learning curve.
Non-inflectable Latin word classes are:
The inflection in Latin
The differentiation of grammatical functions or categories in the context of inflection (declination and conjugation) can be made in Latin in different ways:
In contrast to suffixes, prefixes in Latin are not grammatical morphemes, but are used solely to form words. Latin differs in this from some other Indo-European languages, in which prefixes can also function as grammatical educational morphemes (eg the augmentation in ancient Greek or the prefix ge when forming the past participle of strong verbs in German).
Suffixation is by far the most common form of flexion. It predominates in conjugation and is the almost exclusive means of declination. As usual in inflected languages, each suffix can always designate several grammatical categories at the same time (e.g. the suffix -arum : plural + genitive). Several discrete suffixes can appear in a row. The suffixes are added to the root or other suffixes.
The change in the word stem or even the root itself (so-called root flexion ) is a characteristic inherited from the Indo-European proto-language, which is also used extensively in German, for example (especially as an ablaut in strong verbs). The original Urindo-European ablaut is only partially preserved in Latin. One example is the change of the stem ending -o- of the second declension to -e in the vocative singular ( Brutus to Brute ), which is an e-ablaut inherited from the Indo-European original language (see vocative formation in the Indo-European languages ). Otherwise occasional changes in the stem ending (e.g. vetus - veteris (old) with the sound change from u to e ) are purely phonological phenomena and grammatically meaningless. In Latin, root flexion occurs primarily when the perfect stem is formed (see below). In addition, the conjugation of the copula esse in Latin offers a good example of the continuation of the Indo-European root flexion (see Urindo-European copula ).
Categories of declension
The following grammatical categories are distinguished on the noun:
- Gender (grammatical gender): masculine, feminine, neuter
- Number: singular, plural
- Case (case): nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, ablative, locative
When talking about the KNG congruence, two words match in case, number and gender.
Like most of the ancient Indo-European languages and German, the Latin language knows three grammatical genders.
In the case of personal names, the grammatical follows the natural gender:
- Masculine: agricola (farmer, farmer), vir (man), dominus (gentleman), Marcus , Gaius , Gnaeus (masculine proper names)
- Feminina: virgo (virgin), femina (woman), domina (mistress), Maria , Lucretia , Hortensia (feminine proper names)
Latin neuter shows the peculiarity typical of Indo-European (and also preserved in German) that the nominative and accusative forms match in both the singular and the plural. In addition to all substantive neutrals, this also applies to the (existing) neuter forms of all adjectives, participles, pronouns and numeralia.
As in German, a distinction is made between singular and plural numbers. In a few words, remnants of old dual forms can also be recognized, which are identified by the ending o , e.g. B. duo (two), ambō (both).
Latin has five distinct cases: nominative , genitive , dative , accusative and ablative . In addition, there is the vocative , which, however, in pure Latin words only has its own form in a single noun class (2nd declension) in the singular masculine, otherwise it is always the same as the respective nominative. In the case of city names, some words (rus, domus, tempus, humus) and some frozen adverbs, residues of the locative also appear .
Often several cases have the same form.
The subject of a sentence must be specified in the nominative .
In the nominative plural, Latin has retained the Indo-European nominative endings -s and -es . The forms of the pronoun were only adopted for a / o / e stems ( e.g. illi "those, nom. Pl. Mask." - domini "Herren", nom. Pl. Mask .; illae "those", nom. Pl. Fem. - dominae "Mistresses", Nom. Pl. Fem.).
Otherwise there is usually the ending -es in the plural , which merges with the preceding vowel ( e.g. portus , turres , plebes ); Neutra always have the ending -a (e.g .: maria , capita ).
The genitive has the endings -i (is orthographically implemented as ae in the a -stems , the classic pronunciation is ai ) or -is in the singular, -rum or -um in the plural (e.g. dominae - dominarum , domini - dominorum , rei - rerum , portus - portuum , turris - turri-um , plebis - plebium , capitis - capitum ).
The original Indo-European genitive singular ending was -os , while Latin has the abusive form -es> -is ; Originally -as was also used in the a -stems - however, this ending has only been retained in expressions such as pater familias . In the plural, Latin has the ending -um <-om . The a / o -stems have taken over the endings of the pronouns in the plural (for example: illorum "von those, Gen. Pl. Mask." - dominorum "der Herren", Gen. Pl. Mask.).
The genitive can appear in the following case functions:
|Genitivus subjectivus||cupid patris||the love of the father|
|Genitive objectivus||cupid patris||love for the father|
(genitive of possession)
|domus patris||the father's house|
|Domus patris est.||The house belongs to the father. (predictive use)|
(genitive of property, quality)
|puer novem annorum||a nine year old boy|
|Amicus erat corporis parvi.||The friend was of short build. (predictive use)|
(genitive of value or price indication)
|aestimare parvi||consider it of little value|
|Genitivus partitivus (totius)
(genitive of the part or the divided whole)
|multum laboris||Much effort|
(genitive for a more detailed definition of a general term)
|verbum libertatis||the word "freedom"|
(for verbs of remembrance and forgetting,
of judicial action and
for impersonal verbs of expression of feeling)
|noli oblivisci mei||Do not forget me!|
|aliquem stultitiae arguere||accuse someone of stupidity|
|me taedet istius sermonis||this chatter disgusts me|
|Genitive depending on some adjectives
(eager, knowledgeable, thoughtful, partaking, powerful, full and with their opposites)
|ignarus linguae Latinae||without knowledge of Latin|
|expers rationis||without reason|
The dative occurs as a direction or receiver in the dative object (indirect object). In the singular it is usually given by the ending -i (e.g. rei , portui , turri , plebi , capiti ), in the a / o stems by -ae (e.g. dominae ) or -o (e.g. B. domino ).
In the plural, the a / o stems contain -is , otherwise - (i) bus (e.g. dominis , rebus , portibus , turribus , plebibus , capitibus ). However, since, for example, dominis can be both the dative of dominus and that of domina , in these and similar cases the ending -abus is occasionally found for the a -trunks ( e.g. deis deabusque "the gods and goddesses"). → u -trunks originally had the ending -ubus , which has been preserved among others in arcubus , artubus , tribubus .
In the dative singular there is Latin -i <- * ei ; among the o tribes, Old Latin -oi became -o . The plural is Latin -bus <- * bhjos .
The accusative occurs as an object of a verb ( direct object ) or with an accusative demanding preposition. It is used as the case of the direction after most prepositions and also forms free-standing directions (e.g. Romam proficisci "to break into Rome").
The accusative usually has the ending -m ( e.g. dominam , dominum , rem , portum , turrim , plebem ); in the plural it has the ending -s with elongation (e.g. dominas, dominos, res, portus, turris, plebes ). In later times i -stems also have the accusative plural -es . For all neuter, it is always the same as the nominative in the singular and plural.
Latin has kept the Indo-European accusative endings -m and -s unchanged.
In the Latin ablative are by Kasussynkretismus several older case collapsed: ablative, instrumental, locative. The functions that the ablative fulfills in Latin are correspondingly diverse. To avoid confusion, more prepositions are used, especially to express the locative. The ablative occurs as an adverbial term alone or with a preposition requiring the ablative. It has the three basic functions of means of action, accompaniment and separation.
The original ablative denotes a movement in space or time away from the corresponding noun, e.g. E.g .: a Romā "from Rome (away)", ab urbe conditā "since the foundation of the city (Rome)". The ablative as instrumental describes the use of an object, e.g. B .: gladiō pugnare "to fight with the sword". The ablative as locative describes a place in space or in time, e.g. E.g .: eo loco “in this place”, eo tempore “at this time”. Verbs used in business dealings have the ablativus pretii : denario "around a denarius".
In the singular it ends in the elongated stem vowel, the consonant stems have -e ( e.g . : domina , domino , re , portu , turri , plebe , cápite ). In the plural, its forms are always identical to the forms of the respective dative.
In Old Latin, the common singular ending was -d , for example med "von mir", lupod "vom Wolf" etc .; however, the ending -e in the singular of the consonant declination was originally the old locative ending .
The vocative is a direct address to a person (salutation case). It does not depend on the predicate and is therefore not a necessary part of a sentence.
Formation: Since the vocative has no relation to other parts of a sentence, it originally does not show a case ending. In Latin, the vocative has the same form as the nominative in almost all declensions, with the exception of the singular vocative of nouns and adjectives with the ending -us of the o -declination, which in the vocative becomes -e (ablaut). If a noun ends in -ius , the vocative ends in -i . Furthermore, meus “mein” (with a masculine noun) becomes mi in the vocative .
- Quid fecit, senatores ? - What did he do, senators?
- Et tu, mi fili Brute ? - You too, my son Brutus?
- Quo vadis, Marce ? - Where are you going, Marcus?
- Quid facis, mi fili ? - What are you doing, my son?
Exceptions: The vocative of deus (god) is classically replaced by dive (vocative of divus "divine"). Because this is how Roman - i.e. pagan - gods were referred to, the vocative of Deus (God in the Judeo-Christian sense) is not like this, but mostly like the nominative. The on -i ending vocative of words on -ius is also found in -eius , -aius and -aeus : Pompei , Gai , Gnaei .
The Greek words inflected after the a -declination on -as like Aeneas form the vocative on -a , those on -es like Anchises, dynastes and those on -e like Andromede form the vocative on -e : Aenea, Anchise, dynaste, Andromede . However, these words often have "normal" Latin subsidiary forms such as Andromeda to Andromede and Anchisa to Anchises . Hercules is called Hercules , Hercule or Hercle , Jesus Jesus .
Examples of city names:
|Declination class, number, gender||Nominativus||Locativus|
|1. Declination, Singular, Feminine||Roma
Sinopa et al. Sinope
|1. Declension, plural, feminine||Athenae||Athenis|
|2. Declination, Singular, Feminine||Corinthus et al. Corinthos||Corinthi|
|2. Declination, singular, neuter||Londinium||Londinii|
|2. Declension, plural, masculine||Puteoli
|2. Declension, plural, neuter||Hierosolyma||Hierosolymis|
|3. Declination, Singular, Feminine||Carthage||Carthagine, also Carthagini|
|3. Declination, Singular, Feminine||Neapolis||Neapoli|
|3. Declension, plural, feminine||Gades et al. Gadis
The old Latin locative was Romai and Deloi . It also existed in other parent classes. Remnants of the old locative are also preserved in adverbs frozen words like ibi (there).
Declinations (classes / tribes)
The nouns are divided into five so-called declinations according to the five main patterns of their inflection ( declination ). These are traditionally either numbered consecutively (1st, 2nd, 3rd declination, etc.) or named after the (original) stem ending, which is, however, merged with the earlier ending in classical Latin. Therefore, for example, the first declination is also referred to as a -declination or speaks of the "a-stems".
The 3rd declination class is an exception in more than one respect, in which earlier consonant stems and i -stems coincide, whereby it can generally be stated that the consonant stems of nouns become more and more common over time.
|declination||1. Declination||2. Declination||3. Declination||4. Declination||5. Declination|
|Mixed tribes||i tribes||u declination||e-declination|
domina, -ae f.
dominus, -i m.
mercator, -oris m.
navis, -is f.
turris, -is f.
portus, -us m.
res, rei f.
|Nominative||domin a||domin us *||mercātor||nāv is||turr is||port us||r ēs|
|Genitive||domin ae||domin ī||mercātōr is||nāv is||turr is||port ūs||r eī **|
|dative||domin ae||domin ō||mercātōr ī||nāv ī||turr ī||port uī||r eī **|
|accusative||domin on||domin around||mercātōr em||nāv em||turr in||port around||r em|
|ablative||domin ā||domin ō||mercātōr e||nāv e||turr ī||port ū||r ē|
|Nominative||domin ae||domin ī||mercātōr ēs||nāv ēs||turr ēs||port ūs||r ēs|
|Genitive||domin ārum||domin ōrum||mercātōr around||nāv ium||turr ium||port uum||r ērum|
|dative||domin īs||domin īs||Mercator ibus||NAV ibus||Turr ibus||port ibus||r ēbus|
|accusative||domin ās||domin ōs||mercātōr ēs||nāv ēs (nav īs )||turr īs||port ūs||r ēs|
|ablative||domin īs||domin īs||Mercator ibus||NAV ibus||Turr ibus||port ibus||r ēbus|
- * Masculina of -us still have a vocative on -e> domin e !
- ** For words that end in iēs , it is in the genitive and dative singular -ēī instead of -eī , e.g. B. nominative diēs and genitive and dative diēī .
The following deviations apply to regular neutrals:
|dōn um||os||mar e||corn ū|
|dōn a||oss a||mar ia||corn et al|
Nouns of the so-called mixed declination have the same forms as those of the i -declination, but in the accusative and ablative they have the same endings as those of the consonantic declension. The vast majority of nouns with the nominative singular ending -is belong to the mixed declension.
The declination patterns above apply to the vast majority of Latin nouns, but there are numerous special cases and exceptions. The most common irregularities arise from the following phenomena:
- special spelling ( e.g. rex "king" instead of * regs, lux "light" instead of * lucs )
- Ablaut (e.g .: hom o - hom i nis "human", cap u t - cap i tis "head")
- Failure d and t before s or after the consonant at the end of a word, such as laus - laudis "praise", sors - sortis "fate", cor - cordis "heart", lac - lactis "milk"
- Failure of n in the nominative for masculine and feminine ( e.g. sanguis - sanguinis "blood", ordo - ordinis "order")
- Rhotazism (conversion from s to r , e.g .: corpus - corporis "body", honos - honoris "honor", ius - iuris "right")
- Conversion of e / o and i / u ( e.g. miles - militis "soldier", cinis - cineris "ash", mare - maris "sea", robur - roboris "force")
- s in the nominative singular after m (due to failure of the p , e.g. hiems - hiemis "winter").
First declination (a declination)
The first declension includes feminines that end in -a in the nominative singular , for example domina "Herrin".
|Nominative||domin a||domin ae|
|Genitive||domin ae||domin arum|
|dative||domin ae||domin īs|
|accusative||domin on||domin as|
|ablative||domin ā||domin īs|
- Male people are always masculine. Example: agricola "farmer".
- Some Greek loanwords have the nominative ending -ās , for example Aeneas (the vocative is Aenea and the accusative is also Aenean ), -ēs, for example cometes , or -ē , for example Andromede .
- Archaic endings have been preserved in some words, such as -as in the genitive singular in pater familias “family father ” and -abus in the dative and ablative plural deabus “the goddesses”.
Second declination (o-declination)
The second declension contains masculine, feminine and neutral nouns, for example the masculine dominus "Herr", the feminine mālus "apple tree" and the neuter templum "temple".
In Classical Latin, not too much has been preserved from the o of the o -declination: first, -os and -om were changed to -us and -um , and second, the old Latin diphthong -oi was changed to -i . The vocative ending -e is the Indo-European ablaut for the stem vowel o .
The 2nd declension also includes nouns with the nominative singular ending in - (e) r , such as: puer "Junge" or ager "Land, Acker". They only deviate from the normal schema in the nominative and vocative singular. Some of these nouns can lose the -e- in their declination (it is an auxiliary vowel in this case). E.g . : ager, which in the Acc.Sg. only means agr-um :
- Nouns that end in -ius , especially proper names such as Claudius , have -i instead of -ii in the genitive singular . The vocative ends in -i .
- The masculine locus "place" also forms the nominative and accusative plural loca , thus in the manner of a neuter.
- deus "God" has nominative and vocative plural di , dative and ablative plural dis , as genitive plural occasionally deûm , as well as several other forms in different cases.
- The ending genitive plural -um or with signs of contraction (signum contractionis) -ûm appears occasionally, for example triumvirum or triumvirûm instead of triumvirorum or templa deum or templa deûm instead of templa deorum "the temple of the gods".
- humus "earth", "soil", atomus "atom" and some other words are feminine; vulgus "people" and virus "poison" are neuter.
Third declension (consonantic, mixed and i-declination)
In this class the consonantic declination, the i-declination and a mixed type (mixed declination or mixed declination) of both are combined. The third declension is a very extensive declension. It includes nouns of all genera. In contrast to the first and second declension, it is almost impossible to derive the gender of a word from its nominative form, since the number of exceptions to the frequently read “rules” is considerable.
Another special feature is that the form of the nominative singular in a large number of words looks different from the stem of the other cases. Very often one cannot deduce the stem of the other cases from the nominative singular (and vice versa). The numerous rules stated as "helpful" for this only apply to small groups of words.
As always in the Indo-European languages, the nominative and accusative are identical in the neuter.
The i-declension only includes a few feminine nouns and a number of neutras, such as E.g .: mare "sea". All these nouns are characterized by the genitive plural on -ium , the ablative singular on -i , the accusative plural on -is (next to -es ), or the nominative / accusative plural on -ia for neutrals .
|Nominative||turr is||turr it or turr is|
|Genitive||turr is||turr ium|
|dative||turr i||Turr ibus|
|accusative||turr in||turr it or turr is|
|ablative||turr i||Turr ibus|
Wish list for the feminine of the i-declension:
- febris, sitis, turris, puppis, vis, securis
- vis is usually only used in the singular in the nominative, accusative and ablative (vis, vim, vi) .
|Genitive||mar is||mar ium|
|dative||mar i||mar ibus|
|ablative||mar i||mar ibus|
A catchword for the neuter of the i-declination:
- Area, d. h .: nouns ending in -ar , -e or -al . - Examples: exempl ar "example", mar e "sea", anim al "living being".
The words of the mixed class - such as: navis "ship" - have the same endings as the i-stems, but the ablative singular on -i and the accusative plural on -is are used increasingly less from the classical period.
|Nominative||nav is||nav it|
|Genitive||nav is||nav ium|
|dative||nav i||nav ibus|
|accusative||nav em||nav it|
|ablative||nav e or nav i||nav ibus|
Fourth declination (u-declination)
Most nouns of the fourth declension with the nominative singular -us are masculine, for example casus "Fall". Exceptions are, for example, the feminina domus ("house") and manus "hand".
|Nominative||cas us||cas us|
|Genitive||cas us||cas uum|
|dative||cas ui||cas ibus|
|accusative||cas around||cas us|
|ablative||cas u||cas ibus|
- Sometimes there is also an old genitive in -uis (e.g. senatuis to senatus ) and a dative in -u (e.g. exercitu to exercitus ).
The neuter of the 4th declension are in the nominative and accusative singular on -u , for example genu "Knie". Otherwise they differ from masculine words in that the dative singular ends in -u . In addition - as with the other neutrals - nominative and accusative are identical and nominative and accusative plural end in - (u) a .
|Nominative||gen u||gen et al|
|Genitive||gen us||gen Sandwich Islands|
|dative||gen u||gen ibus|
|accusative||gen u||gen et al|
|ablative||gen u||gen ibus|
- In some grammar books from the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries, the genitive is given with -u (instead of -us ), which is also used with the word cornu .
- In some grammar books from the 21st century the dative -ui is used instead of or next to -u .
Karl Gottlob Zumpt wrote: “Formerly, the neuter were written on u as indeclinabilia in the Singul. specified, but recent studies [...] oblige, especially in the genitive subject us to depart from this opinion. […] The dative ui is also cited by an old grammarian ( Martian. Capella lib. 3), but only cornu from Liv can be proven . 42, 58 [.] "
- The noun domus “house” has taken over the forms of the o-declension in some cases: genitive plural domorum , ablative singular domo , accusative plural domos . The locative is domi "at home".
- Some nouns have the ending -ubus in the dative and ablative plural , for example tribubus to tribus "district".
Fifth declination (e-declination)
Almost all fifth declension nouns are feminine, for example res "thing", "matter", "event".
The Indo-European nouns in diphthong belong to the e-declension.
|Nominative||r it||r it|
|Genitive||r ei||r erum|
|dative||r ei||r ebus|
|accusative||r em||r it|
|ablative||r e||r ebus|
- Masculine exceptions are the "day", "date" (also feminine) and meridies , meridiei "lunch". There are no neutras.
- this as feminine has the specific meaning “deadline”, “deadline”, thus certa the “on a certain date”.
A distinction is also made between so-called three-ended, two-ended and one-ended adjectives in the declination patterns of adjectives.
- The three-ended adjectives have different forms for masculine, feminine and neuter. These appear in the dictionary with the nominative singular of masculine, feminine and neuter, for example magnus, a, around "tall" or celer, eris, ere "quickly".
- In the case of the two-ended adjectives , masculine and feminine coincide, in the dictionary the nominative singular of masculine / feminine and neuter are given accordingly, an example is hilaris, e "cheerful".
- The single-ended adjectives have no distinction according to gender in the nominative singular , in the dictionary they appear with nominative and genitive singular, for example felix, icis "happy". Other case and number than the nominative singular can have different gender forms, so felix has masculine and feminine felicem in the accusative singular , but felix in the neuter .
a and o declination
The adjectives on -us (masculine), -a (feminine) and -um (neutral) correspond to the nouns of the a- and o-declensions and have three ends:
|magnus, -a, -um "large"|
|Nominative||magn us||magn a||magn around||magn i||magn ae||magn a|
|Genitive||magn i||magn ae||magn i||magn orum||magn arum||magn orum|
|dative||magn o||magn ae||magn o||magn is|
|accusative||magn around||magn am||magn around||magn os||magn as||magn a|
|ablative||magn o||magn a||magn o||magn is|
|vocative||magn e||magn a||-||magn i||magn ae||-|
Analogous to the nouns of the o-declension, there are also adjectives of the o-declension with the ending -er , for example niger, nigra, nigrum "black":
|niger, -gra, -grum "black"|
|Nominative||Niger||nigr a||nigr around||nigr i||nigr ae||nigr a|
|Genitive||nigr i||nigr ae||nigr i||nigr orum||nigr arum||nigr orum|
|dative||nigr o||nigr ae||nigr o||nigr is|
|accusative||nigr around||nigr am||nigr around||nigr os||nigr as||nigr a|
|ablative||nigr o||nigr a||nigr o||nigr is|
The vocative corresponds to the nominative. Some of the adjectives on -er keep (analogous to puer "Knabe") the ending in all case forms, for example liber, libera, liberum "frei" or miser, misera, miserum "unhappy".
Third declension adjectives
The basic declination pattern of the third declension adjectives is as follows:
|Nominative||Masculine form||Feminine form||Neutral form||- it||- ia|
|Genitive||- is||- ium|
|dative||- i||- ibus|
|accusative||- em||= Neutral form nominative||- it ( is )||- ia|
|ablative||- i||- ibus|
The vocative corresponds to the nominative. Accordingly, three-, two- and one-ended adjectives of the 3rd declension differ only in the nominative singular and the accusative singular of the neuter.
The nominative singular of some adjectives can have a special form that deviates from the stem of the other case forms, an example is the three-ended acer, acr is , acr e "sharp" (here the masculine deviates from the stem acr ) as well as many of the single-ended adjectives, zum Example felix , felicis "successful". Some adjectives inflect purely consonant, e.g. B. vetus, veter is "old" or dives, divit is "rich".
Increase ( comparison )
In addition to the basic level of adjectives (the positive) there are in Latin - as in German -:
- the comparative (the higher / comparison level) - both as a relative and as an absolute comparative - as well as
- the superlative (the highest level) - both as a relative and as an absolute superlative.
To form these forms, the following are added to the root:
- in the comparative -ior (m./f.), -ius (n.) and
- in the superlative -issimus, -a, -um .
In order to form the comparative, the comparative endings have to be added to the root of the adjective. For the masculine and feminine forms, -ior is added, for the neutral forms -ius . For example, the positive durus, -a, -um “hard” becomes the comparative durior, -ius “harder”. The comparative forms are declined similarly to the r-stems of the third declension.
|durior, -ius "harder"|
|Nominative||dur ior||dur ius||dur iores||dur iora|
|Genitive||dur ioris||dur iorum|
|dative||dur iori||dur ioribus|
|accusative||dur iorem||durius||dur iores||dur iora|
|ablative||dur iore||dur ioribus|
The superlative is the highest form of increase. In order to form the superlative, the superlative endings must be added to the root of the adjective: -issimus, -issima, -issimum. In their endings they correspond to the adjectives of the a and o declination and are also declined in the same way:
|durissimus, -a, -um "hardest", "very hard"|
|Nominative||dur issimus||dur issima||dur issimum||dur issimi||dur issimae||dur issima|
|Genitive||dur issimi||dur issimae||dur issimi||dur issimorum||dur issimarum||dur issimorum|
|dative||dur issimo||dur issimae||dur issimo||dur issimis|
|accusative||dur issimum||dur issimam||dur issimum||dur issimos||dur issimas||dur issima|
|ablative||dur issimo||dur issima||dur issimo||dur issimis|
- With adjectives ending in -er , the superlative is formed with -rimus , -rima , -rimum , for example zu miser the superlative miserrimus .
- Some adjectives ending in -lis form the superlative on -limus , -lima , -limum , for example the superlative facillimus for facilis .
Irregular forms of increase
Like German, Latin also knows irregular forms of increasing adjectives. These include forms such as:
|bonus||melior||optimus||well, better, the best|
|malus||peior||pessimus||bad, worse, the worst|
|magnus||maior||maximus||big, bigger, the greatest|
|parvus||minor||minimus||small, smaller, the smallest|
|multum||plus||plurimum||much, more, most of it|
|multi||plures||plurimi||many, several, most|
Pronouns are declinable words (nouns in the broadest sense) that take the place of nouns (pro nomine substantivo) . Latin distinguishes between the following types of pronouns: personal pronouns , possessive pronouns , reflexive pronouns , demonstrative pronouns , interrogative pronouns , relative pronouns
The declension of the many Latin pronouns shows some irregularities, especially in the nominative as well as in the genitive singular (which here often ends in -ius ) and dative singular (which here often ends in -i ).
Personal pronouns (1st and 2nd person)
The first and second person of the personal pronoun are as follows:
|1st person||2nd person|
|I ...||we ...||you ...||you …|
|Genitive||my||nostri / nostrum||tui||vestri / vestrum|
|ablative||mē (cum)||nōbīs (cum)||tē (cum)||vōbīs (cum)|
Personal / demonstrative pronouns
is , ea , id has the function of the third person of the personal pronoun when it is in a sentence without a reference word (translated as “he / she / it”). In this function, the pronoun occurs relatively rarely. It has the function of a demonstrative pronoun (translated as “der / die / das” or “this / this / this”) if it is placed in front of a reference word.
|is, ea, id "the", "the one", "he"|
hic , haec , hoc has the function of describing the temporal and spatial proximity (in communication situations: to the speaker). One also speaks of Nahdeixis (see Deixis ).
|hic, haec, hoc "this one (here)"|
illegal , illa , illud the opposite function of describing the temporal and spatial distance (distant deixis). In addition, illegal also refers to what has already been said or known ( illegal Seneca = “the” Seneca, namely the philosopher that everyone knows).
|illegal, illa, illud "that (there)"|
|Nominative||ill e||ill a||ill ud||ill i||ill ae||ill a|
|Genitive||ill ius||ill orum||ill arum||ill orum|
|dative||ill i||ill is|
|accusative||ill um||ill am||ill ud||ill os||ill as||ill a|
|ablative||ill o||ill a||ill o||ill is|
iste , ista , istud in communication situations refers to someone / something close to what is being addressed; sometimes it has a derogatory sense ("that one").
|iste, ista, istud "this (there)"|
|Nominative||is e||is a||is ud||is i||is ae||is a|
|Genitive||is ius||is orum||is arum||is orum|
|dative||is i||is is|
|accusative||is over||is on||is ud||is os||is as||is a|
|ablative||is o||is a||is o||is is|
ipse , ipsa , ipsum is also stronger than is , ea , id . They highlight a person.
|ipse, ipsa, ipsum "yourself, personally"|
|Nominative||ips e||ips a||ips around||ips i||ips ae||ips a|
|Genitive||ips ius||ips orum||ips arum||ips orum|
|dative||ips i||ips is|
|accusative||ips around||ips am||ips around||ips os||ips as||ips a|
|ablative||ips o||ips a||ips o||ips is|
idem , eadem , idem with the translation “same” has a retroactive effect on a person who appears again.
|idem, eadem, idem "the same, the same"|
|dative||eidem||ice dem (iisdem)|
|ablative||eodem||eadem||eodem||ice dem (iisdem)|
|-, oneself …|
|Who? m./f.||What? n.|
The adjectival interrogative pronoun qui , quae , quod also serves as a relative pronoun in Latin. It can also be at the beginning of a sentence and then refers to a noun in the preceding sentence.
|qui, quae, quod "the one who"|
Basic numbers and ordinal numbers
- Multi-digit numbers are composed by the tens number preceded by or with either et is connected, so viginti unus or unus et viginti for "21", or Vicesimus primus or unus et Vicesimus for "the 21HP".
- Numbers 8 or 9 in the last place are usually put together by subtraction: un de triginta for "29" or duo de triginta for "28".
Declination of numerals
The following numerals are inflected:
- unus, una, unum " ein, eine, ein " corresponding to the singular of the o-declension of the adjectives except for the dative and genitive.
- duo, duae, duo "two" and ambo, ambae, ambo "both" are inflected irregularly. Sometimes older dual endings , otherwise extinct in inflection, are used.
- Hundreds of ducenti, -ae, -a to nongenti, -ae, -a are regularly inflected after the plural a / o declension.
- mille "thousand" is a singular, undeclinable adjective. However, it has the regular, single-ended plural form milia or millia , which is inflected according to the 3rd declension plural neuter.
- The ordinal numbers are inflected like adjectives of the a / o declination (-us, -a, -um) .
- The number adjectives simplex, -icis "single", duplex, -icis "double", triplex, -icis "triple" and multiplex, -icis "multiple" are also inflected .
- The number nouns unio, -ionis "the one", binio, -ionis "the two" etc. are also inflected .
An adverb can be formed in three different ways, depending on the adjective from which it is derived. If the adjective is one of the a- and o-declension, such as B .: durus "hart", the adverb is formed on "-e": dure . If the adjective is one of the third declension, for example: hilaris "cheerful", the adverb is formed from "- (i) ter": hilariter . And if the stem of the adjective is "-nt", such as B .: vehemens "wild" (genitive singular: vehementis ), then "-er" is used: vehemently . Exceptions are e.g. B. the adjectives facilis (adverb: facile ) and difficilis (adverb: difficulter ). However, these are noted in every common dictionary.
Adverbs cannot be inflected. They therefore do not change their shape.
The comparative of adverbs, like the nominative singular neuter comparative of adjectives, is formed with the ending "-ius", which is added to the root of the word: dure "hard", durius "harder" or hilariter "happy", hilarius "happy" .
The superlative of the adverbs is formed with the ending “-e”, which is added to the superlative stem of the adjective: durissimus (“hardest”, adjective in the nominative singular masculine) becomes durissime (“hardest”, adverb). This is the same with the other adjective forms.
Irregular forms of increase
The adverbs also have irregular forms of intensification, such as:
|level||melius||optime||good, better, the best|
|times||peius||pessime||bad worse worst|
|valde / magnopere||magis||maxim||very|
|multum||plus||plurim around||much, more, most|
|paulum||minus||minime||little, less, the least|
There is no adjective of saepe.
Determination of verbs
Latin and German verbs come in finite ([with regard to person-number] certain) and infinite ([with regard to person-number] undefined) forms.
The finite verb forms can be conjugated ([with regard to tense, mode, person etc.] changed, inflected),
for example: voc-o , “ich ruf-e”; voca-s , "you call-st"; voca-t , "he ruf-t" etc.
They are used as predicates .
The verbs in Latin change morphologically. They can be conjugated according to the following categories:
- Person: first, second and third person
- Number: singular and plural
- Diathesis : active and (medio) passive
- Tense : present tense , past tense , perfect , past perfect , future tense , perfect-Futur and some composite Times
- Mode : indicative , subjunctive , imperative
Latin verbs are synthetic in all active forms as well as in the present, past and future tense (i.e. the forms of the present stem). H. Formed without auxiliary verbs and only using grammatical educational morphemes. Only in the passive of the perfect, past perfect and perfect-future tense as well as in the so-called periphrastic tenses does an analytical formation take place, as in German, by means of a participle and the auxiliary verb esse (sein). In contrast to the general synthetic character of Latin (see below), there is an analytical tendency here. Unlike in German, the auxiliary verb “haben” (habere) is never used. Latin verbs consist of a verb stem (present, perfect or supine stem), possibly provided with a verbal prefix, a tense and mode sign, which indicates the tense and mode and which follows or replaces the stem-ending vowel, as well as - except in the infinitive forms - a personal extension that simultaneously shows person, number and diathesis.
The following table shows the structure of Latin verbs based on some selected forms of the verb amare (to love).
|meaning||tribe||Tense / mode signs||Person, number, diathesis|
|Present stem||1st person singular present indicative active||I am in love||on (a) -||-||-o (-a- + -o to o)|
|2nd person singular present subjunctive active||you love / you may love||on (a) -||-e-||-s|
|2nd person plural imperfect subjunctive active||you loved / you would love||ama-||-re-||-tis|
|1st person plural future indicative passive||we will be loved||ama-||-bi-||-mur|
|Perfect stem||1st person singular perfect indicative active||I loved / I loved||amav-||-||-i|
|2nd person singular perfect subjunctive active||you loved||amav-||-eri-||-s|
|3rd person plural past perfect indicative active||they had loved||amav-||-era-||-nt|
The table shows that the middle position between stem and personal ending is occupied by the tense and modus morpheme, while the last position is reserved for the suffix, which simultaneously indicates person, number and diathesis. In the present and perfect indicative, the tense sign is a null morpheme (the position is therefore not occupied). In some future and subjunctive forms, the stem vowel is replaced by a different vowel depending on the declension class.
According to the end of the stem, there are five conjugation classes in the present or basic stem (a-, e- and consonantic, ĭ- and i-conjugation).
If you look in a Latin dictionary, it looks something like this:
- a: vocare, voco, vocavi, vocatum; call , call
- e: videre, video, vidi, visa: see
- i: audire, audio, audivi, auditum; Listen
- consonantic: agere, ago, egi, actum; act , drive
- cons. with -i- in the present stem: capere, cap i o, cepi, captum; grasp , take
The first form gives the infinitive present, the second the 1st person singular present indicative active, the third the 1st person singular indicative perfect active, the fourth the supinum.
Tense and mode signs as well as floating vowels that appear according to certain rules are different between the conjugation classes in scheme (1), for example:
- duc- e -t (3rd person singular indicative future tense I active from ducere "to lead")
- lauda- bi -t (the same as laudare "to praise")
There are also some irregular verbs, e.g. B .:
- es-t (3rd person singular present indicative active of esse "to be")
- su-nt (the same in the plural).
Finite verb forms
They are marked according to person , number , mode , tense and diathesis . As in English, there are three persons, two numbers (singular and plural), three modes (indicative, subjunctive and imperative), eight tenses in the indicative ( present tense , past tense , future tense , perfect , past perfect , future tense II ), immediate future tense, past of the immediate future and two diatheses (active and passive). Tense and mode use differ from German; the translations given below are therefore only examples.
The finite verb forms are formed according to three schemes:
Finite present stem forms: present tense, past tense and future tense I.
According to the scheme: present tense stem - tense or mode sign - personal ending - diathesis marking (active / passive), e.g. B .:
- dele-Ø * -t (3rd person singular present indicative active of "destroy")
- dele-ba-t (same in the imperfect indicative )
- dele-ba-tur (same in the indicative past tense passive)
- dele-a-tur (3rd person singular present subjunctive passive)
- dele-re-t (3rd person singular subjunctive imperfect active)
- dele-bi-t (3rd person singular indicative future I active)
- dele-bi-tur (3rd person singular indicative future tense I passive)
*) Ø = null morpheme (ellipsis)
In the imperative, the special personal ending signals the mode: In the singular dele! (destroy!) and in the plural dele-te! (destroyed!). The negative imperative is usually paraphrased: either with the negative particle ne and the subjunctive perfect or by noli / nolite (“want / don't want”) plus the infinitive.
The future tense I is the only form in the Latin present stem that does not have a subjunctive. This is partly compensated for by the past participle Future I Active (PFA).
Finite active perfect stem forms: active forms of perfect, past perfect and future tense II
According to the scheme: perfect stem (regularly or irregularly derived from the basic stem) - tense / modus characters - personal ending, for example:
- delev-it (3rd person singular indicative perfect active)
- Delev-isse-t (the same in the subjunctive pluperfect )
- delev-eri-t (same in the indicative future II)
Finite active analytical forms: immediate future and its past
According to the scheme: participle future active ( supine stem + -ur- + gender ending) and present or past tense form of esse "sein", z. B .:
- delet-ur-us est (3rd person singular indicative immediate future tense active masculine) "he is about to destroy"
- delet-ur-us erat (same thing in the past)
Finite passive analytical forms: perfect, past perfect and future II passive
According to the scheme: past participle passive ( supine stem + gender ending) and present, past or future tense of esse "sein", z. B .:
- deletus est (3rd person singular indicative perfect passive masculine)
- deletus erit (the same in the indicative future tense II)
- deletus esset (the same in the subjunctive past perfect )
Future II is the only form in the Latin perfect stem that does not have a subjunctive.
Inflection according to the individual grammatical categories
Person and number
The two categories person and number are self-explanatory and essentially correspond to the usage in German. In the verb itself, Latin makes no distinction between formal and informal speech (“you” and “you”). People in higher positions were also addressed in the second person singular.
In the case of personal endings, a distinction must be made between present stem and perfect stem as well as active and passive:
|Present stem||1st person||–Ō, –m||- mus||-Or, -r||–Mur|
|Perfect stem||1st person||–Ī||-Imus|
|3rd person||–It||–Ērunt (-ēre)|
Present, past tense and future tense are formed from the present tense stem, perfect, past perfect and future tense II from the perfect stem. In this distinction between the present and the perfect stem, an echo of the distinction between the perfective and the imperfectual aspect , which probably predominates on a fundamental level in the Indo-European proto-language , can be seen. In Latin, however, the focus is not on the aspect, but on the tense. So the perfect first and foremost denotes an action in the past and only secondarily a completed action.
The three tenses of the present stem roughly describe actions that are thought to be incomplete in the present (present tense), in the past (imperfect tense) or in the future (future tense). The perfect tense denotes an action that has already been completed in the present, the past perfect an action that was completed in the past before another action , the future tense II an action that will be completed at some point in the future.
The indicative present active is formed by adding the personal endings directly to the present stem. This category is thus characterized by a null morpheme.
The indicative past tense active is formed by the morphemes -ba- (1st and 2nd conjugation) or -êba- (3rd and 4th conjugation) plus personal endings (1st person singular -m instead of -ô !).
The indicative future active is made up of the morphemes -b (e, i, u) - (1st and 2nd conjugation) or -a, e- (3rd and 4th conjugation) plus personal endings (1st person singular -m instead of -ô !).
In the indicative perfect active, the personal endings of the perfect stem shown above appear directly next to them.
In the indicative past perfect active, the morpheme -erâ- occurs between the perfect stem and personal endings of the perfect.
In the indicative Future II Aktiv, the morphemes -erô / eri- occur between the perfect stem and personal endings of the perfect.
The following tables show the conjugation in the indicative in all six tenses in the active for all three persons and both numbers for the verbs amare (“love” - 1st conjugation), tenere (“hold” - 2nd conjugation), dicere (“say "- 3rd conjugation) and audire (" to hear "- 4th conjugation):
|Present active indicative|
|Imperfect active indicative|
|Future active indicative|
|Perfectly active indicative|
|Past perfect active indicative|
|Future tense II active indicative|
Formation of the perfect stem
Latin knows several ways of forming perfect stems. The most common form (especially 1st and 4th conjugation) is the v-perfect, in which the perfect stem is formed from the present stem by a morpheme -v- attached to it:
- amare (love), amavi (I loved)
In the u-perfect (the standard, but with significantly more exceptions, in the 2nd or e-conjugation), the derivation from the present tense is made using the morpheme -u- :
- monere (admonish), monui (I admonished)
In the s-perfect, the derivation from the present stem is done using the morpheme -s- :
- scribere (write), scripsi (I wrote)
With the stretch perfect, the perfect stem is formed by stretching the stem vowel:
- venire (come), vêni (I came)
A related form is the ablaut perfect:
- facere (do, do), fêci (I did)
Finally, some reduplication forms have also been preserved in Latin, in which the perfect stem is formed by reduplicating the first syllable. This perfect formation, which is still the rule in ancient Greek, is probably a relic from the Indo-European proto-language.
- currere (run), cucurri (I ran)
Some Latin present tense stems contain an n-infix, which is an old present tense morpheme that is no longer productive in Latin. This disappears when converted into the perfect stem:
- vincere (win), vîci (I won) (stretch perfect )
The perfect of esse (to be) is fui, fuisti… .
The perfect perfect of ferre (to wear) is tuli, tulisti… (participle latum ). This looks as if it came from the obviously related tollere (to cancel), which itself has the irregular perfect forms sustuli, sustulisti (participle sublatum ).
Also irregular is incipere (to begin), which is compounded with a prefix in the present stem, but does not form * incepi, but coepi, coepisti… in the perfect stem .
The imperative is the form of command that in Latin can be formed not only from the 2nd person singular and plural, but also from the two 3rd persons (although not in the present tense). The forms are in the active:
- 2nd person Sing .: - (e)
- 2nd / 3rd Pers. Sing .: -tô
- 2nd person Pl .: - (i) te , - (i) tôte
- 3rd person Pl .: (u) ntô
The passive forms are:
- 2nd person Sing .: - (e) right
- 2nd / 3rd Pers. Sing .: - (i) tor
- 2nd person Pl .: (i) mini
- 3rd person Pl .: (u) ntor
The passive forms are i. d. Usually only used for landfill (see below).
With the subjunctive or subjunctive, a distinction must be made between the use in main clauses and in subordinate clauses. If the present subjunctive is used in the main clause, it means above all
In addition, the subjunctive is used in the present tense or in one of the three past tense forms to denote actions in subordinate clauses, as is also the case in German.
Latin forms subjunctive forms from the following tenses:
- Present subjunctive
- Imperfect subjunctive
- Subjunctive perfect
- Subjunctive past perfect
The mode sign of the present subjunctive is a -e- for the 1st conjugation , which occurs between the verb stem and the personal ending instead of the stem ending -a- . The 2nd to 4th conjugation use the mode character -a- .
|Present active subjunctive|
The modal character of the imperfect subjunctive is -re / rê- . It occurs between the unchanged present stem and the personal ending of the present stem.
|Past tense active subjunctive|
The mode sign of the subjunctive perfect is -eri / erî- . It occurs between perfect stem and personal endings of the perfect.
|Perfect active subjunctive|
The subjunctive past perfect active uses the modal signs -isse / issê- , which occur between the perfect stem and personal endings of the perfect.
|Past perfect subjunctive active|
In diathesis , also known as the genus verbi, Latin differentiates between active and passive, the functions of which essentially correspond to those in German. An originally existing medium is still perceptible in some verbs ( lavari - to wash) and the dumpsters . These verbs have almost exclusively passive forms, but active, mostly reflexive meanings, for example mirari - to be surprised, uti - to make use of, potiri - to take hold. There are still a few semideponents in which the verbal stems are assigned differently to the diatheses, i.e. H. they have either an active present tense stem and a passive perfect stem (more common case) or a passive present tense stem and an active perfect stem (less common case).
The passive tense is formed in the present, past and future tense by adding the passive personal endings to the tense or mode signs. In these tenses, as for example in the North Germanic languages and unlike in German, there is a synthetic formation of the passive. The following table shows the present passive in the indicative for all four declension classes. The synthetic liabilities of the other tenses and modes are formed in the same way, which is why they are not shown here.
|Present passive indicative|
The passive voice is analytically formed in the perfect, past perfect and future II by combining the past participle passive (PPP) with the inflected forms of the auxiliary verb esse . Unlike in German, and as it is today, for example in Italian, the participle is declined according to number and gender - if, for example, the objects of the action are several women, the PPP receives the ending -ae . The following tables assume an object or objects in the masculine word.
Perfect passive indicative:
|Perfect passive indicative|
|1st person||portātus sum||portātī sumus||territus sum||territī sumus||petītus sum||petītī sumus||audītus sum||audītī sumus|
|2nd person||portātus it||portātī estis||territory it||territī estis||petītus it||petītī estis||audītus it||audītī estis|
|3rd person||portātus est||portātī sunt||territus est||territī sunt||petītus est||petītī sunt||audītus est||audītī sunt|
The perfect passive subjunctive is formed using the subjunctive of the auxiliary verb:
|Perfect passive subjunctive|
|1st person||portātus sim||portātī sīmus||territory sim||territī sīmus||petītus sim||petītī sīmus||audītus sim||audītī sīmus|
|2nd person||portātus sīs||portātī sītis||territus sīs||territī sītis||petītus sīs||petītī sītis||audītus sīs||audītī sītis|
|3rd person||portātus sit||portātī sint||territus sit||territī sint||petītus sit||petītī sint||audītus sit||audītī sint|
In the passive past perfect tense, the auxiliary verb is used in the past tense (indicative or subjunctive):
|Past perfect Passive Indicative|
|1st person||portātus eram||portātī erāmus||territory eram||territī erāmus||petītus eram||petītī erāmus||audītus eram||audītī erāmus|
|2nd person||portātus erās||portātī erātis||territus erās||territī erātis||petītus erās||petītī erātis||audītus erās||audītī erātis|
|3rd person||portātus erat||portātī erant||territus erat||territī erant||petītus erat||petītī erant||audītus erat||audītī erant|
|Past perfect passive subjunctive|
|1st person||portātus essem||portātī essēmus||territory of essem||territī essēmus||petītus essem||petītī essēmus||audītus essem||audītī essēmus|
|2nd person||portātus essēs||portātī essētis||territus essēs||territī essētis||petītus essēs||petītī essētis||audītus essēs||audītī essētis|
|3rd person||portātus eats||portātī essent||territory eats||territī essent||petītus eats||petītī essent||audītus eats||audītī essent|
The future tense II passive is formed using the auxiliary verb in the future tense. There is no subjunctive here.
|Future tense II passive indicative|
|1st person||portātus erō||portātī erimus||territus erō||territī erimus||petītus erō||petītī erimus||audītus erō||audītī erimus|
|2nd person||portātus eris||portātī eritis||territus eris||territī eritis||petītus eris||petītī eritis||audītus eris||audītī eritis|
|3rd person||portātus erit||portātī erunted||territory of erit||territī erunt||petītus erit||petītī erunted||audītus erit||audītī erunt|
In rare contexts, the verb forms formed according to the scheme are not sufficient to clarify the meaning; A secondary filling of this functional point is necessary, especially where the futuristic subjunctive would have to be used; here then circumscribing forms (the so-called coniugatio periphrastica ) appear. In Latin grammar, all verb complexes that have esse as a finite component and a participle as an infinite component are referred to as periphrastic / circumscribing conjugation or coniugatio periphrastica ; in the narrower sense, only the future participles associated with the conjugation forms of the verb esse (sum, eras, fuit, erimus, fueritis, fuerant ...) are regarded as forms of the coniugatio periphrastica .
The latter forms express:
- Imminent : Te visitaturus sum - "I am about to visit you",
- an intention (intention), a will (see optative and voluntary ): Te visurus eram - "I wanted to see you, intended to see you, was willing to see you" or also
- a condition in the function of a conditional: Si amici futuri sumus - "If we want to be friends"
Infinite verb forms
The infinitive occurs as an infinitive of simultaneity (infinitive present), prematurity (infinitive perfect) and post-temporality (infinitive future tense), in the active and in the passive, e.g. For example : delere "to destroy", deleri "to be destroyed", delevisse "to have destroyed", deletum esse "to have been destroyed", deleturum esse "to destroy in the future", deletum iri "to be destroyed in the future".
In the present tense the infinitive has the following forms:
- -are for the 1st conjugation
- -ēre for the 2nd conjugation
- -ĕre for the 3rd conjugation
- -ire for the 4th conjugation
- -ari for the 1st conjugation
- -ēri for the 2nd conjugation
- -i for the 3rd conjugation
- -iri for the 4th conjugation
In the perfect active, the infinitive is -isse , whereby of course the perfect stem must be used: amavisse (to have loved). The infinitive of the perfect passive is analytically formed with the participle perfect passive (PPP) and esse (to be): amatus esse (to have been loved).
The participle (a verbal adjective ) is available in the variants simultaneity / active ( PPA ) (signal -nt-), prematurity / passive ( PPP ) (signal mostly -t- or -s-) and lateness / active ( PFA ) (signal almost without exception -ur- to the so-called supine strain ), for example: delens (from * delent-s ) "destructive", deletus "destroyed", deleturus "destructive in the future".
The gerund , a verbal noun, is traditionally the noun infinitive that can be used in the nominative or accusative like a noun ( vincere placet “we like winning”, laudare amamus “we love to praise”). For the other cases, and after prepositions also for the accusative, it creates its own forms on "-nd-"; z. B .: in delendo "while destroying", ad delendum / delendi causa "in order to destroy". (In school grammar it is customary to declare "laudare, laudandi, laudando, ad laudandum, laudando"; whether this is objectively justified or only the own forms should be called "Gerund" can be left open.)
The gerundive (also a verbal adjective , also referred to as the past participle passive) in German has the equivalent of "zu ... -nd"; it is formed with the ending “-ndus”, “-a”, “-um” and inflected after the a / o declination. Used as a predicate noun or attribute , it expresses a necessity, a recommendation or a prohibition and then corresponds to the German construction “zu” + first participle. With predictive use it can also (and more often) replace the gerund, for example: in Carthagine delenda (with gerundive) instead of more rarely in Carthaginem delendo (with gerund) "at the destruction of Carthage".
The supinum (also a verbal noun ) has no equivalent in German. It is formed like the participle perfect passive - but after the u-declination - and has the ending "-um" (supinum I) rsp. "-U" (Supinum II) and represents frozen cases with a final meaning; z. B .: deletum venio “I come to destroy”, horribile dictu “terrible to say”.
Abbreviated verb forms, elongated verb forms and archaisms
The following short forms, long forms or archaisms often appear:
- In the perfect tense, there is no infix -ve / vi- before an ending with an “r” or “s”, for example: lauda (vi) sti “you have praised”, lauda (ve) runt “they have praised”, lauda ( vi) sse "to have vowed" etc. etc. etc.
- The present passive infinitive also ends in -rier (instead of -ri ).
- The form of the 2nd person singular appears in the passive as -re (instead of -ris ), e.g. B .: laudare “you will be praised” (→ in the indicative present passive identical to the infinitive present active laudare “praise”).
- With the imperatives dic !, duc !, fac !, fer !, ai !, es! "Say (e)!", "Lead (e)!", "Do (e)!", "Wear (e)!", "Claim!", "Be!" Is apokope (erosion of the stem vowel e) .
- Passive form of the imperative future tense of the 2nd and 3rd person singular is also -mino (instead of -tor ) in the older language .
Latin knows a number of irregular verbs (1st Pers. Sing. Pres. Act. Ind., Infinitive, 1st Pers. Sing. Perf. Act., If available: PPP):
- sum, esse, fuī, futūrum (to be)
- possum, posse, potuī (can)
- eō, īre, īvī / iī, ītum (to go)
- volō, velle, voluī (want)
- nōlō, nōlle, nōluī (not wanting)
- mālō, mālle, māluī (prefer)
- ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum (to wear)
- fīō, fierī, factus sum (to become)
- edō, ēsse or edere, ēdī, ēsum (to eat)
Auxiliary verb esse
|person||1st person||2nd person||3rd person||1st person||2nd person||3rd person|
|conjunctive||si m||si s||si t||si mis||si tis||si nt|
|Past tense||indicative||era m||what s||what t||what mus||era tis||era nt|
|conjunctive||eat m||eat s||eat t||eat mus||eat tis||eat nt|
|Perfect||indicative||fu i||fu isti||fu it||fu imus||fu istis||fu erunt|
|conjunctive||for i m||for s||for i t||füri mus||füri tis||fori nt|
|past continuous||indicative||for a m||for a s||for a t||füra mus||füra tis||for a nt|
|conjunctive||fuisse m||fuisse s||fuisse t||fuisse mus||fuisse tis||fuisse nt|
|Future tense||he o||he is||he it||he imus||he itis||he unt|
|Future tense II||for o||for is||for it||for imus||for itis||for int|
The Accusativus cum Infinitivo (= AcI)
The Latin AcI is an infinitive construction that is mostly dependent on a verb of perception, knowledge or speaking (verba sentiendi et dicendi) or on a certain expression. It takes the position of the object and is thus also translated with an object sentence in the form of a that sentence. When translating, the accusative in the name becomes the subject and the infinitive becomes the full verb of the object sentence, which is introduced by the conjunction “that”. To determine the tense of the main verb, the tense of the infinitive is needed:
- Infinitive (present tense) -> simultaneity with the main verb in the main clause (see example 1)
- Infinitive perfect -> prematurity to the main verb in the main clause (see example 2)
- Infinitive future tense -> Nachzeitigkeit to the main verb in the main clause (see example 3)
Ex. 1: Num putas me scribere tantum posse? Do you think I can only write?
Ex. 2: Ego quoque Lucullo ingenium egregium fuisse accepi. I have also learned that Lucull's bravery is excellent.
Example 3: Spero eum mox cum militibus Romam venturum. I hope that he will soon come to Rome with the soldiers.
Nominativus cum Infinitivo (= NcI)
The Latin NcI is an infinitive construction that is mostly dependent on a verb in the 3rd person singular passive. The NcI takes the position of the subject and is thus also translated with a subject sentence in the form of a that-sentence. The main verb of the main clause is translated as passive and neuter, followed by the subject clause with the introductory conjunction “that”. The nominative of the NcI becomes the subject and the infinitive becomes the main verb of the subject clause. For the tense of the verb, the same rules apply as for AcI:
- Infinitive (present tense) -> simultaneity to the main verb in the main clause
- Infinitive perfect -> prematurity to the main verb in the main clause
- Infinitive future tense -> Nachzeitigkeit to the main verb in the main clause
If one strives for a more free translation of the NcI, one can “activate” the main clause and translate the NcI “like the AcI” with an object clause.
Example: Hercules filius Jovis fuisse dicitur.
Literal translation: It is said that Hercules was a son of Jupiter.
free translation: It is said that Hercules was a son of Jupiter.
The Participium conjunctum (PC)
The pc is a participle construction embedded in a main clause. It extends from a noun or a pronoun that takes on the function of a noun to a participle. Nouns or pronouns are in the KNG congruence to the participle. The rest of the pc stands between the pro-noun and participle.
The translation of the PC
There are two ways to translate the PC:
- by a relative clause
- through an adverbial sentence
By a relative clause
Step by step instructions:
- Translate main clause
- Determine the tense of the relative clause (see below)
- Form a relative clause
The tense of the relative clause can be determined using the tense of the participle:
- Present active participle → simultaneity to the main verb of the main clause (see example 1)
- Past participle Passive → prematurity to the main verb of the main clause (see example 2)
- Past participle active → Nachzeitigkeit to the main verb of the main clause (see example 3)
Example 1: Barbari feri Rhenum et Mosellam oppugnantes oppida Romana circumveniunt. The savage barbarians who attack the Rhine and Moselle surround the Roman cities.
Example 2: Alii principes civitatis adventu exercitus Romani territi ex vicis et oppidis ad Caesarem venerunt, ut de suis rebus cum eo agerent. Other leading men of a state frightened by the arrival of the Roman army came to Caesar from the villages and towns to negotiate their affairs with him.
Example 3: Servus dominam villam intraturam salutat. The slave greets the mistress who wants to enter the house.
Through an adverbial sentence
Step by step instructions:
- Translate main clause
- Determine the sense of direction of the PC (temporal, causal, concessional, conditional) Tip: Sometimes several options are possible. You take the one that fits best.
- Determine the tense of the adverbial sentence (see below)
- Form adverbial clauses
The tense of the adverbial clause can be determined using the tense of the participle:
- Present active participle → simultaneity to the main verb of the main clause (see example 1)
- Past participle Passive → prematurity to the main verb of the main clause (see example 2)
- Past participle active → Nachzeitigkeit to the main verb of the main clause (see example 3)
Example: 1: Barbari feri Rhenum et Mosellam oppugnantes oppida Romana circumveniunt. When the wild barbarians attack the Rhine and Moselle, they surround the Roman cities.
Example 2: Alii principes civitatis adventu exercitus Romani territi ex vicis et oppidis ad Caesarem venerunt, ut de suis rebus cum eo agerent. After other leading men of a state had frightened the arrival of the Roman army, they came to Caesar from the villages and towns to negotiate their things with him.
Example 3: Germani, cum nuper contra Romanos pugnarent, me consulturi venerunt. When the Teutons recently fought against the Romans, they came to question me.
The ablativus absolutus (abl. Para.)
The ablativus absolutus is a special form of the PC. The participle and the reference word are in the ablative. The post-temporality cannot, however, be used, only prematurity and simultaneity.
Example 1: Simultaneity: Te regente nemo inopia laborat.
Example 2: Prematurity: Qua re audita celeriter ad theatrum ibam.
The translation of the oj Section.
The translation of the ablativus absolutus corresponds exactly to that of the participium conjunctum:
Example 1: Te regente nemo inopia laborat. When you rule, no one is in need.
Example 2: Qua re audita celeriter ad theatrum ibam. After hearing this thing, I quickly went to the theater.
The short forms
There are short expressions in Latin that can only be expressed with the ablative absolutus. These are not regular, do not follow the translation principle of the PC or the OJ. Section. and must therefore be learned by heart:
Creonte auctore = at the instigation of Creton
Creonte invito = against the will of Crete
Creonte duce = under the guidance of the creton
Of course, the name "Kreton" can also be replaced by others.
Nominative accusative language; congruence
Like the other old and most recent Indo-European languages (including German), Latin is a nominative-accusative language , and here it must be distinguished from the ergative languages . The sentence subject is in the basic case, the nominative, the direct object is in the accusative, the predicate is congruent with the subject. In passive constructions, on the other hand, the logical object is in the nominative and the predicate is congruent with this.
Another feature inherited from the Indo-European original language is the congruence between adjective attribute and reference word. The former must match the latter in terms of case, number and gender ( KNG congruence ):
- puer pulcher (a beautiful boy) (nominative singular masculine)
- puella pulchra (a beautiful girl) (nominative singular feminine)
- pueris pulchris (the beautiful boy) (dative plural)
- puellarum pulchrarum (the beautiful girl) (genitive plural)
Synthetic language structure
Latin has a highly synthetic type of language ; That is, grammatical functions or relationships between words and clauses are often expressed by endings rather than particles or functional words. Latin realizes this type more strongly than most modern European languages. The expression of Latin appears very compact or dense due to this characteristic of the language. This quality can be considered one of the major difficulties in learning the Latin language. The following example sentences illustrate the difference between synthetic and analytical language structures in Latin and German:
- Cedamus amori.
- Let's give in to love.
In order to express the mode of the adhortative , German needs a modal auxiliary verb, which must also be accompanied by a reflexive pronoun (“let us”), while Latin expresses the mode with an affix (-a-) . The article forms a separate grammatical word in German, while the information about certainty / indeterminacy remains implicit in Latin.
- Augusto regente pax erat in toto imperio Romano.
- When / because Augustus reigned, peace reigned throughout the Roman Empire.
Augusto regente is a so-called ablativus absolutus (abl. Abs.), Which in German (analytical) is represented by a temporal or causal, possibly also adversative subordinate clause. As you can see, in Latin it is sufficient to put the phrase composed of the noun and the present participle in the ablative in order to convey the same information as the subordinate clause in German. A sentence-introducing particle like in German is not necessary in Latin.
- Imperatorem venisse audit.
- He hears that the general has come.
This is an accusativus cum infinitivo (AcI), the German subordinate clause is expressed by imperatorem (accusative) and the verb venire (to come) in the infinitive. Here, too, Latin shows a significantly denser syntax than German (three words instead of six). The AcI can in principle also be formed in German, but not as an expression of prematurity, as is the case here. It can also be seen here that a personal pronoun must be used for the subject in German, but not in Latin.
Since the subject is marked by the verb in Latin, it can be omitted if the context makes it clear who or what is meant. This trait is preserved in Romance languages (but not in French). Personal pronouns are therefore used less often in Latin than in German. In particular, the personal pronouns of the third person are only used as subjects if they are to be emphasized - they therefore also have a more demonstrative character than in German.
The word order is relatively free in Latin, since the relationships between the words are clearly identified by affixes and possibly particles, so that no further clarification through a fixed word order is required, as is particularly the case in languages of the isolating language type , but often also in German the case is. Example:
- Canis hominem murders.
- Hominem canis murders.
Both sentences are grammatically correct and have to be translated as "(a / the) dog bites (a / the) man".
Despite the free word order, Latin shows a clear tendency towards the word order subject-object-verb (SOV), as can be found in many languages. At least in non-metric poetry, this word order is usually only deviated from when - for example by the initial position of an object - the meaning of a certain part of the sentence is to be emphasized. Example ( Virgil ):
- Omnia vincit amor, et nos cedamus amori.
- Love defeats EVERYTHING ( omnia - direct object), so we too want to give in to love.
In metrical poetry, on the other hand, the word order usually follows the constraints of meter rather than grammatical conventions - which can make understanding the text very difficult.
Latin tends to have a more specific definition follow the noun to be defined, i.e. H. Adjective attributes follow i. d. Usually the reference word, relative clauses also follow the reference word. In the case of genitive constructions, however, this tendency is less clear. Like German, Latin knows both prepositions and postpositions , with the former predominating.
- Hans Baumgarten: Compendium Grammaticum: short systematic grammar for Latin lessons. 2., verb. Edition Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 3-525-71399-1 .
- Karl Bayer, Josef Lindauer: Latin grammar based on the Latin school grammar by Landgraf-Leitschuh. 2nd edition (reprint). Buchner, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-7661-5635-8 .
- Otmar Bilz: Langenscheidt basic knowledge of Latin grammar. Langenscheidt, Berlin a. a. 2009, ISBN 978-3-468-20252-0 .
- Fritz Haeger / Kurt Schmidt: Compendium Linguae Latinae. Auxiliary book for reading Latin . Ernst Klett, Stuttgart 6th edition 1983, ISBN 3-12-626000-4 , [Haeger-Schmidt].
- Leo Stock: Langenscheidt learning and exercise grammar Latin. 20th edition Langenscheidt, Berlin a. a. 2011, ISBN 978-3-468-34922-5 .
- Friedrich Stolz , Joseph Hermann Schmalz : Latin grammar: phonetics and forms, syntax and stylistics. In: Handbook of Classical Studies 2nd Dept., 2nd part. 5th edition Beck, Munich 1928, http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dlateinischegram00stolgoog~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3D3.%20Aufl.%201900~PUR%3D .
- Revised version: Manu Leumann u. a .: Latin grammar. Based on the work of Friedrich Stolz and Joseph Hermann Schmalz . Handbook of Classical Studies 2nd Dept., 2nd part. 3 vols. Beck, Munich 1963ff.
- Vol. 1: Manu Leumann: Latin phonetics and forms. 2nd edition 1977, ISBN 3-406-01426-7 , http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3Dig4F_lvsZUYC~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~ double-sided%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D .
- Vol. 2: Anton Szantyr , Johann Baptist Hofmann : Latin Syntax and Stylistics. With the general part of Latin grammar. 2nd reprint of the 1965 published, 1972 verb. 1st edition 1997, ISBN 3-406-01347-3 .
- Vol. 3: Fritz Radt, Abel Westerbrink: Job register and directory of non-Latin words. 1979, ISBN 3-406-06072-2 .
- Linda Strehl: Langenscheidts Kurzgrammatik Latin , complete revision, Verlag Langenscheidt, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-468-35202-6 .
- Leo Stock (conception), revised by Linda Strehl: Langenscheidts verb tables irregular and regular verbs correctly conjugated , Verlag Langenscheidt, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-468-34201-2 .
- Latin wax tablet grammar - sentence theory for reading lessons
- Heinrich Przybyla: Guide to Latin typesetting theory (PDF file; 260 kB)
- Online Latin dictionary on frag-caesar.de - definition of Latin words with translation and inflection table
- Legible Latin - program based on William Whitaker's Words for the grammatical determination of Latin words (English)
- List of links to Latin grammar
- Page to AcI
- Page to the NcI
- Page to the PC
- Page to OJ Section.
In Middle Latin there are some noun compounds such as virlupus (man wolf, werewolf, lycanthrope) and Deushomo (god man). Please refer:
- Peter Stotz: Handbook on the Latin language of the Middle Ages. Second volume. Change of meaning and word formation. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2004, p. 454 ( at books.google ). Quote: “Only very weakly - and apparently only in loan formations - is represented in German. so common Zssg'typus front door 'of the house door' ”. Deus-homo (from Greek θεάνθρωπος) and virlupus (from Anglo-Saxon werewulf ) are cited as examples .
- Peter Stotz: Handbook on the Latin language of the Middle Ages. Fifth volume. Bibliography, overview of sources and index. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2000, p. 1041 ( at books.google ). Quote: " virlupus, -i , 'werewolf'".
- Otto Schulz: Detailed Latin grammar for the upper classes of learned schools. Halle 1825, p. 108 ( at books.google ).
- Otto Schulz: Detailed Latin grammar for the upper classes of learned schools. Halle 1825, p. 51f. ( at books.google ).
- Otto Schulz: Detailed Latin grammar for the upper classes of learned schools. Halle 1825, pp. 106f., 114 ( pp. 106 and 114 at books.google).
- KL Struve: About Latin Declination and Conjugation. A grammatical study. Königsberg 1823, p. 35f. ( at books.google ).
- Imman. Joh. Gerhard Scheller's concise Latin language teaching or grammar for the Churbaier schools. Munich 1782, p. 38 ( at books.google ).
- Christophorus Cellarius: Easier Latin Grammatica or Kurtze, but adequate instruction on the Latin language, for the sake of more benefit among young people, Teutsch tipped off […]. Merseburg 1704, p. 22 ( at books.google ).
- Grammaticae Institutionis in Lingua latina. Pars great. Regensburg (lat.Ratispona, in the locative Ratisponae) 1684 (CIↃ IↃ LXXX IV), pp. D4 ff., In the section Typus quartae Declinationis ( the book at books.google ).
- Prima latinae Grammaticae Pars […]. Frankfurt am Main (Latin: Francofortum ad Moenum, in the locative Francoforti ad Moenum) 1566, p. B4 f., In the Colloquium section . XIIII. ( the book at books.google ).
- Johann Balthasar von Antesperg: The Kayserliche Deutsche Grammatick, or the art of speaking the German language correctly, and writing without mistakes, in four parts […]. Second and improved edition including a register. Vienna 1749, p. 52.
- James Tatham: A Grammar, in which the Orthography, Etymology, Syntax and Prosody of the Latin Language are minutely detailed, and rendered easy to the juvenile Capacity. Philadelphia 1822, p. 10 ( at books.google ).
- Wilhelm Freund : Dictionary of the Latin Language. First volume. A-C. Leipzig 1834, S. LXVII – LXXXVIII (Roman 67–88) ("III. About the genit. Singular of the words cornu, gelu, genu etc.")
- Karl Ernst Georges: Comprehensive Latin-German concise dictionary. Hannover 1913 (reprint: Darmstadt 1998), Volume 1, Sp. 1698–1700, keyword cornū ( at zeno.org ). Quote: “cornū, ūs u. (rarely) ū, n. "
- Raffaela Maidhof, Maria A. Söllner: PONS pocket grammar school Latin. 5th – 10th Class. All the important rules in pocket size. PONS GmbH, Stuttgart 2014, p. 10 ( at books.google ).
- Linda Strehl: Langenscheidt short grammar Latin. Complete rework. 2001, p. 13.
- CG Zumpt: Latin Grammar. Tenth edition Berlin 1850, p. 76f. ( at books.google ).
- CG Zumpt: Latin Grammar. Ninth edition. Berlin 1844, pp. 171–178.
- Ludwig Ramshorn: Latin grammar. First of two parts, second edition. Leipzig 1830, p. 131 ff.