Gothic language

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Gothic ( * gutisko razda )

Spoken in

Dacia , Oium , Crimea , Gallia Narbonensis , Hispania
speaker (extinct)
Official status
Official language in (extinct)
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


The Gothic language (reconstructed name: * gutarazda , ?????????) is a Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths . It is the only form of East Germanic that has survived in longer texts and, thanks to the so-called silver or Wulfilabibel , the Codex Argenteus , it is also the oldest literary written form of a Germanic language.

The Gothic differs from Western and Northern Germanic languages including through the preservation of Proto-Germanic suffix * z (corresponding eg. Latin -s ) in the nominative masculine singular, where there -s entstimmt was: gothic dags, guest, sunus opposite Old High German day, gast, sunu or Old Norse dagr, gestr, sunr (where * -z has changed to -r , see Rhotazism ), cf. Gothic gasts (from ancient Germanic * gastiz ) with latin hostis . It also provides the only evidence of some archaic forms (see Gothic grammar , especially the sections on verbs and archaisms ).


In the 4th century, the Gothic bishop Wulfila (also Ulfilas, 311–382) translated the Bible into Gothic with a group of translators . In addition to the Wulfilabibel, there are only a few other Gothic language testimonies, such as some runic inscriptions , the Skeireins (biblical interpretations), a fragment of a calendar and Eastern Gothic document signatures from the 6th century.

After the end of the Gothic empires ( Ostrogoths in Italy , 493–555, and Visigoths in Gaul and Spain , 418–711), the Gothic language was largely lost, although in Spain since the conversion of the Gothic ruling class (only about two to three Percent of the population were Goths) from Arianism to Catholicism and the associated mixing of the various ethnic groups (Romans, Goths, Sweben , Romanized Celts ) under King Rekkared I (r. 586-601) the use of the Gothic language declined in favor of early Spanish colloquial language . There are only about 20 words in today's Spanish that are definitely of Gothic origin.

Only on the Crimean peninsula , with the part of the Ostrogoths that remained there, the later Crimean Goths , was the Crimean Gothic able to survive from immigration in the middle of the 3rd century AD until the 18th century, before it was finally ousted by the Tatar language . The relationship between the Gothic language and Scandinavian languages ​​is controversial and is usually associated with the origin of southern Sweden (see Scandza ), as stated in the Gothic tribal saga . After all, there are striking similarities in the vocabulary of Swedish (especially the dialect Gutamål spoken in Gotland ) and Gothic, while Gothic shows interesting morphological similarities to Old High German .

Gothic documents and linguistic monuments

Few evidence of the Gothic has survived. Unfortunately, they are not enough to reconstruct the entire language. Most Gothic texts are translations from other languages ​​(mainly from Greek), so it can be assumed that foreign language elements have influenced these texts. The primary sources for the Gothic are:

The Codex Argenteus

The Codex Argenteus, also known as the Silver Bible , now preserved in Uppsala , includes a total of 188 sheets including the Speyer fragment. It is the most comprehensive documentation of the Gothic in a coherent text written by the Arian Bishop Wulfila. Wulfila was the leader of a Visigothic Christian community in the Roman province of Moesia (in present-day Bulgaria and Romania). He arranged for the Greek Bible to be translated into the Gothic language. Three quarters of the New Testament and some fragments of the Old Testament have survived.

The Codices Ambrosianus and Taurinensis

The Codex Ambrosianus (Milan) and the Codex Taurinensis (Turin): five parts, a total of 193 sheets.

It is the best-preserved manuscript of a Wulfilabibel from the 6th century (handed down from the northern Ostrogoths) from today's Italy. This Codex contains a long excerpt from the four Gospels. As it is a translation from Greek, it is full of words and expressions borrowed from Greek. The syntax is very close to the Greek. The Codex Ambrosianus contains scattered passages from the New Testament (including some parts of the Gospels and Epistles), the Old Testament (Nehemiah), and some commentaries known as Skeireins . It is therefore likely that the text was altered to some extent by the copyists.

Other codices

These are fragments of the Wulfilabibel.

  • Codex Gissensis (Gießen): one sheet, Luke fragment , chapters 23–24. It was found in Egypt in 1907, but was destroyed by flooding in 1945.
  • Codex Carolinus (Wolfenbüttel): four leaves, fragments of Romans , chapters 11–15.
  • Codex Vaticanus Latinus 5750 : three sheets, pp. 57 f., 59 f. and 61 f. of the skeirein.

Other sources

  • A number of different ancient documents: alphabets, calendars, glosses from various manuscripts and a few runic inscriptions (between 3 and 13, for example the ring of Pietroassa ), which are supposed to be assigned to or related to the Gothic. However, some scientists doubt that all of these inscriptions are Gothic.
  • A small dictionary of Crimean Gothic with 80 words and a song without translation, collected by the Flemish Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq , are also preserved. He was the Habsburg envoy to the court of the Ottoman ruler in Istanbul from 1555 to 1562. He was interested in languages ​​and found two speakers of Crimean Gothic and listed some terms in his collection of letters. Since these terms are 1000 years younger than Wulfila's Bible, they do not represent the Gothic in his lifetime. Busbecq's material contains many puzzles that make his notes difficult to interpret.


Gothic has five short and seven long vowels :

  Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
short long short long short long short long
Closed <i> [⁠ i ⁠] <ei> [i:] <w> [⁠ y ⁠] 1 <w> [y:] 1     <u> [⁠ u ⁠] <u> [u:]
Half closed   <e> [e:]           <o> [o:]
Half open <ai> [⁠ ɛ ⁠] 2 <ai> [ɛ:]         <au> [⁠ ɔ ⁠] 2 <au> [ɔ:]
Open         <a> [⁠ a ⁠] <a> [a:] 3    
  • 1 Only = υ, οι in Greek loan words ( swnagoge = συναγωγή, Lwstrws = Λύστροις).
  • 2 Before / r, h, ʍ / ( taíhun "ten", waúrd "word"), in the reduplication syllable ( saíslep "slept") and in Greek and Latin loanwords ( apaústaúlus = ἀπόστολος, laíktjo = lectio ).
  • 3 Only from substitute expansion ( brāhta <* branhtē "brought").

Of the Germanic diphthongs only [iu] <iu> has survived. Some researchers believe that the Germanic diphthongs ai and au were still pronounced as [ai] and [au] in Wulfila's language ; another view is that they were monophthonged. In the Gothic name, the Latin writers write a monophthong from the 4th century (Austrogoti> Ostrogoti) . However, the Historia Augusta (approx. 360 (?), Thus probably at the time of Wulfila) writes Austrogothi ; the o for au are all younger. Whether still in the 6th century in Jordanes GAPT whose p maybe like [⁠ w ⁠] for was pronounced Gaut could be is uncertain. Also, ai is obtained at least to 400 ( Gainas , Radagaisus ). The ring of pietroassa has hailag . The poem De conviviis barbaris of the Anthologia Latina , which was written during the rulership of the Vandals in Africa, ie approx. 430-530, is in a hurry , also diphthong. The rendering of Greek words in Bible Gothic, on the other hand, speaks in favor of a monophthongic pronunciation (e.g. Pawlus ); So e and o are always long, even if they are not marked with accents. Long "i" is represented by ei .

The consonants are:

  Labials Dental Alveolar Palatal Velare Labiovelare Laryngals
unvoiced voiced unvoiced voiced unvoiced voiced unvoiced voiced unvoiced voiced unvoiced voiced unvoiced
Plosives <p> [p⁽ʰ⁾]
<b> [b̥] 1
<b> [⁠ b ⁠] 2
  <t> [t⁽ʰ⁾]
<d> [d̥] 1
<d> [⁠ d ⁠] 2
? <ddj> [⁠ ɟ ⁠] 3
<k> [k⁽ʰ⁾]
<g> [g̊] 1
<g> [⁠ g ⁠] 2
<q> [kʷ⁽ʰ⁾]
<g> [g̊ʷ] 1
<gw> [gʷ] 3,4,5
Fricatives <f> [ɸ, f] <b> [⁠ beta ⁠] 3 <þ> [⁠ θ ⁠] <d> [⁠ ð ⁠] 3 <s> [⁠ s ⁠] <z> [⁠ for ⁠] 3   <g> [⁠ x ⁠] 4
<h> [⁠ x ⁠] 5
<g> [⁠ ɣ ⁠] 3    
Approximants         <j> [⁠ j ⁠]   <ƕ> [⁠ ʍ ⁠] <w> [⁠ w ⁠] <h> [⁠ h ⁠]
Nasals <m> [⁠ m ⁠]   <n> [⁠ n ⁠]   <g, n> [⁠ ŋ ⁠] 6    
Lateral     <l> [⁠ l ⁠]        
Vibrants     <r> [⁠ r ⁠]        
  • 1 Final after a nasal.
  • 2 Initially and after a nasal.
  • 3 Internally.
  • 4 Final or before a voiceless consonant.
  • 5 Before a consonant.
  • 6 Before velar occlusive.

Lautlich (phonological) has changed less from the original Germanic to the Gothic than to the other old Germanic languages. This is very likely also due to the fact that the tradition of the Gothic - with the exception of the Old Norse runic inscriptions - begins almost three hundred years before the tradition of the other Germanic languages.

The following phonetic laws are applied:

  • germ. e > got. i (also in the diphthong eu > iu )
  • i and u are in front of r, h, Ƕ to [⁠ ɛ ⁠] or [⁠ ɔ ⁠] opened.
  • Devoicing : b, d, g, z are the absolute final position and in front of s to f, þ, h (g), s
  • Tightening: ww, jj > ggw ( triggws "treu"), ddj ( -waddjus "wall")

The Spanish language has some sounds that were present in Germanic, but not in Latin, as the basis of Spanish: [ χ ], [ β ], [ ð ], [ ɣ ] and [ θ ]. It is possible that these phonemes were imported from (West) Gothic into Ibero-Romanic. Wolfram Euler assumes that this import was carried out by Visigoth native speakers and "that the pronunciation of today's Spanish in terms of its phoneme goes back to an Ibero-Romance spoken with a Germanic accent" . From a Hispanic point of view, however, this hypothesis is untenable, since the corresponding sounds were not yet available in Old Spanish , only developed in this form in Middle Spanish , and Some of them are by no means part of the Spanish Koiné ( allophony ).


Main article: Gothic grammar

In Gothic there are the same four cases ( case ) as in German: nominative to denote the subject, genitive , dative and accusative to denote the direct object (cf. Patiens ). An instrumental is (unlike in Old High German ) only preserved in some pronouns . In the noun classes that have the ending -s in the nominative singular , the vocative is identical to the accusative.
In addition, there are two tenses (past and non-past) and three numbers ( singular , dual , plural ). The dual only exists in personal pronouns and verbs.

Personal pronouns

The declension of personal pronouns in Gothic:

number person genus Nominative accusative Genitive dative
Singular 1.   ik mik meina mis
2.   þu þuk þeina þus
3. Masculine is ina ize imma
Feminine si ija izos izái
neuter ita ita is imma
dual 1.   wit ugkis * ugkara ugkis
2.   * yeah igqis igqara igqis
Plural 1.   know us (unsis) unsara unsis (us)
2.   jus izwis izwara izwis
3. Masculine ice ins ize in the
Feminine ijos ijos izo in the
neuter ija ija ize in the

The asterisk (*) denotes developed, unused forms.


In the translation of the Bible , the order of the sentence is often aligned with the Greek model, which shows that the order of the sentence was apparently not subject to strict rules, such as in English . As in all Germanic languages, the elements that function as (adjective) attributes are prefixed: sa alþa wulfs "the old wolf". The definite article sa, sô, þata has not yet been degraded (as in ancient Greek) to a mere formal word, there is no indefinite article. The personal pronoun as a subject is not always mandatory. Decision-making questions can be formed by the ( enclitic ) particle -u : niu qimis þu? "are you not coming?"; if a negative is expected as an answer, one uses ibai : ibai qimis “you are not coming, are you?”.


Gothic nouns can be divided into about a dozen different classes, most of which no longer exist in New High German. A declination example using the noun sunus "son" (u-stem):

            Singular Plural Singular Plural
 Nominativ  sunus sunjus               „(der) Sohn – (die) Söhne“
 Genitiv    sunaus suniwê               „(des) Sohnes – (der) Söhne“
 Dativ      sunau sunum                „(dem) Sohne – (den) Söhnen“
 Akkusativ  sunu sununs               „(den) Sohn – (die) Söhne“
 Vokativ    sun(a)u!     (sunjus!)            „(o/du) Sohn! – (o/ihr) Söhne!“

The similarity to the Lithuanian language is remarkable: sūnus, sūnaus, sūnui, sūnų, sūnau!

The Gothic noun classes ("tribes")

 Klasse Unterteilungen Geschlecht Beispiel
   Vokalische Stämme:
 a-Klasse a, ja, wa maskulin, neutral     dags „Tag“, hlaifs „Brot“
 ô-Klasse       ô, jô, wô              feminin               giba „Gabe“
 i-Klasse       –                      maskulin, feminin     gasts „Gast“
 u-Klasse       –                      alle                  sunus „Sohn“
   Konsonantische Stämme:
 n-Klasse an-Stämme maskulin, neutral     hraba „Rabe“ (m.), hairtô „Herz“ (n.)
                ôn-Stämme feminin               tungo „Zunge“
                în-Stämme feminin               managei „Menge“
 r-Klasse       –                      maskulin, feminin     broþar „Bruder“
 nd-Klasse      –                      alle                  nasjands „Retter“
 Wurzelflektierende Stämme alle                  baurgs „Burg, Stadt“

The declension of the individual classes is neither uniform nor free of irregularities, there are also subclasses (e.g. the ja and wa stems) - some classes even contain only a handful of nouns (e.g. there is only one neutral one u tribe: faihu "the cattle"). Therefore, only the declension of the regular nouns in the most common classes is described here (from top to bottom: nominative - genitive - dative - accusative, left singular, right plural):

 a-Stämme o-Stämme i-Stämme an-Stämme maskulin
 hlaifs *   hlaibos giba gibos gasts*      gasteis hraba hrabans
 hlaibis hlaibe gibos gibo gastis gaste hrabins hrabane
 hlaiba hlaibam gibai gibom gasta gastim hrabin hrabam
 hlaif *    hlaibans     (= Nominativ)          gast*       gastins hraban    (= Nominativ)
 * Vor -s und am Wortende tritt „Auslautverhärtung“ ein: b>f, d>þ, g>h.
 „Brot“ „Brote“ „Gabe“ „Gaben“ „Gast“ „Gäste“ „Rabe“ „Raben“


Almost all Gothic verbs are based on the Primitive Indo-European principle of so-called "thematic" conjugation inflected , that is, put a so-called thematic vowel between root and flexion suffix a. The theme vowels reconstructed for Indo-European are * e and * o , in Gothic they are further developed to i and u . The other, “athematic” conjugation, in which suffixes are added directly to the root, only exists in Gothic with the verb wisan “to be” and with some classes of weakly declined verbs (e.g. the verb salbôn “anoint” retains its originating salbô- always unchanged at there are no signs topic added vowels such. as at Bairan (s. u.)). In the present indicative, as in all Indo-European languages, the athematic verb wisan shows many irregularities due to the alternation of normal and shrinkage levels:

Present indicative: ik im, þu is, is is; wis si (j) um, jus si (j) uþ, ice are

As in all Germanic languages, there are two groups of verbs that are referred to as "strong" and "weak". Weak verbs form the past tense with the suffix -da / -ta , strong verbs with ablaut :

weak: salbôn - salbôda - salbôdedun - salboþs, "anoint - I / he anointed - they anointed - anointed"
strong: qiman - qam - qemun - qumans, "come - I / he came - they came - came"


The Gothic has preserved some archaic elements from the primeval Indo-European era: On the one hand, two dual forms ("we both" and "you both"), on the other hand a synthetic (medio) passive in the present tense:

Dual indicative:
baíros "we both wear", sôkjôs "we both look for"
báirats "you both wear", sôkjats "you both look for"
Dual optative :
baíraiwa "we both deceive " , salbôwa "we both anointed"
baíraits "you both wear", salbôts "you both anoint"
Dual imperative :
baírats! “You both should wear!”, Salbôts! "You both should anoint!"
Dual past tense :
Indicative: bêru, bêruts / salbôdêdu, salbôdêduts
Optional : bêrweiwa, already / salbôdeiwa, salbôdeits
Passive indicative :
1st and 3rd person singular: baírada / salbôda "will | be carried / anointed"
2nd person singular: baíraza / salbôza "are carried / anointed"
in the full plural: baíranda / salbônda "are | will be carried / anointed"
Passive Optative :
1st and 3rd person singular: baíraidau / habaidau "would be worn / had"
2nd person singular: baíraidau / habaizau "are worn / had"
in the full plural: baíraindau / habaindau "are | are worn / had"

Notes: The first person has been replaced in the passive by the 3rd person singular. In the plural, the 3rd person replaces the we and you form. The dual and passive forms are not discussed further below.

Strong verbs

Present indicative :
baíra, baíris, baíriþ; baíram, baíriþ, baírand
Present optative :
baírau, baírais, baírai; baíraima, baíraiþ, baíraina
Present imperative :
-, baír !, baíradau !; (baíram!), (baíriþ!), baírandau!
Past tense indicative :
bar, beard, bar; bêrum, bêruþ, bêrun
Past tense optative :
bêrjau, bêreis, bêri; bêreima, bêreiþ, bêreina
Infinitive :
baíran "carry"
Present participle :
baírands "bearing"
Past participle passive :
baúrans "worn"

Weak verbs

The weak verbs are divided into four groups, separated by the subject vowel:

Group 1a: nasjan "save" (short root syllable)
Group 1b: sôkjan "search" (long root syllable)
Group 2: salbôn "anoint" (ô class)
Group 3: haban "have" (egg class)
Group 4: fullnan "become full" (na class)
Present indicative :
nasja, nasjis, nasjiþ; nasjam, nasjiþ, nasjand
Present optative :
nasjau, nasjais, nasjai; nasjaima, nasjaiþ, nasjaina
Present imperative :
-, nasei !, nasjadau !; (nasjam!), (nasjiþ), nasjandau!
Past tense indicative :
nasida, nasidês, nasida; nasidêdum, nasidêduþ, nasidêdun
Past tense optative :
nasidêdjau, nasidêdeis, nasidêdi; nasidêdeima, nasidêdeiþ, nasidêdeina
Present participle :
nasjands "saving"
Past participle passive :
nasiþs "saved"
Group 1b has ei instead of ji : sôkeis "seek", sôkida "seek"
Group 2 always has ô : salbô " salbe ", salbôda "anointed"
Group 4 works like group 1a: fullna “get full”, fulln! "Become full!", But simple past : fullnô-da "became full"
Group 3 has:
  • ai instead of ji : habais "have", habaiþ "has / have",
  • ai instead of jai : habai "(he) has"
  • ai instead of ei : habai! "have!"
  • ai instead of i : habaîda "had"
  • else a (u) : haba; habam - habau; habaima - habandau!

Language example

Sound recording of the Gothic Our Father.


  • Atta unsar, þu in himinam, Christmas namo þein. Qimai þiudinassus þone. Waírþai wilja þeins, swe in himina jah ana aírþai.
    Hlaif unsarana þana sinteinan gif us himma daga. Jah aflet us þatei skulans sijaima, swaswe jah weis afletam þaim skulam unsaraim. Jah ni briggais us in fraistubnjai, ak lausei us af þamma ubilin.
    Unte þeina is þiudangardi jah mahts jah wulþus in aiwins.

Literal translation:

  • Our father, you in the heavens, dedicate your name to your name. Come to your kingdom. Become your will, as it is in heaven and on earth.
    Loaf ours the daily give us this day. And desist from being debtors, just as we desist from our debtors. And do not bring us into temptation, but release us from the evil.
    For yours is the kingdom and the might and the glory forever.
    Aussprache:   þ  wie englisches stimmloses th,
                  h  vor Konsonant/am Wortende wie „ch“ in ‚ach‘,
                  ai wie langes, offenes „ä“
                  ei wie langes, geschlossenes „i“,
                  au wie langes, offenes „o“,
                  iu etwa wie „iw“

See also: Codex Argenteus , Gothic alphabet , Wulfilabibel


  • Gerhard Hubert Balg: A comparative glossary of the Gothic language with especial reference to English and German . New York: Westermann & Company, 1889 ( Textarchiv - Internet Archive ).
  • Wilhelm Braune (greeting), Frank Heidermanns (arrangement): Gothic grammar. (= Collection of short grammars of Germanic dialects. Main series A, Volume 1). 20th edition. Max Niemeyer, Tübingen 2004, ISBN 3-484-10852-5 , ISBN 3-484-10850-9 .
  • Fausto Cercignani : The Development of the Gothic Short / Lax Subsystem. In: Journal for Comparative Linguistic Research , 93/2, 1979, pp. 272–278.
  • Fausto Cercignani: The Reduplicating Syllable and Internal Open Juncture in Gothic. In: Journal for Comparative Linguistic Research , 93/1, 1979, pp. 126–132.
  • Fausto Cercignani: The Enfants Terribles of Gothic “Breaking”: hiri, aiþþau, etc. In: The Journal of Indo-European Studies , 12 / 3-4, 1984, pp. 315-344.
  • Fausto Cercignani: The Development of the Gothic Vocalic System. In: Germanic Dialects: Linguistic and Philological Investigations , edited by Bela Brogyanyi and Thomas Krömmelbein, Benjamin, Amsterdam / Philadelphia 1986, pp. 121–151.
  • Wolfram Euler , Konrad Badenheuer: Language and origin of the Germanic peoples - demolition of the Proto-Germanic before the first sound shift . London / Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-9812110-1-6 (244 pages).
  • Mirra Moissejewna Guchman : Готский язык: Пособие для филологов-германистов (The Gothic Language: Textbook for Philologists and Germanists) . Moscow Lomonosov University , Moscow 1998.
  • Hermann Jantzen: Gothic language monuments . Göschen Collection, Leipzig 1900
  • Ernst Kieckers : Handbook of the comparative Gothic grammar. 2nd Edition. Max Hueber, Munich 1960.
  • Wolfgang Krause : Handbuch des Gotischen , CH Beck Verlag, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-406-09536-4
  • Geoffrey Kovari: Studies on the Germanic article. Origin and use of the article in Gothic. Viennese work on Germanic antiquity and philology 26, also: dissertation, University of Vienna. Halosar, Vienna 1984 (224 pages) [Geoffrey Kovari is the then adopted name for Gottfried Fischer].
  • Fernand Mossé: Manuel de la langue gotique . Paris 1942.
  • Christian Tobias Petersen : Gotica Minora . (originally Hanau) 2001 a. ö.
  • Ernst Schulze: Gothic dictionary with inflection theory . Züllichau 1867 ( digitized version )
  • Wilhelm Streitberg : Gothic elementary book . Heidelberg 1900 u. ö.
  • Wilhelm Streitberg : Volume 1: The Gothic text and its Greek model, with an introduction, readings and references as well as the smaller monuments as an appendix, with an addendum by Piergiuseppe Scardigli . 7th edition. Volume 2: Gothic-Greek-German dictionary (two new words added by Piergiuseppe Scardigli) . 6th edition. Heidelberg 2000, ISBN 3-8253-0745-X , ISBN 3-8253-0746-8 .
  • Elfriede Stutz: Gothic literary monuments . Stuttgart 1966.
  • Joseph Wright : Grammar of the Gothic Language . 2nd Edition. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1958.

Web links

Wikibooks: Gothic  - Learning and teaching materials
Wikisource: Gothic Language  - Sources and Full Texts

Individual evidence

  1. Natascha Müller, Anja Platz-Schliebs, Katrin Schmitz, Emilia Merino Claros: Introduction to Romance Linguistics: French, Italian, Spanish. Narr Francke Attempto Verlag, Tübingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8233-6628-7 , p. 167 ( online ).
  2. ^ Braune / Ebbinghaus: Gothic grammar . Tuebingen 1981
  3. On the short vowels, see also Fausto Cercignani : The Development of the Gothic Short / Lax Subsystem. In Journal for Comparative Linguistic Research , 93/2, 1979, pp. 272-278.
  4. See also Fausto Cercignani: The Development of the Gothic Vocalic System. In Germanic Dialects: Linguistic and Philological Investigations , ed. by Bela Brogyanyi and Thomas Krömmelbein, Benjamins, Amsterdam / Philadelphia 1986, pp. 121–151.
  5. See also Fausto Cercignani: The Enfants Terribles of Gothic “Breaking”: hiri, aiþþau, etc. In: The Journal of Indo-European Studies , 12 / 3–4, 1984, pp. 315–344.
  6. See also Fausto Cercignani: The Reduplicating Syllable and Internal Open Juncture in Gothic. In Journal for Comparative Linguistic Research , 93/1, 1979, pp. 126-132.
  7. Wolfram Euler, Konrad Badenheuer: Language and Origin of the Germanic Peoples - Outline of Proto-Germanic before the first sound shift. London / Hamburg 2009, p. 80.