Latin grammar

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The Latin grammar dealt with in a systematic form the characteristics of the Latin language . This can be assigned to the Italian branch of Indo-European ; their grammar shows many similarities with the other historically known languages ​​of this family. It is also the basis of the Romance languages that developed from it.

Latin, like ancient Greek , Sanskrit and other ancient Indo-European languages, is a typical inflected language with synthetic expression of grammatical information.

Compared with the reconstructed grammar of Urindo-European , processes can be recognized that are mostly viewed as simplifications. This is reflected, for example, in the uniform suffixes for the formation of tenses and cases ( syncretism ), the reduction to five verb and six noun classes or the reduction from eight cases of the original language to six in Latin (category reduction). The terms that have historically evolved to describe and discuss the classical languages, including Latin, are widely used today in both linguistics and common parlance even for non-Indo-European languages.

The system presented here relates to “classical” Latin, a standardized literary artificial language that was essentially only used by contemporary Roman authors in the first century BC and is now taught in Latin classes in schools .


Word formation

Word formation in Latin is primarily characterized by derivation , whereby both verbal roots (deverbative) and nominal roots (denominative) can be the starting point for derivations. There are a large number of word formation suffixes that can be used to form new nouns and adjectives. Verbs can also be derived from nouns.

As in German, the basic meaning of verbs and nouns can also be varied in Latin using a large number of prefixes.

By means of the suffix -sc be verbs Inchoativa formed.

In contrast to ancient Greek and Sanskrit - or German - Latin noun compounds are foreign to Latin - a trait that is continued in the Romance languages.

Parts of speech

The parts of speech or classes of speech in the Latin language can initially be divided into inflectable (changeable) and non-inflectable words at a higher level. The inflected words of the Latin language can be divided into declinable words or nouns ( nouns including proper names , pronouns , adjectives , number nouns ) and conjugable words ( verbs ). Like all ancient Indo-European languages, Latin also has a rich theory of forms, which is associated with a correspondingly large learning curve.

Non-inflectable Latin word classes are:

Unlike German, and like most Slavic languages, Latin knows neither definite nor indefinite articles . (Articles also appeared in Middle Latin, see the article Middle Latin # Syntax .)

The inflection in Latin

The differentiation of grammatical functions or categories in the context of inflection (declination and conjugation) can be made in Latin in different ways:

In contrast to suffixes, prefixes in Latin are not grammatical morphemes, but are used solely to form words. Latin differs in this from some other Indo-European languages, in which prefixes can also function as grammatical educational morphemes (eg the augmentation in ancient Greek or the prefix ge when forming the past participle of strong verbs in German).

Suffixation is by far the most common form of flexion. It predominates in conjugation and is the almost exclusive means of declination. As usual in inflected languages, each suffix can always designate several grammatical categories at the same time (e.g. the suffix -arum : plural + genitive). Several discrete suffixes can appear in a row. The suffixes are added to the root or other suffixes.

The change in the word stem or even the root itself (so-called root flexion ) is a characteristic inherited from the Indo-European proto-language, which is also used extensively in German, for example (especially as an ablaut in strong verbs). The original Urindo-European ablaut is only partially preserved in Latin. One example is the change of the stem ending -o- of the second declension to -e in the vocative singular ( Brutus to Brute ), which is an e-ablaut inherited from the Indo-European original language (see vocative formation in the Indo-European languages ). Otherwise occasional changes in the stem ending (e.g. vetus - veteris (old) with the sound change from u to e ) are purely phonological phenomena and grammatically meaningless. In Latin, root flexion occurs primarily when the perfect stem is formed (see below). In addition, the conjugation of the copula esse in Latin offers a good example of the continuation of the Indo-European root flexion (see Urindo-European copula ).


Categories of declension

The following grammatical categories are distinguished on the noun:

  • Gender (grammatical gender): masculine, feminine, neuter
  • Number: singular, plural
  • Case (case): nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, ablative, locative

When talking about the KNG congruence, two words match in case, number and gender.


Like most of the ancient Indo-European languages ​​and German, the Latin language knows three grammatical genders.

In the case of personal names, the grammatical follows the natural gender:

  • Masculine: agricola (farmer, farmer), vir (man), dominus (gentleman), Marcus , Gaius , Gnaeus (masculine proper names)
  • Feminina: virgo (virgin), femina (woman), domina (mistress), Maria , Lucretia , Hortensia (feminine proper names)

Latin neuter shows the peculiarity typical of Indo-European (and also preserved in German) that the nominative and accusative forms match in both the singular and the plural. In addition to all substantive neutrals, this also applies to the (existing) neuter forms of all adjectives, participles, pronouns and numeralia.


As in German, a distinction is made between singular and plural numbers. In a few words, remnants of old dual forms can also be recognized, which are identified by the ending o , e.g. B. duo (two), ambō (both).

Case (cases)

Latin has five distinct cases: nominative , genitive , dative , accusative and ablative . In addition, there is the vocative , which, however, in pure Latin words only has its own form in a single noun class (2nd declension) in the singular masculine, otherwise it is always the same as the respective nominative. In the case of city names, some words (rus, domus, tempus, humus) and some frozen adverbs, residues of the locative also appear .

Often several cases have the same form.


The subject of a sentence must be specified in the nominative .

In the nominative plural, Latin has retained the Indo-European nominative endings -s and -es . The forms of the pronoun were only adopted for a / o / e stems ( e.g. illi "those, nom. Pl. Mask." - domini "Herren", nom. Pl. Mask .; illae "those", nom. Pl. Fem. - dominae "Mistresses", Nom. Pl. Fem.).

Otherwise there is usually the ending -es in the plural , which merges with the preceding vowel ( e.g. portus , turres , plebes ); Neutra always have the ending -a (e.g .: maria , capita ).


The genitive indicates possession or relationship to another word. In Latin it can be used both attributive and predicative .

The genitive has the endings -i (is orthographically implemented as ae in the a -stems , the classic pronunciation is ai ) or -is in the singular, -rum or -um in the plural (e.g. dominae  - dominarum , domini  - dominorum , rei  - rerum , portus  - portuum , turris  - turri-um , plebis  - plebium , capitis  - capitum ).

The original Indo-European genitive singular ending was -os , while Latin has the abusive form -es> -is ; Originally -as was also used in the a -stems  - however, this ending has only been retained in expressions such as pater familias . In the plural, Latin has the ending -um <-om . The a / o -stems have taken over the endings of the pronouns in the plural (for example: illorum "von those, Gen. Pl. Mask." - dominorum "der Herren", Gen. Pl. Mask.).

The genitive can appear in the following case functions:

construction Latin example translation
Genitivus subjectivus cupid patris the love of the father
Genitive objectivus cupid patris love for the father
Genitivus possessivus
(genitive of possession)
domus patris the father's house
Domus patris est. The house belongs to the father. (predictive use)
Genitivus qualitatis
(genitive of property, quality)
puer novem annorum a nine year old boy
Amicus erat corporis parvi. The friend was of short build. (predictive use)
Genitivus pretii
(genitive of value or price indication)
aestimare parvi consider it of little value
Genitivus partitivus (totius)
(genitive of the part or the divided whole)
multum laboris Much effort
Genitivus explicativus
(genitive for a more detailed definition of a general term)
verbum libertatis the word "freedom"
Genitive object
(for verbs of remembrance and forgetting,
of judicial action and
for impersonal verbs of expression of feeling)
noli oblivisci mei Do not forget me!
aliquem stultitiae arguere accuse someone of stupidity
me taedet istius sermonis this chatter disgusts me
Genitive depending on some adjectives
(eager, knowledgeable, thoughtful, partaking, powerful, full and with their opposites)
cupidus contionis quarrelsome
ignarus linguae Latinae without knowledge of Latin
expers rationis without reason


The dative occurs as a direction or receiver in the dative object (indirect object). In the singular it is usually given by the ending -i (e.g. rei , portui , turri , plebi , capiti ), in the a / o stems by -ae (e.g. dominae ) or -o (e.g. B. domino ).

In the plural, the a / o stems contain -is , otherwise - (i) bus (e.g. dominis , rebus , portibus , turribus , plebibus , capitibus ). However, since, for example, dominis can be both the dative of dominus and that of domina , in these and similar cases the ending -abus is occasionally found for the a -trunks ( e.g. deis deabusque "the gods and goddesses"). → u -trunks originally had the ending -ubus , which has been preserved among others in arcubus , artubus , tribubus .

In the dative singular there is Latin -i <- * ei ; among the o tribes, Old Latin -oi became -o . The plural is Latin -bus <- * bhjos .


The accusative occurs as an object of a verb ( direct object ) or with an accusative demanding preposition. It is used as the case of the direction after most prepositions and also forms free-standing directions (e.g. Romam proficisci "to break into Rome").

The accusative usually has the ending -m ( e.g. dominam , dominum , rem , portum , turrim , plebem ); in the plural it has the ending -s with elongation (e.g. dominas, dominos, res, portus, turris, plebes ). In later times i -stems also have the accusative plural -es . For all neuter, it is always the same as the nominative in the singular and plural.

Latin has kept the Indo-European accusative endings -m and -s unchanged.


In the Latin ablative are by Kasussynkretismus several older case collapsed: ablative, instrumental, locative. The functions that the ablative fulfills in Latin are correspondingly diverse. To avoid confusion, more prepositions are used, especially to express the locative. The ablative occurs as an adverbial term alone or with a preposition requiring the ablative. It has the three basic functions of means of action, accompaniment and separation.

The original ablative denotes a movement in space or time away from the corresponding noun, e.g. E.g .: a Romā "from Rome (away)", ab urbe conditā "since the foundation of the city (Rome)". The ablative as instrumental describes the use of an object, e.g. B .: gladiō pugnare "to fight with the sword". The ablative as locative describes a place in space or in time, e.g. E.g .: eo loco “in this place”, eo tempore “at this time”. Verbs used in business dealings have the ablativus pretii : denario "around a denarius".

In the singular it ends in the elongated stem vowel, the consonant stems have -e ( e.g . : domina , domino , re , portu , turri , plebe , cápite ). In the plural, its forms are always identical to the forms of the respective dative.

In Old Latin, the common singular ending was -d , for example med "von mir", lupod "vom Wolf" etc .; however, the ending -e in the singular of the consonant declination was originally the old locative ending .


The vocative is a direct address to a person (salutation case). It does not depend on the predicate and is therefore not a necessary part of a sentence.

Formation: Since the vocative has no relation to other parts of a sentence, it originally does not show a case ending. In Latin, the vocative has the same form as the nominative in almost all declensions, with the exception of the singular vocative of nouns and adjectives with the ending -us of the o -declination, which in the vocative becomes -e (ablaut). If a noun ends in -ius , the vocative ends in -i . Furthermore, meus “mein” (with a masculine noun) becomes mi in the vocative .


  • Quid fecit, senatores ? - What did he do, senators?
  • Et tu, mi fili Brute ? - You too, my son Brutus?
  • Quo vadis, Marce ? - Where are you going, Marcus?
  • Quid facis, mi fili ? - What are you doing, my son?

Exceptions: The vocative of deus (god) is classically replaced by dive (vocative of divus "divine"). Because this is how Roman - i.e. pagan - gods were referred to, the vocative of Deus (God in the Judeo-Christian sense) is not like this, but mostly like the nominative. The on -i ending vocative of words on -ius is also found in -eius , -aius and -aeus : Pompei , Gai , Gnaei .

The Greek words inflected after the a -declination on -as like Aeneas form the vocative on -a , those on -es like Anchises, dynastes and those on -e like Andromede form the vocative on -e : Aenea, Anchise, dynaste, Andromede . However, these words often have "normal" Latin subsidiary forms such as Andromeda to Andromede and Anchisa to Anchises . Hercules is called Hercules , Hercule or Hercle , Jesus Jesus .


The locative indicates the place of an event. Except for a few place names and a few other words (e.g. Romae “in Rome”, Deli “on Delos”, domi “at home”) it is replaced by the ablative of the place.

Examples of city names:

Declination class, number, gender Nominativus Locativus
1. Declination, Singular, Feminine Roma
Sinopa et al. Sinope
1. Declension, plural, feminine Athenae Athenis
2. Declination, Singular, Feminine Corinthus et al. Corinthos Corinthi
2. Declination, singular, neuter Londinium Londinii
2. Declension, plural, masculine Puteoli
2. Declension, plural, neuter Hierosolyma Hierosolymis
3. Declination, Singular, Feminine Carthage Carthagine, also Carthagini
3. Declination, Singular, Feminine Neapolis Neapoli
3. Declension, plural, feminine Gades et al. Gadis

The old Latin locative was Romai and Deloi . It also existed in other parent classes. Remnants of the old locative are also preserved in adverbs frozen words like ibi (there).

Declinations (classes / tribes)

The nouns are divided into five so-called declinations according to the five main patterns of their inflection ( declination ). These are traditionally either numbered consecutively (1st, 2nd, 3rd declination, etc.) or named after the (original) stem ending, which is, however, merged with the earlier ending in classical Latin. Therefore, for example, the first declination is also referred to as a -declination or speaks of the "a-stems".

The 3rd declination class is an exception in more than one respect, in which earlier consonant stems and i -stems coincide, whereby it can generally be stated that the consonant stems of nouns become more and more common over time.


declination 1. Declination 2. Declination 3. Declination 4. Declination 5. Declination
tribe a declination o-declination Consonant
Mixed tribes i tribes u declination e-declination
example domina, -ae f.
"The mistress"
dominus, -i m.
"the gentleman"
mercator, -oris m.
"the businessman"
navis, -is f.
"the ship"
turris, -is f.
"the tower"
portus, -us m.
"the harbor"
res, rei f.
"The thing"
Nominative domin a domin us * mercātor nāv is turr is port us r ēs
Genitive domin ae domin ī mercātōr is nāv is turr is port ūs r **
dative domin ae domin ō mercātōr ī nāv ī turr ī port r **
accusative domin on domin around mercātōr em nāv em turr in port around r em
ablative domin ā domin ō mercātōr e nāv e turr ī port ū r ē
Nominative domin ae domin ī mercātōr ēs nāv ēs turr ēs port ūs r ēs
Genitive domin ārum domin ōrum mercātōr around nāv ium turr ium port uum r ērum
dative domin īs domin īs Mercator ibus NAV ibus Turr ibus port ibus r ēbus
accusative domin ās domin ōs mercātōr ēs nāv ēs (nav īs ) turr īs port ūs r ēs
ablative domin īs domin īs Mercator ibus NAV ibus Turr ibus port ibus r ēbus
** Masculina of -us still have a vocative on -e> domin e !
** For words that end in iēs , it is in the genitive and dative singular -ēī instead of -eī , e.g. B. nominative diēs and genitive and dative diēī .

The following deviations apply to regular neutrals:

declination o-declination consonantic i-declination u declination
Nominative /
dōn um os mar e corn ū
dative corn ū
Nominative /
dōn a oss a mar ia corn et al

Nouns of the so-called mixed declination have the same forms as those of the i -declination, but in the accusative and ablative they have the same endings as those of the consonantic declension. The vast majority of nouns with the nominative singular ending -is belong to the mixed declension.

The declination patterns above apply to the vast majority of Latin nouns, but there are numerous special cases and exceptions. The most common irregularities arise from the following phenomena:

  • special spelling ( e.g. rex "king" instead of * regs, lux "light" instead of * lucs )
  • Ablaut (e.g .: hom o - hom i nis "human", cap u t - cap i tis "head")
  • Failure d and t before s or after the consonant at the end of a word, such as laus - laudis "praise", sors - sortis "fate", cor - cordis "heart", lac - lactis "milk"
  • Failure of n in the nominative for masculine and feminine ( e.g. sanguis - sanguinis "blood", ordo - ordinis "order")
  • Rhotazism (conversion from s to r , e.g .: corpus - corporis "body", honos - honoris "honor", ius - iuris "right")
  • Conversion of e / o and i / u ( e.g. miles - militis "soldier", cinis - cineris "ash", mare - maris "sea", robur - roboris "force")
  • s in the nominative singular after m (due to failure of the p , e.g. hiems - hiemis "winter").

First declination (a declination)

The first declension includes feminines that end in -a in the nominative singular , for example domina "Herrin".

domina, ae f. "The mistress"
number Singular Plural
Nominative domin a domin ae
Genitive domin ae domin arum
dative domin ae domin īs
accusative domin on domin as
ablative domin ā domin īs


  • Male people are always masculine. Example: agricola "farmer".
  • Some Greek loanwords have the nominative ending -ās , for example Aeneas (the vocative is Aenea and the accusative is also Aenean ), -ēs, for example cometes , or , for example Andromede .
  • Archaic endings have been preserved in some words, such as -as in the genitive singular in pater familias “family father ” and -abus in the dative and ablative plural deabus “the goddesses”.

Second declination (o-declination)

The second declension contains masculine, feminine and neutral nouns, for example the masculine dominus "Herr", the feminine mālus "apple tree" and the neuter templum "temple".

dominus, i m. "the gentleman"
number Singular Plural
Nominative domin us domin i
Genitive domin i domin orum
dative domin o domin is
accusative domin around domin os
vocative domin e domin i
ablative domin o domin is
templum, i n. "the temple"
number Singular Plural
Nominative templ at templ a
Genitive templ i templ orum
dative templ o templ is
accusative templ at templ a
ablative templ o templ is

In Classical Latin, not too much has been preserved from the o of the o -declination: first, -os and -om were changed to -us and -um , and second, the old Latin diphthong -oi was changed to -i . The vocative ending -e is the Indo-European ablaut for the stem vowel o .

The 2nd declension also includes nouns with the nominative singular ending in - (e) r , such as: puer "Junge" or ager "Land, Acker". They only deviate from the normal schema in the nominative and vocative singular. Some of these nouns can lose the -e- in their declination (it is an auxiliary vowel in this case). E.g . : ager, which in the Acc.Sg. only means agr-um :

puer, i m. "the boy"
number Singular Plural
Nominative puer puer i
Genitive puer i puer orum
dative puer o puer is
accusative puer around puer os
ablative puer o puer is
ager, i m. "the field"
number Singular Plural
Nominative ager agr i
Genitive agr i agr orum
dative agr o agr is
accusative agr around agr os
ablative agr o agr is


  • Nouns that end in -ius , especially proper names such as Claudius , have -i instead of -ii in the genitive singular . The vocative ends in -i .
  • The masculine locus "place" also forms the nominative and accusative plural loca , thus in the manner of a neuter.
  • deus "God" has nominative and vocative plural di , dative and ablative plural dis , as genitive plural occasionally deûm , as well as several other forms in different cases.
  • The ending genitive plural -um or with signs of contraction (signum contractionis) -ûm appears occasionally, for example triumvirum or triumvirûm instead of triumvirorum or templa deum or templa deûm instead of templa deorum "the temple of the gods".
  • humus "earth", "soil", atomus "atom" and some other words are feminine; vulgus "people" and virus "poison" are neuter.

Third declension (consonantic, mixed and i-declination)

In this class the consonantic declination, the i-declination and a mixed type (mixed declination or mixed declination) of both are combined. The third declension is a very extensive declension. It includes nouns of all genera. In contrast to the first and second declension, it is almost impossible to derive the gender of a word from its nominative form, since the number of exceptions to the frequently read “rules” is considerable.

Another special feature is that the form of the nominative singular in a large number of words looks different from the stem of the other cases. Very often one cannot deduce the stem of the other cases from the nominative singular (and vice versa). The numerous rules stated as "helpful" for this only apply to small groups of words.

mercator, oris m. "the businessman"
number Singular Plural
Nominative mercator mercator it
Genitive mercator is mercator around
dative mercator i mercator ibus
accusative mercator em mercator it
ablative mercator e mercator ibus
merces, edis f. "the salary"
number Singular Plural
Nominative merces merced it
Genitive merced is merced around
dative merced i merced ibus
accusative merced em merced it
ablative merced e merced ibus
corpus, oris n. "the body"
number Singular Plural
Nominative corpus corpor a
Genitive corpor is corpor around
dative corpor i corpor ibus
accusative corpus corpor a
ablative corpor e corpor ibus

As always in the Indo-European languages, the nominative and accusative are identical in the neuter.

The i-declension only includes a few feminine nouns and a number of neutras, such as E.g .: mare  "sea". All these nouns are characterized by the genitive plural on -ium , the ablative singular on -i , the accusative plural on -is  (next to -es ), or the nominative / accusative plural on -ia for neutrals .

turris, is f. "the tower"
number Singular Plural
Nominative turr is turr it or turr is
Genitive turr is turr ium
dative turr i Turr ibus
accusative turr in turr it or turr is
ablative turr i Turr ibus

Wish list for the feminine of the i-declension:

febris, sitis, turris, puppis, vis, securis
vis is usually only used in the singular in the nominative, accusative and ablative (vis, vim, vi) .
mare, is n. "the sea"
number Singular Plural
Nominative mare mar ia
Genitive mar is mar ium
dative mar i mar ibus
accusative mare mar ia
ablative mar i mar ibus

A catchword for the neuter of the i-declination:

Area, d. h .: nouns ending in -ar , -e or -al . - Examples: exempl ar "example", mar e "sea", anim al "living being".

The words of the mixed class - such as: navis "ship" - have the same endings as the i-stems, but the ablative singular on -i and the accusative plural on -is are used increasingly less from the classical period.

navis, is f. "the ship"
number Singular Plural
Nominative nav is nav it
Genitive nav is nav ium
dative nav i nav ibus
accusative nav em nav it
ablative nav e or nav i nav ibus

Fourth declination (u-declination)

Most nouns of the fourth declension with the nominative singular -us are masculine, for example casus "Fall". Exceptions are, for example, the feminina domus ("house") and manus "hand".

casus, us m. "the case"
number Singular Plural
Nominative cas us cas us
Genitive cas us cas uum
dative cas ui cas ibus
accusative cas around cas us
ablative cas u cas ibus


  • Sometimes there is also an old genitive in -uis (e.g. senatuis to senatus ) and a dative in -u (e.g. exercitu to exercitus ).

The neuter of the 4th declension are in the nominative and accusative singular on -u , for example genu "Knie". Otherwise they differ from masculine words in that the dative singular ends in -u . In addition - as with the other neutrals - nominative and accusative are identical and nominative and accusative plural end in - (u) a .

genu, us n. "the knee"
number Singular Plural
Nominative gen u gen et al
Genitive gen us gen Sandwich Islands
dative gen u gen ibus
accusative gen u gen et al
ablative gen u gen ibus


  • In some grammar books from the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries, the genitive is given with -u (instead of -us ), which is also used with the word cornu .
  • In some grammar books from the 21st century the dative -ui is used instead of or next to -u .

Karl Gottlob Zumpt wrote: “Formerly, the neuter were written on u as indeclinabilia in the Singul. specified, but recent studies [...] oblige, especially in the genitive subject us to depart from this opinion. […] The dative ui is also cited by an old grammarian ( Martian. Capella lib. 3), but only cornu from Liv can be proven . 42, 58 [.] "


  • The noun domus “house” has taken over the forms of the o-declension in some cases: genitive plural domorum , ablative singular domo , accusative plural domos . The locative is domi "at home".
  • Some nouns have the ending -ubus in the dative and ablative plural , for example tribubus to tribus "district".

Fifth declination (e-declination)

Almost all fifth declension nouns are feminine, for example res "thing", "matter", "event".

The Indo-European nouns in diphthong belong to the e-declension.

res, rei f. "The thing"
number Singular Plural
Nominative r it r it
Genitive r ei r erum
dative r ei r ebus
accusative r em r it
ablative r e r ebus


  • Masculine exceptions are the "day", "date" (also feminine) and meridies , meridiei "lunch". There are no neutras.
  • this as feminine has the specific meaning “deadline”, “deadline”, thus certa the “on a certain date”.


In Latin, adjectives , like nouns, are differentiated in case, number and gender. They adapt all three properties to the noun to which they refer ( KNG congruence ).

A distinction is also made between so-called three-ended, two-ended and one-ended adjectives in the declination patterns of adjectives.

  • The three-ended adjectives have different forms for masculine, feminine and neuter. These appear in the dictionary with the nominative singular of masculine, feminine and neuter, for example magnus, a, around "tall" or celer, eris, ere "quickly".
  • In the case of the two-ended adjectives , masculine and feminine coincide, in the dictionary the nominative singular of masculine / feminine and neuter are given accordingly, an example is hilaris, e "cheerful".
  • The single-ended adjectives have no distinction according to gender in the nominative singular , in the dictionary they appear with nominative and genitive singular, for example felix, icis "happy". Other case and number than the nominative singular can have different gender forms, so felix has masculine and feminine felicem in the accusative singular , but felix in the neuter .

a and o declination

The adjectives on -us (masculine), -a (feminine) and -um (neutral) correspond to the nouns of the a- and o-declensions and have three ends:

magnus, -a, -um "large"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative magn us magn a magn around magn i magn ae magn a
Genitive magn i magn ae magn i magn orum magn arum magn orum
dative magn o magn ae magn o magn is
accusative magn around magn am magn around magn os magn as magn a
ablative magn o magn a magn o magn is
vocative magn e magn a - magn i magn ae -

Analogous to the nouns of the o-declension, there are also adjectives of the o-declension with the ending -er , for example niger, nigra, nigrum "black":

niger, -gra, -grum "black"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative Niger nigr a nigr around nigr i nigr ae nigr a
Genitive nigr i nigr ae nigr i nigr orum nigr arum nigr orum
dative nigr o nigr ae nigr o nigr is
accusative nigr around nigr am nigr around nigr os nigr as nigr a
ablative nigr o nigr a nigr o nigr is

The vocative corresponds to the nominative. Some of the adjectives on -er keep (analogous to puer "Knabe") the ending in all case forms, for example liber, libera, liberum "frei" or miser, misera, miserum "unhappy".

Third declension adjectives

The basic declination pattern of the third declension adjectives is as follows:

number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative Masculine form Feminine form Neutral form - it - ia
Genitive - is - ium
dative - i - ibus
accusative - em = Neutral form nominative - it ( is ) - ia
ablative - i - ibus

The vocative corresponds to the nominative. Accordingly, three-, two- and one-ended adjectives of the 3rd declension differ only in the nominative singular and the accusative singular of the neuter.

The nominative singular of some adjectives can have a special form that deviates from the stem of the other case forms, an example is the three-ended acer, acr is , acr e "sharp" (here the masculine deviates from the stem acr ) as well as many of the single-ended adjectives, zum Example felix , felicis "successful". Some adjectives inflect purely consonant, e.g. B. vetus, veter is "old" or dives, divit is "rich".

celeris, e "fast"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative celer celer is celer e celer it celer ia
Genitive celer is celer ium
dative celer i celer ibus
accusative celer em celer e celer it ( is ) celer ia
ablative celer i celer ibus
hilaris, e "cheerful", "happy"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative hilar is hilar e hilar it hilar ia
Genitive hilar is hilar ium
dative hilar i hilar ibus
accusative hilar em hilar e hilar it ( is ) hilar ia
ablative hilar i hilar ibus
felix, icis "happy"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative felix felic it felic ia
Genitive felic is felic ium
dative felic i felic ibus
accusative felic em felix felic it ( is ) felic ia
ablative felic i felic ibus

Increase ( comparison )

In addition to the basic level of adjectives (the positive) there are in Latin - as in German -:

  • the comparative (the higher / comparison level) - both as a relative and as an absolute comparative - as well as
  • the superlative (the highest level) - both as a relative and as an absolute superlative.

To form these forms, the following are added to the root:

  • in the comparative -ior (m./f.), -ius (n.) and
  • in the superlative -issimus, -a, -um .


In order to form the comparative, the comparative endings have to be added to the root of the adjective. For the masculine and feminine forms, -ior is added, for the neutral forms -ius . For example, the positive durus, -a, -um “hard” becomes the comparative durior, -ius “harder”. The comparative forms are declined similarly to the r-stems of the third declension.

durior, -ius "harder"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative dur ior dur ius dur iores dur iora
Genitive dur ioris dur iorum
dative dur iori dur ioribus
accusative dur iorem durius dur iores dur iora
ablative dur iore dur ioribus


The superlative is the highest form of increase. In order to form the superlative, the superlative endings must be added to the root of the adjective: -issimus, -issima, -issimum. In their endings they correspond to the adjectives of the a and o declination and are also declined in the same way:

durissimus, -a, -um "hardest", "very hard"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative dur issimus dur issima dur issimum dur issimi dur issimae dur issima
Genitive dur issimi dur issimae dur issimi dur issimorum dur issimarum dur issimorum
dative dur issimo dur issimae dur issimo dur issimis
accusative dur issimum dur issimam dur issimum dur issimos dur issimas dur issima
ablative dur issimo dur issima dur issimo dur issimis


  • With adjectives ending in -er , the superlative is formed with -rimus , -rima , -rimum , for example zu miser the superlative miserrimus .
  • Some adjectives ending in -lis form the superlative on -limus , -lima , -limum , for example the superlative facillimus for facilis .

Irregular forms of increase

Like German, Latin also knows irregular forms of increasing adjectives. These include forms such as:

positive comparative superlative translation
bonus melior optimus well, better, the best
malus peior pessimus bad, worse, the worst
magnus maior maximus big, bigger, the greatest
parvus minor minimus small, smaller, the smallest
multum plus plurimum much, more, most of it
multi plures plurimi many, several, most


Pronouns are declinable words (nouns in the broadest sense) that take the place of nouns (pro nomine substantivo) . Latin distinguishes between the following types of pronouns: personal pronouns , possessive pronouns , reflexive pronouns , demonstrative pronouns , interrogative pronouns , relative pronouns

The declension of the many Latin pronouns shows some irregularities, especially in the nominative as well as in the genitive singular (which here often ends in -ius ) and dative singular (which here often ends in -i ).

Personal pronouns (1st and 2nd person)

The first and second person of the personal pronoun are as follows:

1st person 2nd person
I ... we ... you ... you …
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative ego nos vōs
Genitive my nostri / nostrum tui vestri / vestrum
dative mihi nōbīs tibi vōbīs
accusative nos vōs
vocative —— —— vōs
ablative mē (cum) nōbīs (cum) tē (cum) vōbīs (cum)

Personal / demonstrative pronouns

is , ea , id has the function of the third person of the personal pronoun when it is in a sentence without a reference word (translated as “he / she / it”). In this function, the pronoun occurs relatively rarely. It has the function of a demonstrative pronoun (translated as “der / die / das” or “this / this / this”) if it is placed in front of a reference word.

is, ea, id "the", "the one", "he"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative is ea id egg eae ea
Genitive eius eorum earum eorum
dative egg ice
accusative eum eam id eos eas ea
ablative eo ea eo ice

Demonstrative pronouns

hic , haec , hoc has the function of describing the temporal and spatial proximity (in communication situations: to the speaker). One also speaks of Nahdeixis (see Deixis ).

hic, haec, hoc "this one (here)"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative hic haec hoc Hi hae haec
Genitive huius horum harum horum
dative huic his
accusative hunc hanc hoc hos has haec
ablative hoc hac hoc his

illegal , illa , illud the opposite function of describing the temporal and spatial distance (distant deixis). In addition, illegal also refers to what has already been said or known ( illegal Seneca = “the” Seneca, namely the philosopher that everyone knows).

illegal, illa, illud "that (there)"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative ill e ill a ill ud ill i ill ae ill a
Genitive ill ius ill orum ill arum ill orum
dative ill i ill is
accusative ill um ill am ill ud ill os ill as ill a
ablative ill o ill a ill o ill is

iste , ista , istud in communication situations refers to someone / something close to what is being addressed; sometimes it has a derogatory sense ("that one").

iste, ista, istud "this (there)"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative is e is a is ud is i is ae is a
Genitive is ius is orum is arum is orum
dative is i is is
accusative is over is on is ud is os is as is a
ablative is o is a is o is is

ipse , ipsa , ipsum is also stronger than is , ea , id . They highlight a person.

ipse, ipsa, ipsum "yourself, personally"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative ips e ips a ips around ips i ips ae ips a
Genitive ips ius ips orum ips arum ips orum
dative ips i ips is
accusative ips around ips am ips around ips os ips as ips a
ablative ips o ips a ips o ips is

idem , eadem , idem with the translation “same” has a retroactive effect on a person who appears again.

idem, eadem, idem "the same, the same"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative idem eadem idem eidem (iidem) eaedem eadem
Genitive eiusdem eorundem earundem eorundem
dative eidem ice dem (iisdem)
accusative eundem andem idem eosdem easdem eadem
ablative eodem eadem eodem ice dem (iisdem)

reflexive pronouns

-, oneself …
Nominative -
Genitive sui
dative sibi
accusative sē, sēsē
ablative sē, sēsē

Interrogative pronouns

Noun usage:

Who? m./f. What? n.
Nominative quis quid
Genitive cuius cuius
dative cuī cuī
accusative quem quid
ablative quō quō

relative pronoun

The adjectival interrogative pronoun qui , quae , quod also serves as a relative pronoun in Latin. It can also be at the beginning of a sentence and then refers to a noun in the preceding sentence.

qui, quae, quod "the one who"
number Singular Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut. Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative qui quae quod qui quae quae
Genitive cuius quorum quarum quorum
dative cui quibus
accusative quem quam quod quos quas quae
ablative quo qua quo quibus (quis)


Basic numbers and ordinal numbers

Base number Atomic number
1 I. unus, una, unum primus
2 II duo, duae, duo secundus
3 III tres, tria tertius
4th IIII (IV) quattuor quartus
5 V quinque quintus
6th VI sex sextus
7th VII septem séptimus
8th VIII octo octávus
9 VIIII (IX) novem nonus
10 X decem decimus
Base number Atomic number
11 XI undecim undecimus
12 XII duodecim duodecimus
13 XIII tredecim tertius decimus
14th XIV quattuordecim quartus decimus
15th XV quindecim quintus decimus
16 XVI sedecim sextus decimus
17th XVII septendecim septimus decimus
18th XVIII duodeviginti duodevicesimus
19th XIX undeviginti undevicesimus
20th XX viginti vicesimus
Base number Atomic number
30th XXX triginta tricesimus
40 XL quadraginta quadragesimus
50 L. quinquaginta quinquagesimus
60 LX sexaginta sexagesimus
70 LXX septuaginta septuagesimus
80 LXXX octoginta octogesimus
90 XC nonaginta nonagesimus
100 C. centum centesimus
500 D. quingenti quingentesimus
1000 M. mille millesimus


  • Multi-digit numbers are composed by the tens number preceded by or with either et is connected, so viginti unus or unus et viginti for "21", or Vicesimus primus or unus et Vicesimus for "the 21HP".
  • Numbers 8 or 9 in the last place are usually put together by subtraction: un de triginta for "29" or duo de triginta for "28".

Declination of numerals

The following numerals are inflected:

  • unus, una, unum " ein, eine, ein " corresponding to the singular of the o-declension of the adjectives except for the dative and genitive.
  • duo, duae, duo "two" and ambo, ambae, ambo "both" are inflected irregularly. Sometimes older dual endings , otherwise extinct in inflection, are used.
  • Hundreds of ducenti, -ae, -a to nongenti, -ae, -a are regularly inflected after the plural a / o declension.
  • mille "thousand" is a singular, undeclinable adjective. However, it has the regular, single-ended plural form milia or millia , which is inflected according to the 3rd declension plural neuter.
  • The ordinal numbers are inflected like adjectives of the a / o declination (-us, -a, -um) .
  • The number adjectives simplex, -icis "single", duplex, -icis "double", triplex, -icis "triple" and multiplex, -icis "multiple" are also inflected .
  • The number nouns unio, -ionis "the one", binio, -ionis "the two" etc. are also inflected .
unus, una, unum "one, one, one (it)"
number Singular
genus Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative un us un a and around
Genitive un ius
dative un i
accusative and around un am and around
vocative un e un a and around
ablative un o un a un o
duo, duae, duo "two"
number Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative you o you ae you o
Genitive you orum (duûm) you arum you orum (duûm)
dative you obus you abus you obus
accusative you o (s) you as you o
vocative you o you ae you o
ablative you obus you abus you obus
tres, tria "three"
number Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative tr it (tr is ) tr ia
Genitive tr ium
dative tr ibus
accusative tr it (tr is ) tr ia
vocative tr it (tr is ) tr ia
ablative tr ibus
mille "thousand"
number Plural
genus Mask. Fem. Neut.
Nominative mil ia (mill ia )
Genitive mil ium (mill ium )
dative mil ibus (mill ibus )
accusative mil ia (mill ia )
vocative mil ia (mill ia )
ablative mil ibus (mill ibus )


An adverb can be formed in three different ways, depending on the adjective from which it is derived. If the adjective is one of the a- and o-declension, such as B .: durus "hart", the adverb is formed on "-e": dure . If the adjective is one of the third declension, for example: hilaris "cheerful", the adverb is formed from "- (i) ter": hilariter . And if the stem of the adjective is "-nt", such as B .: vehemens "wild" (genitive singular: vehementis ), then "-er" is used: vehemently . Exceptions are e.g. B. the adjectives facilis (adverb: facile ) and difficilis (adverb: difficulter ). However, these are noted in every common dictionary.

Adverbs cannot be inflected. They therefore do not change their shape.



The comparative of adverbs, like the nominative singular neuter comparative of adjectives, is formed with the ending "-ius", which is added to the root of the word: dure "hard", durius "harder" or hilariter "happy", hilarius "happy" .


The superlative of the adverbs is formed with the ending “-e”, which is added to the superlative stem of the adjective: durissimus (“hardest”, adjective in the nominative singular masculine) becomes durissime (“hardest”, adverb). This is the same with the other adjective forms.

Irregular forms of increase

The adverbs also have irregular forms of intensification, such as:

positive comparative superlative translation
level melius optime good, better, the best
times peius pessime bad worse worst
valde / magnopere magis maxim very
multum plus plurim around much, more, most
paulum minus minime little, less, the least
saepe saepius saepissime often

There is no adjective of saepe.


Determination of verbs

Latin and German verbs come in finite ([with regard to person-number] certain) and infinite ([with regard to person-number] undefined) forms.

The finite verb forms can be conjugated ([with regard to tense, mode, person etc.] changed, inflected),
for example: voc-o , “ich ruf-e”; voca-s , "you call-st"; voca-t , "he ruf-t" etc.

They are used as predicates .

Verb morphology

The verbs in Latin change morphologically. They can be conjugated according to the following categories:

Latin verbs are synthetic in all active forms as well as in the present, past and future tense (i.e. the forms of the present stem). H. Formed without auxiliary verbs and only using grammatical educational morphemes. Only in the passive of the perfect, past perfect and perfect-future tense as well as in the so-called periphrastic tenses does an analytical formation take place, as in German, by means of a participle and the auxiliary verb esse (sein). In contrast to the general synthetic character of Latin (see below), there is an analytical tendency here. Unlike in German, the auxiliary verb “haben” (habere) is never used. Latin verbs consist of a verb stem (present, perfect or supine stem), possibly provided with a verbal prefix, a tense and mode sign, which indicates the tense and mode and which follows or replaces the stem-ending vowel, as well as - except in the infinitive forms - a personal extension that simultaneously shows person, number and diathesis.

The following table shows the structure of Latin verbs based on some selected forms of the verb amare (to love).

meaning tribe Tense / mode signs Person, number, diathesis
Present stem 1st person singular present indicative active I am in love on (a) - - -o (-a- + -o to o)
2nd person singular present subjunctive active you love / you may love on (a) - -e- -s
2nd person plural imperfect subjunctive active you loved / you would love ama- -re- -tis
1st person plural future indicative passive we will be loved ama- -bi- -mur
Perfect stem 1st person singular perfect indicative active I loved / I loved amav- - -i
2nd person singular perfect subjunctive active you loved amav- -eri- -s
3rd person plural past perfect indicative active they had loved amav- -era- -nt

The table shows that the middle position between stem and personal ending is occupied by the tense and modus morpheme, while the last position is reserved for the suffix, which simultaneously indicates person, number and diathesis. In the present and perfect indicative, the tense sign is a null morpheme (the position is therefore not occupied). In some future and subjunctive forms, the stem vowel is replaced by a different vowel depending on the declension class.

Conjugation classes

According to the end of the stem, there are five conjugation classes in the present or basic stem (a-, e- and consonantic, ĭ- and i-conjugation).

If you look in a Latin dictionary, it looks something like this:

a: vocare, voco, vocavi, vocatum; call , call
e: videre, video, vidi, visa: see
i: audire, audio, audivi, auditum; Listen
consonantic: agere, ago, egi, actum; act , drive
cons. with -i- in the present stem: capere, cap i o, cepi, captum; grasp , take

The first form gives the infinitive present, the second the 1st person singular present indicative active, the third the 1st person singular indicative perfect active, the fourth the supinum.

Tense and mode signs as well as floating vowels that appear according to certain rules are different between the conjugation classes in scheme (1), for example:

duc- e -t (3rd person singular indicative future tense I active from ducere "to lead")
lauda- bi -t (the same as laudare "to praise")

There are also some irregular verbs, e.g. B .:

es-t (3rd person singular present indicative active of esse "to be")
su-nt (the same in the plural).

Finite verb forms

They are marked according to person , number , mode , tense and diathesis . As in English, there are three persons, two numbers (singular and plural), three modes (indicative, subjunctive and imperative), eight tenses in the indicative ( present tense , past tense , future tense , perfect , past perfect , future tense II ), immediate future tense, past of the immediate future and two diatheses (active and passive). Tense and mode use differ from German; the translations given below are therefore only examples.

Educational schemes

The finite verb forms are formed according to three schemes:

Finite present stem forms: present tense, past tense and future tense I.

According to the scheme: present tense stem - tense or mode sign - personal ending - diathesis marking (active / passive), e.g. B .:

dele-Ø * -t (3rd person singular present indicative active of "destroy")
dele-ba-t (same in the imperfect indicative )
dele-ba-tur (same in the indicative past tense passive)
dele-a-tur (3rd person singular present subjunctive passive)
dele-re-t (3rd person singular subjunctive imperfect active)
dele-bi-t (3rd person singular indicative future I active)
dele-bi-tur (3rd person singular indicative future tense I passive)

*) Ø = null morpheme (ellipsis)

In the imperative, the special personal ending signals the mode: In the singular dele! (destroy!) and in the plural dele-te! (destroyed!). The negative imperative is usually paraphrased: either with the negative particle ne and the subjunctive perfect or by noli / nolite (“want / don't want”) plus the infinitive.

The future tense I is the only form in the Latin present stem that does not have a subjunctive. This is partly compensated for by the past participle Future I Active (PFA).

Finite active perfect stem forms: active forms of perfect, past perfect and future tense II

According to the scheme: perfect stem (regularly or irregularly derived from the basic stem) - tense / modus characters - personal ending, for example:

delev-it (3rd person singular indicative perfect active)
Delev-isse-t (the same in the subjunctive pluperfect )
delev-eri-t (same in the indicative future II)
Finite active analytical forms: immediate future and its past

According to the scheme: participle future active ( supine stem + -ur- + gender ending) and present or past tense form of esse "sein", z. B .:

delet-ur-us est (3rd person singular indicative immediate future tense active masculine) "he is about to destroy"
delet-ur-us erat (same thing in the past)
Finite passive analytical forms: perfect, past perfect and future II passive

According to the scheme: past participle passive ( supine stem + gender ending) and present, past or future tense of esse "sein", z. B .:

deletus est (3rd person singular indicative perfect passive masculine)
deletus erit (the same in the indicative future tense II)
deletus esset (the same in the subjunctive past perfect )

Future II is the only form in the Latin perfect stem that does not have a subjunctive.

Inflection according to the individual grammatical categories

Person and number

The two categories person and number are self-explanatory and essentially correspond to the usage in German. In the verb itself, Latin makes no distinction between formal and informal speech (“you” and “you”). People in higher positions were also addressed in the second person singular.

In the case of personal endings, a distinction must be made between present stem and perfect stem as well as active and passive:

active passive
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Present stem 1st person –Ō, –m - mus -Or, -r –Mur
2nd person –S –Tis –Ris -mini
3rd person –T –Nt -door –Ntur
Perfect stem 1st person –Ī -Imus
2nd person –Istī –Istis
3rd person –It –Ērunt (-ēre)

Present, past tense and future tense are formed from the present tense stem, perfect, past perfect and future tense II from the perfect stem. In this distinction between the present and the perfect stem, an echo of the distinction between the perfective and the imperfectual aspect , which probably predominates on a fundamental level in the Indo-European proto-language , can be seen. In Latin, however, the focus is not on the aspect, but on the tense. So the perfect first and foremost denotes an action in the past and only secondarily a completed action.

The three tenses of the present stem roughly describe actions that are thought to be incomplete in the present (present tense), in the past (imperfect tense) or in the future (future tense). The perfect tense denotes an action that has already been completed in the present, the past perfect an action that was completed in the past before another action , the future tense II an action that will be completed at some point in the future.

The indicative present active is formed by adding the personal endings directly to the present stem. This category is thus characterized by a null morpheme.

The indicative past tense active is formed by the morphemes -ba- (1st and 2nd conjugation) or -êba- (3rd and 4th conjugation) plus personal endings (1st person singular -m instead of !).

The indicative future active is made up of the morphemes -b (e, i, u) - (1st and 2nd conjugation) or -a, e- (3rd and 4th conjugation) plus personal endings (1st person singular -m instead of !).

In the indicative perfect active, the personal endings of the perfect stem shown above appear directly next to them.

In the indicative past perfect active, the morpheme -erâ- occurs between the perfect stem and personal endings of the perfect.

In the indicative Future II Aktiv, the morphemes -erô / eri- occur between the perfect stem and personal endings of the perfect.

The following tables show the conjugation in the indicative in all six tenses in the active for all three persons and both numbers for the verbs amare (“love” - 1st conjugation), tenere (“hold” - 2nd conjugation), dicere (“say "- 3rd conjugation) and audire (" to hear "- 4th conjugation):

Present active indicative
amare tenēre dicere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person amo amamus teneo tenemus dico dicimus audio audimus
2nd person amas amatis tenes tenetis dicis dicitis audis auditis
3rd person amat amant tenet tenent dicit dicunt audit audiunt
Imperfect active indicative
amare tenēre dicere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person amabam amabamus tenebam tenebamus dicebam dicebamus audiebam audiebamus
2nd person amabas amabatis tenebas tenebatis dicebas dicebatis audiebas audiebatis
3rd person amabat amabant tenebat tenebant dicebat dicebant audiebat audiebant
Future active indicative
amare tenēre dicere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person amabo amabimus tenebo tenebimus dicam dicemus audiam audiemus
2nd person amabis amabitis tenebis tenebitis dices dicetis audies audietis
3rd person amabit amabunt tenebit colorful dicet dicent audiet audient
Perfectly active indicative
amare tenēre dicere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person amavi amavimus tenui tenuimus dixi diximus audivi audivimus
2nd person amavisti amavistis tenuisti tenuistis dixisti dixistis audivisti audivistis
3rd person amavit amaverunt tenuit tenuerunt dixit dixerunt audivit audiverunt
Past perfect active indicative
amare tenēre dicere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person amaveram amaveramus tenueram tenueramus dixeram dixeramus audiveram audiveramus
2nd person amaveras amaveratis tenueras tenueratis dixeras dixeratis audiveras audiveratis
3rd person amaverat amaverant tenuerat tenuerant dixerat dixerant audiverat audiverant
Future tense II active indicative
amare tenēre dicere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person amavero amaverimus tenuero tenuerimus dixero dixerimus audivero audiverimus
2nd person amaveris amaveritis tenueris tenueritis dixeris dixeritis audiveris audiveritis
3rd person amaverite amaverint tenuerite tenuerint dixerit dixerint audiverit audiverint
Formation of the perfect stem

Latin knows several ways of forming perfect stems. The most common form (especially 1st and 4th conjugation) is the v-perfect, in which the perfect stem is formed from the present stem by a morpheme -v- attached to it:

  • amare (love), amavi (I loved)

In the u-perfect (the standard, but with significantly more exceptions, in the 2nd or e-conjugation), the derivation from the present tense is made using the morpheme -u- :

  • monere (admonish), monui (I admonished)

In the s-perfect, the derivation from the present stem is done using the morpheme -s- :

  • scribere (write), scripsi (I wrote)

With the stretch perfect, the perfect stem is formed by stretching the stem vowel:

  • venire (come), vêni (I came)

A related form is the ablaut perfect:

  • facere (do, do), fêci (I did)

Finally, some reduplication forms have also been preserved in Latin, in which the perfect stem is formed by reduplicating the first syllable. This perfect formation, which is still the rule in ancient Greek, is probably a relic from the Indo-European proto-language.

  • currere (run), cucurri (I ran)

Some Latin present tense stems contain an n-infix, which is an old present tense morpheme that is no longer productive in Latin. This disappears when converted into the perfect stem:

  • vincere (win), vîci (I won) (stretch perfect )

The perfect of esse (to be) is fui, fuisti… .

The perfect perfect of ferre (to wear) is tuli, tulisti… (participle latum ). This looks as if it came from the obviously related tollere (to cancel), which itself has the irregular perfect forms sustuli, sustulisti (participle sublatum ).

Also irregular is incipere (to begin), which is compounded with a prefix in the present stem, but does not form * incepi, but coepi, coepisti… in the perfect stem .


In Latin as well as in German, there are three modes: indicative , subjunctive and imperative . The indicative describes actions that are thought to have actually taken place.

The imperative is the form of command that in Latin can be formed not only from the 2nd person singular and plural, but also from the two 3rd persons (although not in the present tense). The forms are in the active:

  • 2nd person Sing .: - (e)
  • 2nd / 3rd Pers. Sing .: -tô
  • 2nd person Pl .: - (i) te , - (i) tôte
  • 3rd person Pl .: (u) ntô

The passive forms are:

  • 2nd person Sing .: - (e) right
  • 2nd / 3rd Pers. Sing .: - (i) tor
  • 2nd person Pl .: (i) mini
  • 3rd person Pl .: (u) ntor

The passive forms are i. d. Usually only used for landfill (see below).

With the subjunctive or subjunctive, a distinction must be made between the use in main clauses and in subordinate clauses. If the present subjunctive is used in the main clause, it means above all

In addition, the subjunctive is used in the present tense or in one of the three past tense forms to denote actions in subordinate clauses, as is also the case in German.

Latin forms subjunctive forms from the following tenses:

  • Present subjunctive
  • Imperfect subjunctive
  • Subjunctive perfect
  • Subjunctive past perfect

The mode sign of the present subjunctive is a -e- for the 1st conjugation , which occurs between the verb stem and the personal ending instead of the stem ending -a- . The 2nd to 4th conjugation use the mode character -a- .

Present active subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person portem portēmus terream terreāmus petam petāmus audiam audiāmus
2nd person portēs portētis terreās terreātis petās petātis audiās audiātis
3rd person portet portent terreat terreant petat petant audiat audiant

The modal character of the imperfect subjunctive is -re / rê- . It occurs between the unchanged present stem and the personal ending of the present stem.

Past tense active subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person portārem portārēmus terrērem terrērēmus peterem peterēmus audīrem audīrēmus
2nd person portārēs portārētis terrērēs terrērētis peterēs peterētis audīrēs audīrētis
3rd person portāret portārent terrēret terrērent peteret peterent audīret audīrent

The mode sign of the subjunctive perfect is -eri / erî- . It occurs between perfect stem and personal endings of the perfect.

Perfect active subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person portāverim portāverīmus terruerim terruerīmus petīverim petīverīmus audīverim audīverīmus
2nd person portāverīs portāverītis terruerīs terruerītis petīverīs petīverītis audīverīs audīverītis
3rd person portāverit portāverint terruerit terruerint petīverit petīverint audīverit audīverint

The subjunctive past perfect active uses the modal signs -isse / issê- , which occur between the perfect stem and personal endings of the perfect.

Past perfect subjunctive active
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person portāvissem portāvissēmus terruissem terruissēmus petīvissem petīvissēmus audīvissem audīvissēmus
2nd person portāvissēs portāvissētis terruissēs terruissētis petīvissēs petīvissētis audīvissēs audīvissētis
3rd person portāvisset portāvissent terruisset terruissent petīvisset petīvissent audīvisset audīvissent

In diathesis , also known as the genus verbi, Latin differentiates between active and passive, the functions of which essentially correspond to those in German. An originally existing medium is still perceptible in some verbs ( lavari - to wash) and the dumpsters . These verbs have almost exclusively passive forms, but active, mostly reflexive meanings, for example mirari - to be surprised, uti - to make use of, potiri - to take hold. There are still a few semideponents in which the verbal stems are assigned differently to the diatheses, i.e. H. they have either an active present tense stem and a passive perfect stem (more common case) or a passive present tense stem and an active perfect stem (less common case).

The passive tense is formed in the present, past and future tense by adding the passive personal endings to the tense or mode signs. In these tenses, as for example in the North Germanic languages ​​and unlike in German, there is a synthetic formation of the passive. The following table shows the present passive in the indicative for all four declension classes. The synthetic liabilities of the other tenses and modes are formed in the same way, which is why they are not shown here.

Present passive indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person porter portamur terreor terrēmur petor petimur audior audīmur
2nd person portāris portāminī terrēris terrēminī peteris petiminī audīris audīminī
3rd person portātur portantur terrētur terrentur petitur petuntur audītur audiuntur

The passive voice is analytically formed in the perfect, past perfect and future II by combining the past participle passive (PPP) with the inflected forms of the auxiliary verb esse . Unlike in German, and as it is today, for example in Italian, the participle is declined according to number and gender - if, for example, the objects of the action are several women, the PPP receives the ending -ae . The following tables assume an object or objects in the masculine word.

Perfect passive indicative:

Perfect passive indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person portātus sum portātī sumus territus sum territī sumus petītus sum petītī sumus audītus sum audītī sumus
2nd person portātus it portātī estis territory it territī estis petītus it petītī estis audītus it audītī estis
3rd person portātus est portātī sunt territus est territī sunt petītus est petītī sunt audītus est audītī sunt

The perfect passive subjunctive is formed using the subjunctive of the auxiliary verb:

Perfect passive subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person portātus sim portātī sīmus territory sim territī sīmus petītus sim petītī sīmus audītus sim audītī sīmus
2nd person portātus sīs portātī sītis territus sīs territī sītis petītus sīs petītī sītis audītus sīs audītī sītis
3rd person portātus sit portātī sint territus sit territī sint petītus sit petītī sint audītus sit audītī sint

In the passive past perfect tense, the auxiliary verb is used in the past tense (indicative or subjunctive):

Past perfect Passive Indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person portātus eram portātī erāmus territory eram territī erāmus petītus eram petītī erāmus audītus eram audītī erāmus
2nd person portātus erās portātī erātis territus erās territī erātis petītus erās petītī erātis audītus erās audītī erātis
3rd person portātus erat portātī erant territus erat territī erant petītus erat petītī erant audītus erat audītī erant
Past perfect passive subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person portātus essem portātī essēmus territory of essem territī essēmus petītus essem petītī essēmus audītus essem audītī essēmus
2nd person portātus essēs portātī essētis territus essēs territī essētis petītus essēs petītī essētis audītus essēs audītī essētis
3rd person portātus eats portātī essent territory eats territī essent petītus eats petītī essent audītus eats audītī essent

The future tense II passive is formed using the auxiliary verb in the future tense. There is no subjunctive here.

Future tense II passive indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st person portātus erō portātī erimus territus erō territī erimus petītus erō petītī erimus audītus erō audītī erimus
2nd person portātus eris portātī eritis territus eris territī eritis petītus eris petītī eritis audītus eris audītī eritis
3rd person portātus erit portātī erunted territory of erit territī erunt petītus erit petītī erunted audītus erit audītī erunt

Coniugatio periphrastica

In rare contexts, the verb forms formed according to the scheme are not sufficient to clarify the meaning; A secondary filling of this functional point is necessary, especially where the futuristic subjunctive would have to be used; here then circumscribing forms (the so-called coniugatio periphrastica ) appear. In Latin grammar, all verb complexes that have esse as a finite component and a participle as an infinite component are referred to as periphrastic / circumscribing conjugation or coniugatio periphrastica ; in the narrower sense, only the future participles associated with the conjugation forms of the verb esse (sum, eras, fuit, erimus, fueritis, fuerant ...) are regarded as forms of the coniugatio periphrastica .

The latter forms express:

  • Imminent : Te visitaturus sum  - "I am about to visit you",
  • an intention (intention), a will (see optative and voluntary ): Te visurus eram  - "I wanted to see you, intended to see you, was willing to see you" or also
  • a condition in the function of a conditional: Si amici futuri sumus  - "If we want to be friends"

Infinite verb forms

In Latin these are the infinitive , the participle , the gerund , the gerundive and the supinum .

The infinitive occurs as an infinitive of simultaneity (infinitive present), prematurity (infinitive perfect) and post-temporality (infinitive future tense), in the active and in the passive, e.g. For example : delere "to destroy", deleri "to be destroyed", delevisse "to have destroyed", deletum esse "to have been destroyed", deleturum esse "to destroy in the future", deletum iri "to be destroyed in the future".

In the present tense the infinitive has the following forms:


  • -are for the 1st conjugation
  • -ēre for the 2nd conjugation
  • -ĕre for the 3rd conjugation
  • -ire for the 4th conjugation


  • -ari for the 1st conjugation
  • -ēri for the 2nd conjugation
  • -i for the 3rd conjugation
  • -iri for the 4th conjugation

In the perfect active, the infinitive is -isse , whereby of course the perfect stem must be used: amavisse (to have loved). The infinitive of the perfect passive is analytically formed with the participle perfect passive (PPP) and esse (to be): amatus esse (to have been loved).

The participle (a verbal adjective ) is available in the variants simultaneity / active ( PPA ) (signal -nt-), prematurity / passive ( PPP ) (signal mostly -t- or -s-) and lateness / active ( PFA ) (signal almost without exception -ur- to the so-called supine strain ), for example: delens (from * delent-s ) "destructive", deletus "destroyed", deleturus "destructive in the future".

The gerund , a verbal noun, is traditionally the noun infinitive that can be used in the nominative or accusative like a noun ( vincere placet “we like winning”, laudare amamus “we love to praise”). For the other cases, and after prepositions also for the accusative, it creates its own forms on "-nd-"; z. B .: in delendo "while destroying", ad delendum / delendi causa "in order to destroy". (In school grammar it is customary to declare "laudare, laudandi, laudando, ad laudandum, laudando"; whether this is objectively justified or only the own forms should be called "Gerund" can be left open.)

The gerundive (also a verbal adjective , also referred to as the past participle passive) in German has the equivalent of "zu ... -nd"; it is formed with the ending “-ndus”, “-a”, “-um” and inflected after the a / o declination. Used as a predicate noun or attribute , it expresses a necessity, a recommendation or a prohibition and then corresponds to the German construction “zu” + first participle. With predictive use it can also (and more often) replace the gerund, for example: in Carthagine delenda (with gerundive) instead of more rarely in Carthaginem delendo (with gerund) "at the destruction of Carthage".

The supinum (also a verbal noun ) has no equivalent in German. It is formed like the participle perfect passive - but after the u-declination - and has the ending "-um" (supinum I) rsp. "-U" (Supinum II) and represents frozen cases with a final meaning; z. B .: deletum venio “I come to destroy”, horribile dictu “terrible to say”.

Abbreviated verb forms, elongated verb forms and archaisms

The following short forms, long forms or archaisms often appear:

  • In the perfect tense, there is no infix -ve / vi- before an ending with an “r” or “s”, for example: lauda (vi) sti “you have praised”, lauda (ve) runt “they have praised”, lauda ( vi) sse "to have vowed" etc. etc. etc.
  • The present passive infinitive also ends in -rier (instead of -ri ).
  • The form of the 2nd person singular appears in the passive as -re (instead of -ris ), e.g. B .: laudare “you will be praised” (→ in the indicative present passive identical to the infinitive present active laudare “praise”).
  • With the imperatives dic !, duc !, fac !, fer !, ai !, es! "Say (e)!", "Lead (e)!", "Do (e)!", "Wear (e)!", "Claim!", "Be!" Is apokope (erosion of the stem vowel e) .
  • Passive form of the imperative future tense of the 2nd and 3rd person singular is also -mino (instead of -tor ) in the older language .

Irregular verbs

Latin knows a number of irregular verbs (1st Pers. Sing. Pres. Act. Ind., Infinitive, 1st Pers. Sing. Perf. Act., If available: PPP):

  • sum, esse, fuī, futūrum (to be)
  • possum, posse, potuī (can)
  • eō, īre, īvī / iī, ītum (to go)
  • volō, velle, voluī (want)
  • nōlō, nōlle, nōluī (not wanting)
  • mālō, mālle, māluī (prefer)
  • ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum (to wear)
  • fīō, fierī, factus sum (to become)
  • edō, ēsse or edere, ēdī, ēsum (to eat)

Auxiliary verb esse

eat "be"
number Singular Plural
person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Present indicative sum it est sumus estis sunt
conjunctive si m si s si t si mis si tis si nt
Past tense indicative era m what s what t what mus era tis era nt
conjunctive eat m eat s eat t eat mus eat tis eat nt
Perfect indicative fu i fu isti fu it fu imus fu istis fu erunt
conjunctive for i m for s for i t füri mus füri tis fori nt
past continuous indicative for a m for a s for a t füra mus füra tis for a nt
conjunctive fuisse m fuisse s fuisse t fuisse mus fuisse tis fuisse nt
Future tense he o he is he it he imus he itis he unt
Future tense II for o for is for it for imus for itis for int
Imperative I   it     este  
Imperative II   esto   estote sunto

Sentence-valued constructions

The Accusativus cum Infinitivo (= AcI)

The Latin AcI is an infinitive construction that is mostly dependent on a verb of perception, knowledge or speaking (verba sentiendi et dicendi) or on a certain expression. It takes the position of the object and is thus also translated with an object sentence in the form of a that sentence. When translating, the accusative in the name becomes the subject and the infinitive becomes the full verb of the object sentence, which is introduced by the conjunction “that”. To determine the tense of the main verb, the tense of the infinitive is needed:

  • Infinitive (present tense) -> simultaneity with the main verb in the main clause (see example 1)
  • Infinitive perfect -> prematurity to the main verb in the main clause (see example 2)
  • Infinitive future tense -> Nachzeitigkeit to the main verb in the main clause (see example 3)

Ex. 1: Num putas me scribere tantum posse? Do you think I can only write?

Ex. 2: Ego quoque Lucullo ingenium egregium fuisse accepi. I have also learned that Lucull's bravery is excellent.

Example 3: Spero eum mox cum militibus Romam venturum. I hope that he will soon come to Rome with the soldiers.

Nominativus cum Infinitivo (= NcI)

The Latin NcI is an infinitive construction that is mostly dependent on a verb in the 3rd person singular passive. The NcI takes the position of the subject and is thus also translated with a subject sentence in the form of a that-sentence. The main verb of the main clause is translated as passive and neuter, followed by the subject clause with the introductory conjunction “that”. The nominative of the NcI becomes the subject and the infinitive becomes the main verb of the subject clause. For the tense of the verb, the same rules apply as for AcI:

  • Infinitive (present tense) -> simultaneity to the main verb in the main clause
  • Infinitive perfect -> prematurity to the main verb in the main clause
  • Infinitive future tense -> Nachzeitigkeit to the main verb in the main clause

If one strives for a more free translation of the NcI, one can “activate” the main clause and translate the NcI “like the AcI” with an object clause.

Example: Hercules filius Jovis fuisse dicitur.

Literal translation: It is said that Hercules was a son of Jupiter.

free translation: It is said that Hercules was a son of Jupiter.

The Participium conjunctum (PC)

The pc is a participle construction embedded in a main clause. It extends from a noun or a pronoun that takes on the function of a noun to a participle. Nouns or pronouns are in the KNG congruence to the participle. The rest of the pc stands between the pro-noun and participle.

The translation of the PC

There are two ways to translate the PC:

  • by a relative clause
  • through an adverbial sentence
By a relative clause

Step by step instructions:

  • Translate main clause
  • Determine the tense of the relative clause (see below)
  • Form a relative clause

The tense of the relative clause can be determined using the tense of the participle:

  • Present active participle → simultaneity to the main verb of the main clause (see example 1)
  • Past participle Passive → prematurity to the main verb of the main clause (see example 2)
  • Past participle active → Nachzeitigkeit to the main verb of the main clause (see example 3)

Example 1: Barbari feri Rhenum et Mosellam oppugnantes oppida Romana circumveniunt. The savage barbarians who attack the Rhine and Moselle surround the Roman cities.

Example 2: Alii principes civitatis adventu exercitus Romani territi ex vicis et oppidis ad Caesarem venerunt, ut de suis rebus cum eo agerent. Other leading men of a state frightened by the arrival of the Roman army came to Caesar from the villages and towns to negotiate their affairs with him.

Example 3: Servus dominam villam intraturam salutat. The slave greets the mistress who wants to enter the house.

Through an adverbial sentence

Step by step instructions:

  • Translate main clause
  • Determine the sense of direction of the PC (temporal, causal, concessional, conditional) Tip: Sometimes several options are possible. You take the one that fits best.
  • Determine the tense of the adverbial sentence (see below)
  • Form adverbial clauses

The tense of the adverbial clause can be determined using the tense of the participle:

  • Present active participle → simultaneity to the main verb of the main clause (see example 1)
  • Past participle Passive → prematurity to the main verb of the main clause (see example 2)
  • Past participle active → Nachzeitigkeit to the main verb of the main clause (see example 3)

Example: 1: Barbari feri Rhenum et Mosellam oppugnantes oppida Romana circumveniunt. When the wild barbarians attack the Rhine and Moselle, they surround the Roman cities.

Example 2: Alii principes civitatis adventu exercitus Romani territi ex vicis et oppidis ad Caesarem venerunt, ut de suis rebus cum eo agerent. After other leading men of a state had frightened the arrival of the Roman army, they came to Caesar from the villages and towns to negotiate their things with him.

Example 3: Germani, cum nuper contra Romanos pugnarent, me consulturi venerunt. When the Teutons recently fought against the Romans, they came to question me.

The ablativus absolutus (abl. Para.)

The ablativus absolutus is a special form of the PC. The participle and the reference word are in the ablative. The post-temporality cannot, however, be used, only prematurity and simultaneity.

Example 1: Simultaneity: Te regente nemo inopia laborat.

Example 2: Prematurity: Qua re audita celeriter ad theatrum ibam.

The translation of the oj Section.

The translation of the ablativus absolutus corresponds exactly to that of the participium conjunctum:

Example 1: Te regente nemo inopia laborat. When you rule, no one is in need.

Example 2: Qua re audita celeriter ad theatrum ibam. After hearing this thing, I quickly went to the theater.

The short forms

There are short expressions in Latin that can only be expressed with the ablative absolutus. These are not regular, do not follow the translation principle of the PC or the OJ. Section. and must therefore be learned by heart:

Creonte auctore = at the instigation of Creton

Creonte invito = against the will of Crete

Creonte duce = under the guidance of the creton

Of course, the name "Kreton" can also be replaced by others.


Nominative accusative language; congruence

Like the other old and most recent Indo-European languages ​​(including German), Latin is a nominative-accusative language , and here it must be distinguished from the ergative languages . The sentence subject is in the basic case, the nominative, the direct object is in the accusative, the predicate is congruent with the subject. In passive constructions, on the other hand, the logical object is in the nominative and the predicate is congruent with this.

Another feature inherited from the Indo-European original language is the congruence between adjective attribute and reference word. The former must match the latter in terms of case, number and gender ( KNG congruence ):

  • puer pulcher (a beautiful boy) (nominative singular masculine)
  • puella pulchra (a beautiful girl) (nominative singular feminine)
  • pueris pulchris (the beautiful boy) (dative plural)
  • puellarum pulchrarum (the beautiful girl) (genitive plural)

Synthetic language structure

Latin has a highly synthetic type of language ; That is, grammatical functions or relationships between words and clauses are often expressed by endings rather than particles or functional words. Latin realizes this type more strongly than most modern European languages. The expression of Latin appears very compact or dense due to this characteristic of the language. This quality can be considered one of the major difficulties in learning the Latin language. The following example sentences illustrate the difference between synthetic and analytical language structures in Latin and German:

  • Cedamus amori.
  • Let's give in to love.

In order to express the mode of the adhortative , German needs a modal auxiliary verb, which must also be accompanied by a reflexive pronoun (“let us”), while Latin expresses the mode with an affix (-a-) . The article forms a separate grammatical word in German, while the information about certainty / indeterminacy remains implicit in Latin.

  • Augusto regente pax erat in toto imperio Romano.
  • When / because Augustus reigned, peace reigned throughout the Roman Empire.

Augusto regente is a so-called ablativus absolutus (abl. Abs.), Which in German (analytical) is represented by a temporal or causal, possibly also adversative subordinate clause. As you can see, in Latin it is sufficient to put the phrase composed of the noun and the present participle in the ablative in order to convey the same information as the subordinate clause in German. A sentence-introducing particle like in German is not necessary in Latin.

  • Imperatorem venisse audit.
  • He hears that the general has come.

This is an accusativus cum infinitivo (AcI), the German subordinate clause is expressed by imperatorem (accusative) and the verb venire (to come) in the infinitive. Here, too, Latin shows a significantly denser syntax than German (three words instead of six). The AcI can in principle also be formed in German, but not as an expression of prematurity, as is the case here. It can also be seen here that a personal pronoun must be used for the subject in German, but not in Latin.

Since the subject is marked by the verb in Latin, it can be omitted if the context makes it clear who or what is meant. This trait is preserved in Romance languages ​​(but not in French). Personal pronouns are therefore used less often in Latin than in German. In particular, the personal pronouns of the third person are only used as subjects if they are to be emphasized - they therefore also have a more demonstrative character than in German.

Word order

The word order is relatively free in Latin, since the relationships between the words are clearly identified by affixes and possibly particles, so that no further clarification through a fixed word order is required, as is particularly the case in languages ​​of the isolating language type , but often also in German the case is. Example:

  • Canis hominem murders.
  • Hominem canis murders.

Both sentences are grammatically correct and have to be translated as "(a / the) dog bites (a / the) man".

Despite the free word order, Latin shows a clear tendency towards the word order subject-object-verb (SOV), as can be found in many languages. At least in non-metric poetry, this word order is usually only deviated from when - for example by the initial position of an object - the meaning of a certain part of the sentence is to be emphasized. Example ( Virgil ):

  • Omnia vincit amor, et nos cedamus amori.
  • Love defeats EVERYTHING ( omnia - direct object), so we too want to give in to love.

In metrical poetry, on the other hand, the word order usually follows the constraints of meter rather than grammatical conventions - which can make understanding the text very difficult.

Latin tends to have a more specific definition follow the noun to be defined, i.e. H. Adjective attributes follow i. d. Usually the reference word, relative clauses also follow the reference word. In the case of genitive constructions, however, this tendency is less clear. Like German, Latin knows both prepositions and postpositions , with the former predominating.


Web links

Wikibooks: Latin Grammar  - Learning and Teaching Materials

Individual evidence

  1. In Middle Latin there are some noun compounds such as virlupus (man wolf, werewolf, lycanthrope) and Deushomo (god man). Please refer:
    • Peter Stotz: Handbook on the Latin language of the Middle Ages. Second volume. Change of meaning and word formation. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2004, p. 454 ( at ). Quote: “Only very weakly - and apparently only in loan formations - is represented in German. so common Zssg'typus front door 'of the house door' ”. Deus-homo (from Greek θεάνθρωπος) and virlupus (from Anglo-Saxon werewulf ) are cited as examples .
    • Peter Stotz: Handbook on the Latin language of the Middle Ages. Fifth volume. Bibliography, overview of sources and index. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2000, p. 1041 ( at ). Quote: " virlupus, -i , 'werewolf'".
  2. Otto Schulz: Detailed Latin grammar for the upper classes of learned schools. Halle 1825, p. 108 ( at ).
  3. Otto Schulz: Detailed Latin grammar for the upper classes of learned schools. Halle 1825, p. 51f. ( at ).
  4. Otto Schulz: Detailed Latin grammar for the upper classes of learned schools. Halle 1825, pp. 106f., 114 ( pp. 106 and 114 at
  5. ^ KL Struve: About Latin Declination and Conjugation. A grammatical study. Königsberg 1823, p. 35f. ( at ).
  6. Imman. Joh. Gerhard Scheller's concise Latin language teaching or grammar for the Churbaier schools. Munich 1782, p. 38 ( at ).
  7. Christophorus Cellarius: Easier Latin Grammatica or Kurtze, but adequate instruction on the Latin language, for the sake of more benefit among young people, Teutsch tipped off […]. Merseburg 1704, p. 22 ( at ).
  8. ^ Grammaticae Institutionis in Lingua latina. Pars great. Regensburg (lat.Ratispona, in the locative Ratisponae) 1684 (CIↃ IↃ LXXX IV), pp. D4 ff., In the section Typus quartae Declinationis ( the book at ).
  9. Prima latinae Grammaticae Pars […]. Frankfurt am Main (Latin: Francofortum ad Moenum, in the locative Francoforti ad Moenum) 1566, p. B4 f., In the Colloquium section . XIIII. ( the book at ).
  10. Johann Balthasar von Antesperg: The Kayserliche Deutsche Grammatick, or the art of speaking the German language correctly, and writing without mistakes, in four parts […]. Second and improved edition including a register. Vienna 1749, p. 52.
  11. James Tatham: A Grammar, in which the Orthography, Etymology, Syntax and Prosody of the Latin Language are minutely detailed, and rendered easy to the juvenile Capacity. Philadelphia 1822, p. 10 ( at ).
  12. ^ Wilhelm Freund : Dictionary of the Latin Language. First volume. A-C. Leipzig 1834, S. LXVII – LXXXVIII (Roman 67–88) ("III. About the genit. Singular of the words cornu, gelu, genu etc.")
  13. ^ Karl Ernst Georges: Comprehensive Latin-German concise dictionary. Hannover 1913 (reprint: Darmstadt 1998), Volume 1, Sp. 1698–1700, keyword cornū ( at ). Quote: “cornū, ūs u. (rarely) ū, n. "
  14. Raffaela Maidhof, Maria A. Söllner: PONS pocket grammar school Latin. 5th – 10th Class. All the important rules in pocket size. PONS GmbH, Stuttgart 2014, p. 10 ( at ).
  15. Linda Strehl: Langenscheidt short grammar Latin. Complete rework. 2001, p. 13.
  16. CG Zumpt: Latin Grammar. Tenth edition Berlin 1850, p. 76f. ( at ).
  17. CG Zumpt: Latin Grammar. Ninth edition. Berlin 1844, pp. 171–178.
  18. ^ Ludwig Ramshorn: Latin grammar. First of two parts, second edition. Leipzig 1830, p. 131 ff.