# Latin numerals

Latin numerals : There are four basic types of numerals in Latin :

1. Basic numbers ( cardinal numbers ) (one, two, three ...)
2. Ordinal numbers (the first, the second, the third ...)
3. Distribution numbers ( distributive numbers ) (single, two each, three each ...)
4. Repetition numbers ( iterative numbers ) (once, twice, three times ...)

## List of numerals

Number in Indian numeric script Cardinalia Ordinalia Distributiva Iteratives
1 ūnus, -a, -um 'a / an / a' prīmus, -a, -um 'first / first / first' singulī, -ae, -a 'each one / one / one' semel 'once'
2 duo, -ae, -o 'two' age, -a, -um / secundus, -a, -um 'second / second / second' bīnī, -ae, -a 'two each' until 'twice'
3 trēs, tria 'three' tertius, -a, -um 'third / third / third' ternī, -ae, -a / trīnī, -ae, -a 'three each' ter 'three times'
4th quattuor 'four' quārtus, -a, -um 'fourth / fourth / fourth' quaternī, -ae, -a 'four each' quater 'four times'
5 quīnque 'five' quīntus, -a, -um 'fifth / fifth / fifth' quīnī, -ae, -a 'five each' quīnquiēs 'five times'
6th sex 'six' sextus, -a, -um 'sixth / sixth / sixth' sēnī, -ae, -a 'six each' sexiēs 'six times'
7th septem 'seven' septimus, -a, -um 'seventh / seventh / seventh' septēnī, -ae, -a 'seven each' septiēs 'seven times'
8th octō 'eight' octāvus, -a, -um 'eighth / eighth / eighth' octōnī, -ae, -a 'eight each' octiēs 'eight times'
9 novem 'nine' nōnus, -a, -um 'ninth / ninth / ninth' novēnī, -ae, -a 'nine each' noviēs 'nine times'
10 decem 'ten' decimus, -a, -um 'tenth / tenth / tenth' dēnī, -ae, -a 'ten each' deciēs 'ten times'
11 undecim / decem (et) ūnus, -a, -um 'eleven' undecimus, -a, -um 'eleventh / eleventh / eleventh' undēnī, -ae, -a 'eleven each' undeciēs 'eleven times'
12 duodecim / decem (et) duo, -ae, -o 'twelve' duodecimus, -a, -um 'twelfth / twelfth / twelfth' duodēnī, -ae, -a 'twelve each' duodeciēs 'twelve times'
13 trēdecim / decem (et) trēs 'thirteen' tertius decimus / decimus et tertius 'thirteenth' ternī dēnī 'thirteen each' ter deciēs 'thirteen times '
14th quattuordecim / decem (et) quattuor 'fourteen' quārtus decimus / decimus et quārtus 'fourteenth' quaternī dēnī 'fourteen each' quater deciēs 'fourteen times'
15th quīndecim / decem (et) quīnque 'fifteen' quīntus decimus / decimus et quīntus 'fifteenth' quīnī dēnī 'fifteen each' quīnquiēs deciēs 'fifteen times '
16 sēdecim / decem (et) sex 'sixteen' sextus decimus / decimus et sextus 'sixteenth' sēnī dēnī 'sixteen each' sexiēs deciēs 'sixteen times'
17th septendecim / decem (et) septem 'seventeen' septimus decimus / decimus et septimus 'seventeenth' septēnī dēnī 'seventeen each' septiēs deciēs 'seventeen times '
18th duodēvīgintī / decem (et) octō 'eighteen' duodēvīcēsimus / octāvus decimus 'eighteenth' duodēvīcēnī / octōnī dēnī 'eighteen each' duodēvīciēs 'eighteen times '
19th undēvīgintī / decem (et) novem 'nineteen' undēvīcēsimus / nōnus decimus 'nineteenth' undēvīcēnī / novēnī dēnī 'nineteen each' undēvīciēs 'nineteen times '
20th vīgintī 'twenty' vīcēsimus 'twentieth' vīcēnī 'twenty each' vīciēs 'twenty times'
21st vīgintī (et) ūnus / ūnus (et) vīgintī 'twenty-one' ūnus et vīcēsimus / vīcēsimus prīmus 'twenty-first' singulī et vīcēnī / vīcēnī singulī 'each twenty-one' semel et vīciēs / vīciēs semel 'twenty-one times '
22nd vīgintī (et) duo / duo (et) vīgintī 'twenty-two' duo et vīcēsimus / alter et vīcēsimus 'twenty-second' bīnī et vīcēnī / vīcēnī bīnī 'twenty-two each' to et vīciēs / vīciēs to 'twenty-two times '
... ... ... ... ...
28 duodetrīgintā / vīgintī (et) octō 'twenty-eight' duodētrīcēsimus / vīcēsimus (et) octāvus 'twenty-eighth' duodētrīcēnī / vīcēnī octōnī 'twenty-eight each' duodētrīciēs / vīciēs octiēs 'twenty eight times '
29 undētrīgintā / vīgintī (et) novem 'twenty-nine' undētrīcēsimus / vīcēsimus (et) nōnus 'twenty-ninth' undētrīcēnī / vīcēnī novēnī 'twenty-nine each' undētrīciēs / vīciēs noviēs 'twenty-nine times '
30th trīgintā 'thirty' trīcēsimus 'thirtieth' trīcēnī 'thirty each' trīciēs 'thirty times'
32 trīgintā (et) duo / duo (et) trīgintā 'thirty-two' duo et trīcēsimus / alter et trīcēsimus 'thirty-second' bīnī et trīcēnī / trīcēnī bīnī 'thirty-two each' to et trīciēs / trīciēs to 'thirty-two times '
50 quīnquāgintā 'fifty' quīnquāgēsimus 'fiftieth' quīnquāgēnī 'fifty each' quīnquāgiēs 'fifty times'
54 quīnquāgintā (et) quattuor / quattuor (et) quīnquāgintā 'fifty-four' quīnquāgēsimus quārtus / quārtus et quīnquāgēsimus 'fifty-fourth' quaternī et quīnquāgēnī / quīnquāgēnī quaternī 'fifty-four each' quater et quīnquāgiēs / quīnquāgiēs quater 'fifty-four times '
60 sexāgintā 'sixty' sexāgēsimus 'sixtieth' sexāgēnī 'sixty each' sexāgiēs 'sixty times'
65 sexāgintā (et) quīnque / quīnque (et) sexāgintā 'sixty-five' sexāgēsimus quīntus / quīntus et sexāgēsimus 'sixty-fifth' quīnī et sexāgēnī / sexāgēnī quīnī 'sixty-five each' quīnquiēs et sexāgiēs / sexāgiēs quīnquiēs 'sixty-five times '
70 septuāgintā 'seventy' septuāgēsimus 'seventieth' septuāgēnī 'seventy each' septuāgiēs 'seventy times'
79 undeoctōgintā / septuāgintā (et) novem 'seventy-nine' undeoctōgēsimus / septuāgēsimus (et) nōnus 'seventy-ninth' undeoctōgēnī / septuāgēnī novēnī 'each seventy-nine' undeoctōgiēs / septuāgiēs noviēs 'seventy-nine times '
80 octōgintā 'eighty' octōgēsimus 'eightieth' octōgēnī 'eighty each' octōgiēs 'eighty times'
88 duodēnōnāgintā / octōgintā (et) octō 'eighty-eight' duodēnōnāgēsimus / octōgēsimus (et) octāvus 'eighty-eighth' duodēnōnāgēnī / octōgēnī octōnī 'eighty-eight each' duodēnōnāgiēs / octōgiēs octiēs 'eighty-eight times '
90 nōnāgintā 'ninety' nōnāgēsimus 'ninetieth' nōnāgēnī 'ninety each' nōnāgiēs 'ninety times '
97 nōnāgintā (et) septem / septem (et) nōnāgintā 'ninety-seven' nōnāgēsimus septimus / septimus et nōnāgēsimus 'ninety-seventh' septēnī et nōnāgēnī / nōnāgēnī septēnī 'ninety-seven each' septiēs et nōnāgiēs / nōnāgiēs septiēs 'ninety-seven times '
98 duodēcentum / nōnāgintā (et) octō 'ninety-eight' duodēcentēsimus / nōnāgēsimus (et) octāvus 'ninety-eighth' duodēcentēnī / nōnāgēnī octōnī 'each ninety-eight' duodēcentiēs / nōnāgiēs octiēs 'ninety-eight times '
99 undēcentum / nōnāgintā (et) novem 'ninety-nine' undēcentēsimus / nōnāgēsimus (et) nōnus 'ninety- ninth ' undēcentēnī / nōnāgēnī novēnī 'each ninety-nine' undēcentiēs / nōnāgiēs noviēs 'ninety-nine times '
100 centum 'hundred' centēsimus 'hundredth' centēnī 'per hundred' centiēs 'a hundred times'
150 centum quīnquāgintā 'one hundred and fifty' centēsimus quīnquāgēsimus 'one hundred and fiftyth ' centēnī quīnquāgēnī 'one hundred and fifty each' centiēs quīnquāgiēs 'one hundred and fifty times '
151 centum quīnquāgintā ūnus ' one hundred and fifty-one ' centēsimus ūnus et quīnquāgēsimus ' one hundred and fifty-first ' centēnī quīnquāgēnī singulī 'each hundred and fifty-one ' centiēs quīnquāgiēs semel 'one hundred and fifty-one times '
160 centum sexāgintā 'one hundred and sixty' centēsimus sexāgēsimus 'hundred and sixtyth ' centēnī sexāgēnī 'each hundred and sixty' centiēs sexāgiēs 'one hundred and sixty times '
200 ducentī, -ae, -a / ducentum 'two hundred' ducentēsimus 'two hundredth' ducēnī 'two hundred each' ducentiēs 'two hundred times '
250 ducentī quīnquāgintā 'two hundred and fifty' ducentēsimus quīnquāgēsimus 'one hundred and fiftyth ' ducentēnī quīnquāgēnī 'one hundred and fifty each' ducentiēs quīnquāgiēs 'one hundred and fifty times '
300 trecentī, -ae, -a 'three hundred' trecentēsimus 'three hundredth' trecēnī 'three hundred each' trecentiēs 'three hundred times '
500 quīngentī, -ae, -a / quīncentum 'five hundred' quīngentēsimus 'five hundredth' quīngēnī 'five hundred each' quīngentiēs 'five hundred times '
590 quīngentī nōnāgintā 'five hundred ninety ' quīngentēsimus nōnāgēsimus 'five hundred ninetyth ' quīngēnī nōnāgēnī 'five hundred and ninety each' quīngentiēs nōnāgiēs 'five hundred and ninety times '
600 sescentī, -ae, -a / sescentum 'six hundred' sescentēsimus 'six hundredth' sescēnī 'six hundred each' sescentiēs 'six hundred times '
700 septingentī, -ae, -a 'seven hundred' septingentēsimus 'seven hundredth' septingēnī 'seven hundred each' septingentiēs 'seven hundred times '
800 octingentī, -ae, -a 'eight hundred' octingentēsimus 'eight hundredth ' octingēnī 'eight hundred each' octingentiēs 'eight hundred times'
900 nōngentī, -ae, -a 'nine hundred' nōngentēsimus 'nine hundredth' nōngēnī 'nine hundred each' nōngentiēs 'nine hundred times '
1,000 mīlle 'thousand' mīllēsimus 'thousandth' singula mīlia 'per thousand' mīliēs 'a thousand times'
1,500 mīlle (et) quīngentī, -ae, -a 'thousand five hundred' mīllēsimus (et) quīngentēsimus 'thousand five hundredth ' singula mīlia (et) quīngēnī 'per thousand five hundred' mīliēs (et) quīngentiēs 'a thousand five hundred times'
2,000 duo mīlia / bīna mīlia 'two thousand' to mīllēsimus 'two thousandth' bīna mīlia 'two thousand each' to mīliēs 'two thousand times '
3,000 tria mīlia / trīna mīlia 'three thousand' ter mīllēsimus 'three thousandth' trīna mīlia 'three thousand each' ter mīliēs 'three thousand times '
4,000 quattuor mīlia / quaterna mīlia 'four thousand' quater mīllēsimus 'four thousandth' quaterna mīlia 'four thousand each' quater mīliēs 'four thousand times '
5,000 quīnque mīlia / quīna mīlia 'five thousand' quīnquiēs mīllēsimus 'five thousandth' quīna mīlia 'five thousand each' quīnquiēs mīliēs 'five thousand times '
6,000 sex mīlia / sēna mīlia 'six thousand' sexiēs mīllēsimus 'six thousandth' sēna mīlia 'six thousand each' sexiēs mīliēs 'six thousand times '
7,000 septem mīlia / septēna mīlia 'seven thousand' septiēs mīllēsimus 'seven thousandth' septēna mīlia 'seven thousand each' septiēs mīliēs 'seven thousand times '
8,000 octō mīlia / octōna mīlia 'eight thousand' octiēs mīllēsimus 'eight thousandth' octōna mīlia 'eight thousand each' octiēs mīliēs 'eight thousand times '
9,000 novem mīlia / novēna mīlia 'nine thousand' noviēs mīllēsimus 'nine thousandth' novēna mīlia 'nine thousand each' noviēs mīliēs 'nine thousand times '
10,000 decem mīlia / dēna mīlia 'ten thousand' deciēs mīllēsimus 'ten thousandth' dēna mīlia 'ten thousand each' deciēs mīliēs 'ten thousand times'
11,000 undecim mīlia / undēna mīlia 'eleven thousand' undeciēs mīllēsimus 'eleven thousandth' undēna mīlia 'eleven thousand each' undeciēs mīliēs 'eleven thousand times '
15,000 quīndecim mīlia / quīndēna mīlia 'fifteen thousand' quīndeciēs mīllēsimus 'fifteen thousandth' quīndēna mīlia 'fifteen thousand each' quīndeciēs mīliēs 'fifteen thousand times '
20,000 vīgintī mīlia / vīcēna mīlia 'twenty thousand' vīciēs mīllēsimus 'twenty thousandth' vīcēna mīlia 'twenty thousand each' vīciēs mīliēs 'twenty thousand times '
30,000 trīgintā mīlia / trīcēna mīlia 'thirty thousand' trīciēs mīllēsimus 'thirty thousandth' trīcēna mīlia 'thirty thousand each' trīciēs mīliēs 'thirty thousand times '
50,000 quīnquāgintā mīlia / quīnquāgēna mīlia 'fifty thousand' quīnquāgiēs mīllēsimus 'fifty thousandth' quīnquāgēna mīlia 'fifty thousand each' quīnquāgiēs mīliēs 'fifty thousand times '
60,000 sexāgintā mīlia / sexāgēna mīlia 'sixty thousand' sexāgiēs mīllēsimus 'sixty thousandth' sexāgēna mīlia 'sixty thousand each' sexāgiēs mīliēs 'sixty thousand times '
70,000 septuāgintā mīlia / septuāgēna mīlia 'seventy thousand' septuāgiēs mīllēsimus 'seventy thousandth' septuāgēna mīlia 'seventy thousand each' septuāgiēs mīliēs 'seventy thousand times '
80,000 octōgintā mīlia / octōgēna mīlia 'eighty thousand' octōgiēs mīllēsimus 'eighty thousandth' octōgēna mīlia 'eighty thousand each' octōgiēs mīliēs 'eighty thousand times '
90,000 nōnāgintā mīlia / nōnāgēna mīlia 'ninety thousand' nōnāgiēs mīllēsimus 'ninety thousandth' nōnāgēna mīlia 'ninety thousand each' nōnāgiēs mīliēs 'ninety thousand times '
100,000 centum mīlia / centēna mīlia 'hundred thousand' centiēs mīllēsimus 'hundred thousandth' centēna mīlia 'per hundred thousand' centiēs mīliēs 'a hundred thousand times'
150,000 centum quīnquāgintā mīlia / centēna quīnquāgēna mīlia 'one hundred and fifty thousand' centiēs quīnquāgiēs mīllēsimus 'one hundred and fifty thousandth' centēna quīnquāgēna mīlia 'per hundred and fifty thousand' centiēs quīnquāgiēs mīliēs 'one hundred and fifty thousand times '
151,000 centum quīnquāgintā ūnus mīlia / centēna quīnquāgēna singula mīlia ' one hundred and fifty-one thousand ' centiēs quīnquāgiēs semel mīllēsimus 'one hundred and fifty-one thousandth ' centēna quīnquāgēna singula mīlia 'per hundred and fifty-one thousand ' centiēs quīnquāgiēs semel mīliēs 'one hundred and fifty-one thousand times '
160,000 centum sexāgintā mīlia / centēna sexāgēna mīlia 'one hundred and sixty thousand ' centiēs sexāgiēs mīllēsimus 'hundred and sixty thousandth ' centēna sexāgēna mīlia 'per hundred and sixty thousand ' centiēs sexāgiēs mīliēs 'one hundred and sixty thousand times '
200,000 ducenta mīlia / ducēna mīlia 'two hundred thousand' ducentiēs mīllēsimus 'two hundred and fifty thousandth' ducēna mīlia 'two hundred thousand each' ducentiēs mīliēs 'two hundred thousand times '
250,000 ducenta quīnquāgintā mīlia / ducēna quīnquāgēna mīlia 'two hundred and fifty thousand' ducentiēs quīnquāgiēs mīllēsimus 'two hundred and fifty thousandth' ducēna quīnquāgēna mīlia 'two hundred and fifty thousand each' ducentiēs quīnquāgiēs mīliēs 'two hundred and fifty thousand times '
300,000 trecenta mīlia / trecēna mīlia 'three hundred thousand' trecentiēs mīllēsimus 'three hundred thousandth' trecēna mīlia 'three hundred thousand each' trecentiēs mīliēs 'three hundred thousand times '
500,000 quīngenta mīlia / quīngēna mīlia 'five hundred thousand' quīngentiēs mīllēsimus 'five hundred thousandth' quīngēna mīlia 'five hundred thousand each' quīngentiēs mīliēs 'five hundred thousand times '
1,000,000 deciēs centēna mīlia / deciēs centum mīlia 'one million' deciēs centiēs mīllēsimus / mīliēs mīllēsimus 'one millionth' deciēs centēna mīlia 'per one million' mīliēs mīliēs / deciēs centiēs mīliēs 'a million times'
1,200,000 duodeciēs centēna mīlia 'one million two hundred thousand' duodeciēs centiēs mīllēsimus 'one million and two hundred thousandth' duodeciēs centēna mīlia 'one million two hundred thousand' duodeciēs centiēs mīliēs 'one million and two hundred thousand times '
2,000,000 vīciēs centēna mīlia 'two million' vīciēs centiēs mīllēsimus 'two millionth' vīciēs centēna mīlia 'two million each' vīciēs centiēs mīliēs 'two million times'
10,000,000 centiēs centēna mīlia 'ten million' centiēs centiēs mīllēsimus 'ten millionth' centiēs centēna mīlia 'per ten million' centiēs centiēs mīliēs 'ten million times'
50,000,000 quīngentiēs centēna mīlia 'fifty million' quīngentiēs centiēs mīllēsimus 'fifty millionth ' quīngentiēs centēna mīlia 'fifty million each' quīngentiēs centiēs mīliēs 'fifty million times'
100,000,000 mīliēs centēna mīlia 'hundred million' mīliēs centiēs mīllēsimus 'hundred millionth' mīliēs centēna mīlia 'per hundred million' mīliēs centiēs mīliēs 'a hundred million times'
256 300 000 to mīliēs quīngentiēs sexāgiēs ter centēna mīlia to mīliēs quīngentiēs sexāgiēs ter centiēs mīllēsimus to mīliēs quīngentiēs sexāgiēs ter centēna mīlia to mīliēs quīngentiēs sexāgiēs ter centiēs mīliēs
500,000,000 quīnquiēs mīliēs centēna mīlia 'five hundred million' quīnquiēs mīliēs centiēs mīllēsimus 'five hundred millionth ' quīnquiēs mīliēs centēna mīlia 'five hundred million each' quīnquiēs mīliēs centiēs mīliēs 'five hundred million times'

The Latin numerals that end in eight or nine (18, 19, 28, 29, ... to 88, 89) are predominantly formed subtractively : duo-de-viginti '18', literally 'two from twenty down'; un-de-viginti '19', literally 'one of twenty down'.

### declination

The ordinal numbers are declined , as are the distributive numbers under a thousand, of the cardinal numbers those from 'one' to 'three' ( unus , duo , tres ) as well as the multiples of one hundred ( ducenti etc.) as well as the plural milia 'thousand (e) '.

value Nominative
(vocative if different)
Genitive dative accusative ablative
1 ūnus, ūna, ūnum (°)
(ūne, ūna, ūnum)
ūnīus, ~, ~ ūnī, ~, ~ ūnum, ūnam, ūnum ūnō, ūnā, ūnō
ūnī, ūnae, ūna (°) ūnōrum, ūnārum, ūnōrum ūnīs, ~, ~ ūnōs, ūnās, ūna ūnīs, ~, ~
2 duo, duae, duo duōrum (duum), duārum, duōrum (duum) duōbus, duābus, duōbus duōs / duo, duās, duo duōbus, duābus, duōbus
3 trēs (trīs), ~, tria trium, ~, ~ tribus, ~, ~ trēs (trīs), ~, tria tribus, ~, ~
200 (*) ducentī, ducentae, ducenta ducentīs, ~, ~ ducentōs, ducentās, ducenta ducentīs, ~, ~
2000 (#) duo mīlia duōrum mīlium duōbus mīlibus duo mīlia duōbus mīlibus
(°) The order of the genera is masculine, feminine, neuter. The plural of unus occurs with pluraliatum .
(*) The same applies to the diffraction of the remaining hundreds.
(#) mīlia is a number noun; the object to be counted is in the genetivus partitivus, e.g. B. tria mīlia mīlitum 'three thousand soldiers'.

unio, unionis, unioni, unionem, unione is feminine, binio etc. inflect the same way, but are masculine. The higher number nouns are not used.

## Cardinal numbers

unus

The numeral ūnus < Old Latin oinos ' ein ', leads with Old Irish óen ' ein ', Gothic ains ' ein ', ancient Greek οἴνη oínē 'one on the cube' and the fore link from Old Church Slavonic inorogŭ 'unicorn' in Urindo European * Hoi̯-no-s back. The genitive ūnīus , ūnĭus and the dative ūnī follow the pronominal declension ( hujus , illius etc.), the other forms (and the rare gen. F. Ūnae ) follow the adjectival a- / o-declension .

In the Romance languages, nominative and accusative forms live on as numerals and indefinite articles , such as Old French , Occitan us / une / un , Italian un / una , Spanish uno / una , Portuguese um / uma , Romanian un / o etc.

duo

The masculine nominative / accusative Duo <altlateinisch Duo , two 'leads with old Welsh dou , two' ancient Greek δύω DYO , two ', an ancient Indian Duva , two' Altkirchenslawisch Duva , two 'on urindogermanisch * duu̯o-h 1 back, the Lindeman variant to monosyllabic * duo-h 1 , which in Sanskrit द्वा DVA , two 'and transformation in gothic TWAI , Neuhochdeutsch two is continued etc.; * duu̯ah 2 -ih 1 is used as a preliminary form of the feminine dŭae . Both forms are formed with a dual ending , which otherwise only left a trace in Latin with ambō 'both'. The accusative forms dŭōs m., Dŭās f., The genitive dŭom , new dŭōrum m./n., Dŭārum f. as well as the dative / ablative dŭōbus m./n., dŭābus f. are neoplasms; sometimes duo also occurs in these cases, especially in connection with non-inflected tens such as duo et viginti , duodetriginta .

tres

The masculine and feminine nominative trēs leads back with Gothic þreis 'three', ancient Greek τρεῖς treîs 'three', ancient Indian त्रयः trayaḥ 'three' to Urindo-European * trei̯-es ; since Old Latin it has also penetrated the accusative and displaces its original form trīs , which continues with Umbrian trif , Gothic þrins , Old Irish trí , Greek τρίνς tríns urindo -European * tri-ns . The neuter tria corresponds to Umbrian triia , Greek τρία tría . The genitive trium goes back directly to Indo-European * trii̯-om (in contrast to Greek τριῶν triôn with long -ōn- < -o-om of the o-declension ), the dative / ablative tribus with Umbrian tris <* trifos in Indo-European * tri -bʰos .

## Other numerals

There are also words for single, double , etc. (multiplicatives and ratio words ), such as:

1. simplex (genitive: simplicis) - simplus (-a, -um)
2. duplex - duplus
3. triplex - triplus

There is also a hierarchical form of the ordinalia, which is given in German in the first place :

1. prīmarius
2. secundarius
3. tertiary

However, these words are not used for (most) higher numbers.

## multiplication

The iterative and distributive numbers are used when multiplying:

${\ displaystyle V \ cdot IV = XX}$is called quīnquiē (n) s quaterna sunt vīgintī , so: 'five times four are twenty'.

## Fractions

Latin has no fractions ( partitiva ; like German third, quarter ), the rule is:

• If the numerator is exactly one less than the denominator, then partes is written .
• Counter one is pars .
• Otherwise the genitive of the ordinal number stands for the denominator:
${\ displaystyle {\ tfrac {1} {2}}}$ dimidia pars 'half part', tertia pars 'third part', duae partes ('two parts'), tres partes ('three parts'), tres quintae ('three fifths').${\ displaystyle {\ tfrac {1} {3}}}$ ${\ displaystyle {\ tfrac {2} {3}}}$ ${\ displaystyle {\ tfrac {3} {4}}}$ ${\ displaystyle {\ tfrac {3} {5}}}$
dimidia is a special formation for dīmidius, -a, -um 'half, not quite' from dis and medius 'medium'.

## Compositions

There are also many words that contain numbers. Here is a selection:

1. ūnifōrmis - uniform
2. duplicārius - double mercenary
3. trivium - three-way, fork in the road (generally known place, compare " trivial ")
4. quadrātus - square, compare " square "
5. quīnquennium - five years
6. sextārius - a "bottle" of 1/6 congius, about 1/2 liter (54 cl)
7. [mensis] september - the 7th month (before 153 BC ), corresponding to october, november, december
8. octipēs - eight feet
9. nōnāria - ancient street girls (they were only allowed to work from the 9th hour, hence the name)
10. decennis - ten years old

## The zero

The Romans knew linguistic expressions for “not something” ( nullum ) and “nothing” ( nihil ), but no number sign and no separate mathematical term for a number value “ zero ”.

## Individual evidence

1. a b c Manu Leumann, Latin phonetics and forms , new edition of the 1926–1928 5th edition, Munich 1977, §§ 376/378.
2. a b c Alexander Falileyev, Etymological Glossary of Old Welsh , Tübingen 2000, p. 49/150/154 limited preview in the Google book search.
3. a b Gerhard Meiser, Historical Phonology and Forms of the Latin Language , Darmstadt 1998, § 116.