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The case [ ˈkʰaːzʊs ] ( Pl .: Case with a long u [ ˈkʰaːzuːs ]) (also: the case ) is a grammatical category , that is, a category in the inflection of the nominal parts of speech . It expresses the dependency of a part of a sentence that is governed by a word , or denotes various adverbial functions . That is why it can also be more precisely called a morpho-syntactic category .

Origin of the designation

The name case goes back etymologically to the Latin word cāsus ('fallen', 'fall'; to cadere , 'to fall'). This word is a loan translation from the Greek word ptō̂sis ( πτῶσις ) ('fall', also in relation to the falling of the dice). The Greek grammarian Dionysius Thrax had the nouns as the verb , deciduous '(depending') understood (like today in the Dependency ) and this as ptosis , respectively.


The expression “case” is ambiguous.

Morphological case

In a narrower sense, "case" means the morphological case, that is, the "case marking by grammatical morphemes ". In morphology, the case is a morphological category characterized by a system of opposing series of shapes, usually defined as

" Grammatical category of declinable words, especially for expressing syntactic functions in sentences."

This morphological case term can also be used in German, since German still has a pronounced inflection system of nominal parts of speech. In German, in the declination , the case also marks the gender and the number morphologically. With regard to the type of marking, a distinction is sometimes made in German between a pure inflection case (example: "Müller's car") and a preposition case (example: "Müller's car"). In the narrower sense, however, the case means inflection case.

There are two mechanisms by which words can receive a case: The assignment of a case e.g. B. by a verb to its object is called rection . A second possibility is congruence , e.g. B. the correspondence between noun, adjective and article within an object. Example:

  • He ordered acc [one en pancakes] with Dat [an em small en salad].

Here the verb order rules the accusative on its addition and the preposition with the dative on its addition (the addition as a whole is in brackets). Accusative or dative are then shown in several expressions within the accusative or dative supplement, the latter is now the effect of the rule of congruence. As the example shows, the case form of the noun itself is the least visible in German, the article often shows the case most clearly.

The division into casus rectus ( nominative , vocative or nominative) and casus obliquus ( genitive , dative , accusative , ablative or genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, ablative) comes from the Greek .

Further classifications are those in lexical and structural cases (as in generative syntax ) and in syntactic and semantic cases.

Typically, a word only has a single case mark, but in some languages ​​there are also words with two or more case markings ( suffix inclusion ).

Abstract case

Independently of a morphological realization, the case can be abstractly defined as a "grammatical category of the nominal parts of speech ... which serves the grammatical organization of the sentence by identifying the syntactic role of noun groups."

This case term is "suitable for non-inflecting languages ​​such as English and French, in which syntactic functions are mainly coded by word order or sentence structure." An abstract case term is used in comparative languages.

The case term of the case grammar can also be viewed as a variant of the abstract case .

Deep case in the sense of case grammar

The case grammar designates with "case" ( deep case ) the "semantic / thematic relations / roles" or the "abstract logical-semantic relation between noun phrase and verb".

The case system in the German language

The case system in standard German

The German language knows four morphological cases (marked by word forms of the noun and article ):

For example, in the sentence

" The wife gives her husband her husband's hat to her brother ."

The woman the subject (in the nominative), her brother the dative object (= addition in the dative), the hat the accusative object (= addition in the accusative) and her husband the genitive attribute (= addition in the genitive).

As a rule, with neuter and strongly declined masculine there is always a case inflection at most in the genitive singular and in the dative plural, i.e. H. a change in the word form by adding an ending to the word stem or the plural stem instead. The dative singular of the strong masculine and neuter was often still inflected in the 20th century: the manthe man . Although this form of inflection is no longer compulsory, but only optional, this status is preserved in many idioms: A child is hidden in the real man: He wants to play. (Friedrich Nietzsche) ; In addition, it remains common with numerous nouns - and especially their word combinations -: Death (near, consecrated ...) , for example, is much more common than death . Weak masculine as well as all substantiated adjectives and participles have inflection endings in other cases (of the human being, the messenger, with the most beautiful, for the educated). The loss of the endings is in turn the cause of the coincidence of identical cases, as in English and Low German (see below). The German seems to be on the way, even the genitive as object-case ( "I am ashamed of his ") to lose ( voice drift ). In the cases that are no longer marked by endings, the articles show the case of the corresponding word.

Case in the German dialects


In many German dialects , the case system is simpler than in Standard German. The genitive in German dialects often only occurs in fixed phrases. It is usually replaced by a combination of preposition and noun . Example: my father's house is replaced by my father's house or my father's house .

In some dialect areas the nominative and accusative coincide, in others the dative and accusative (this common case is called the accudative or object case ). In some areas the distinction between all three cases is retained, in others the distinction between all three cases disappears completely, so that there is a single case of nominative, dative and accusative.

In the case of the German dialects, a distinction must be made between the individual parts of speech ( article , adjective , noun and personal pronoun ) and between the three grammatical genders (genera) . For example, the masculine form (in High German der ) behaves differently than the feminine and neuter form ( die or das ) in a certain article .

The case system in Alemannic

The Alemannische is a dialect of the composite upper German language that knows very few cases. Here the cases are demonstrated using a Lucerne dialect. There is no uniform indication of the cases in Alemannic, as they can sometimes be very different in the various dialects. In fact, the case system is sometimes much better preserved in conservative Alemannic dialects, for example in Valais German .


case masculine feminine neuter
Nominative accusative de Maa (the man / the man) d'frau (the woman) s'Chind (the child)
dative at the Maa (the man) de woman (of woman) am chind (the child)

The forms of the nominative and the accusative are identical in all genera. In the dative case, “am / de” is used as the article. The word itself doesn't change.

The genitive must be listed separately. Since a genitive does not actually exist, the few verbs that still require a genitive object in standard German (e.g. “need”, “commemorate” or “boast”) are omitted in Alemannic or are listed with corresponding prepositions.


Original sentence (Standard / Standard German): "I'm ashamed of him."
Alemannic: "I am ashamed of him."
Uniform translation: "I am ashamed of him / because of him."

If the genitive is required in a genitive attribute, it is specified as follows:

Gender of the reference word masculine feminine neuter
masculine am Maa si (n) de Mrs. ire am Chind si (n)
feminine on the Maa sini de Mrs. iri on the chind sini
neuter at the Maa sis de Mrs. ires am Chind sis
Plural (m., Fon) on the Maa sini a de Mrs. iri on the chind sini

It is thus made up of the dative case followed by a possessive pronoun . The first column shows the gender of the following word. Depending on this, the possessive pronoun also changes. In the plural there is only one possessive pronoun, which is why the genera in the plural are no longer listed individually. This form of a genitive, which actually isn't really, can only be applied to genitive attributes. It cannot be used as a genitive object. It also exists in standard German, but is only used very rarely today. This is how it is to be translated (the gender of the reference word is given in brackets):

Am / Im Maa sis Buech (n.) Liit am Bode.
The man's book is on the floor.
A / I de Frou ires Chind (n.) Esch 3 years old.
The woman her child is 3 years old.
Am / Im Chind sini Mueter (f.) Chouft i.
The child's mother is shopping.

There is also a second form in Alemannic. This form is also available in standard German and is used more often today.

masculine feminine neuter
from the Maa vo de Frou from the Chind

This form of a reconstructed genitive is made up of the preposition "von", the article (merged with masculine and neutral nouns) and the actual attributive noun. The reference word comes before the "genitive". The gender and the number of the reference word are irrelevant in this case. This form can be translated as follows:

The maa swarmed Erika and Jasmin.
The sisters of the man are called Erika and Jasmin.

The case system in the Indo-European language area

In the hypothetical Indo-European original language , adpositions mark the grammatical relations of nominal syntagmata . The development of the Indo-European case system can thus be explained from the successive merging of initially independent post positions with the corresponding nouns . Consequently, case affixes of all kinds belong to the same word class as the adpositions , because both word classes are connected to one another via the process of fusion ( word formation ). Therefore, there is only one difference between the case endings of (traditional) grammar and the prepositions and postpositions in terms of their degree of fusion . The case endings are stronger, the prepositions and postpositions less merged relators , which mark a grammatical relation on the nominal syntax. In the further dynamics of language there were changes in expression, which then brought the complex and different causal endings with them.

The Latin ablative plural with the ending “-ibus” can be cited as an example , this probably goes back to the Proto-Indo-European postposition “* bhi”.

The Urindogermanische knew eight or nine cases:

These are the nominative, the vocative (salutation, call), the accusative (direct object of the sentence, movement towards the object), the instrumental (means, tool), the dative (indirect object, beneficiary), the ablative (movement away from the object , Reason), the genitive (nominal attribute, affiliation, area) and the locative (place of the object, indication of the time). A possible ninth case, the directive or allative (movement towards the object), is discussed in view of some traces in the ancient Ethite.

In almost all Indo-European languages ​​there is a removal of case endings over time. Of the original eight or nine postulated Indo-European cases - eight in Sanskrit and seven in Latin - a case syncretism occurred in almost all languages ​​of this family , i.e. H. some cases coincided. In German, for example, the functions of the original cases instrumental, ablative and locative were taken over from the dative. In the development of the Indo-European languages ​​over time, one can observe a gradual breakdown of the morphological cases by replacing them with prepositions or through the functional fixation of certain positions in the sentence.

In the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European language, three cases can be identified whose functions were adverbial , such as the ablative, the instrumental and the locative. In addition, a large number of adverbs can be traced back to original case forms that fulfilled adverbial functions. The adverb as a part of speech modifies verbs, adjectives, adverbials or parts of sentences semantically. The adverbs are subsumed together with the prepositions and postpositions as well as the conjunctions to the non-inflectable particles .

Development of the case system in the subsidiary languages

The resulting languages ​​( Baltic , Slavic languages, as well as Latin or ancient Greek ) have received these completely or only partially (partly under different names). German also had an instrumental case until about a thousand years ago .

Compare the development of the case forms from the reconstructed original language until today in the following table using the example noun 'Wolf':

Urindo-European Sanskrit Ancient Greek Latin Urgermanic Lithuanian
Nominative * u̯ĺ̥kʷ = os vṛk-a-ḥ lýk-os lup-us * wulf-az vil̃k-as
accusative * u̯ĺ̥kʷ = om vṛk-am lýk-on lup-um * wulf-aⁿ vil̃k-ą
Genitive * u̯ĺ̥kʷ = os vṛk-a-sya lýk-ou lup-ī * wulf-as, -is
dative * u̯ĺ̥kʷ = ō-i vṛk-ā-ya lýk-ō (i) lup-ō vil̃k-ui
ablative * u̯ĺ̥kʷ = ō-d vṛk-ā-t lup-ō vil̃k-o (↱ genitive)
Instrumental * u̯ĺ̥kʷ = ō yajñ-ā́ 'sacrifice' * wulf-ō vilk-ù
locative * u̯ĺ̥kʷ = oi vṛk-e dom-ī 'at home' * wulf-ai (↱ dative) vilk-è
vocative * u̯ĺ̥kʷ-e! vṛk-a! lýk-e! lup-e! * wulf! vil̃k-e!
  1. The instrumental ending vṛk-eṇa is not inherited.
  2. The Latin locative is not generally valid.

In the Indo-European subsidiary languages, the theme vowel = o often merges with the case exits to form a new suffix.

The case systems of Indo-European languages ​​in detail

The cases in (ancient) Greek

Five of the eight cases of Indo-European have survived in ancient Greek: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative and vocative (form of address). Numerous different case functions are distinguished according to the way they are used. The ancient Greek case system is basically similar to the German one. See Ancient Greek Language for details .

The cases in Latin and in the Romance languages


Latin has six distinct cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative and ablative. The vocative mostly resembles the nominative, only in the O-declension it is systematically separated, and Greek foreign words of the first (example: nominative Aeneas , vocative Aenea ), second (Panthus, Panthu) and third declension (Paris, Pari) sometimes have one own vocative form. In the case of city names of the a / o class, residues of the locative also appear . See Latin grammar for details .

Romance languages

Meisenberg and Gabriel (2007) note:

"The loss of the morphologically marked case is one of the most important typological features that distinguish the Romance languages ​​from Latin."

A preposition case takes the place of a flexion case. In Old French there was still a two-kosus system . The case system as such has largely been abandoned in the other Romance languages. Instead of (Latin):

„homo homini lupus“


„El hombre (es) un lobo para el hombre.“

Remains of a morphological case can still be found in the Romance languages ​​in the personal pronouns. Only in Romanian there is still “a rudimentary case system”.

The cases in the Germanic languages

Old Germanic

Of the eight Indo-European cases, only six are continued in the original Germanic; In turn, more and more of these forms are gradually lost in the follow-up talks:

Urgermanic Gothic Old Norse Old English Old Saxon Old High German
Nominative * wulf-az wulf-s úlf-r wulf wulf wolf
accusative * wulf-ą wulf úlf wulf wulf wolf
Genitive * wulf-as, -is wulf-is úlf-s wulf-it wulf-it, -as wolf-it
dative * wulf-ai wulf-a úlf-i wulf-e wulf-e, -a wolf-e
Instrumental * wulf-ō * wulf-u
vocative * wulf! * wulf! (→ Nom. Úlf-r! ) wulf! wulf! wolf!


In Dutch , the case system has largely disappeared. With nouns and adjectives, there is no longer any distinction between the cases. In the personal pronouns there is also the distinction between the subject case and the object case, e.g. B. ik 'I' (subject case) - mij , me 'me or me' (object case). It is me the unaccented form of mij .

Occasionally there are remnants of further case distinctions. In written language, there is a distinction between hen and hun in the personal pronoun of the third person plural . However, this distinction is seldom made in the written language and does not occur in the spoken language. Further case distinctions occur in fixed expressions and in archaisms .


  • Van de koele meren des doods - "From the cool lakes of death", genitive in a book title by Frederik van Eeden
  • Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal - "Dictionary of the Dutch language", genitive
  • ter dood veroordeeld - "sentenced to death", dative
  • mijns inziens - "as far as I know ", genitive
  • ontferm u onzer - "have mercy on us", genitive
Low German

The feminine and the neuter definite article have a single case in the Low German language area. Fixed forms such as to'n Bispill (for example), in which a dative relic from earlier language levels can be found, are an exception to the neuter articles . The masculine definite article has the unit case nominative-dative-accusative only in a small part of the language area (namely in southern Schleswig).

A Low German example of the existing nominative-object case ( accudative ) opposition in the male noun is the following:

"De Fru kickt de n man." (The word man is in the object case; in Standard German it would be in the accusative)
"The woman looks at the man."
"De Fru gifft de n Mann Koken." (The word man stands in the object case; in standard German it would stand in the dative)
"The woman gives the man cake."

Further case relics can be found in the genitive case. In the western language area, there are forms such as s'Avends (of the evening) , probably influenced by Dutch .

The cases in the Slavic languages

The Slavic languages can be divided into two groups.

  • In Bulgarian and Macedonian the morphological case has been lost in nouns. Similar to English, case remnants are only found in certain pronominal patterns, namely 3 cases in pronouns. There is also a vocative that is more widely used in Macedonian and rarely used in Bulgarian .
  • All other modern Slavic languages - as well as all historical Slavic languages ​​derived from Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian) - have 6 or 7 cases, depending on whether the only rudimentary ones that are still preserved today, especially in Russian , Belarusian , Slovene and Lower Sorbian, except for a few Or not counting relic forms lost vocative. In addition to the first four cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative), which are also known in German, all these case systems also have an instrumental and a case traditionally called local or locative (in Russian prepositive ), which today is consistently formed as a preposition case only with certain prepositions becomes.

The cases in the Baltic languages

In the Baltic languages Lithuanian and Latvian , the number of cases differs.

  • Lithuanian has 7 cases. The number of cases is the same as that of neighboring Polish, but Polish and Lithuanian are not particularly closely related. (Polish was, however, the most important cultural language in Lithuania for centuries.) In Old Lithuanian , however, there were additional cases (possibly newly formed under Finno-Ugric influence), so-called secondary local cases, some of which have survived in dialects to this day.
  • Latvian, on the other hand, only has 6 cases, although in some sources the instrumental is mentioned as the 7th case. However, it is identical in the singular with the accusative and in the plural with the dative and is therefore no longer listed in more recent books.

Case in the languages ​​of the world

Non-Indo-European languages ​​(e.g. Finno-Ugric ) sometimes know significantly more cases than the Indo-European languages. In Estonian there are for example 14, in Finland 15, in Wepsischen 24, and in the Hungarian according to the count between 0 and 31.

However, it is quite difficult to give the term case a generally applicable definition. Some linguists doubt that it is applicable to all languages ​​(e.g. English or Hungarian ).

On the one hand, the following list is not complete and, on the other hand, the propositional functions of several cases may overlap. A sentence role ( actant ) that is filled in in one language by one of the listed cases may be filled in by another - in most cases it only knows one of the two. The actants describe a semantic role , but not a syntactic function , which is why a clear distinction must also be made between agent and subject . The case represents a syntactic relation in a sentence . Therefore, the main task of these forms is to mark grammatical relations such as that between subject and object .

case meaning example Languages ​​(examples)
Abessive Absence of anything without the teacher Estonian , Finnish
Ablative (1) indirect case concerning the teacher Latin , Sanskrit
Ablative (2) Moving away away from the teacher Estonian, Finnish, Latin, Tibetan , Turkish , Hungarian , Quenya
Absolutely Subjects of intransitive verbs; Objects of transitive verbs the teacher Ergative languages such as B. Sumerian or Tibetan
Adessive close to with the teacher Estonian, Finnish, Lithuanian (earlier) , Hungarian, Zazaisch
Accudative Object case dialectal: Low German , Berlinerisch
Accusative / Wenfall direct object the teacher many Indo-European languages , ancient Greek , Arabic , Esperanto , Latvian , Upper Sorbian , Turkish, Ukrainian , Hungarian
Allative / Adlativ / Direktiv Forward movement to the teacher Basque , Estonian, Finnish, Lithuanian (earlier), Sumerian , Tibetan, Hungarian, Zazaisch
Equative comparison like a teacher Sumerian
Benefactive / destinative beneficiary benefit the teacher Basque
Dative / Wemfall Direction or recipient; indirect object the teacher many Indo-European languages , ancient Greek , Georgian , Latvian, Upper Sorbian, Sumerian, Turkish, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Zazaisch
Dedative / Respective relationship connected to the home Quenya
Delative Moving away from something from the ship Hungarian
Delimitative / local genitive local affiliation of the teacher, belonging to the teacher Basque, Russian
Derivative origin the Hamburg teacher
Elative Outward movement out of the house Estonian, Finnish, Tibetan, Hungarian
Ergative Subject executing a transitive verb the teacher (builds a house ...) Basque, Georgian, Inuktitut , Samoan , Sumerian, Tibetan
Essive / adverbial Identification of a state as a teacher Estonian, Finnish, Georgian, Sami , Hungarian (2, formal and modal)
Genitive / Wesfall Possession, relationship the teacher's many Indo-European languages , ancient Greek, Arabic, Latvian, Upper Sorbian, Sumerian, Tibetan, Turkish, Ukrainian, Zazaisch
Illative Inward movement into the house Estonian, Finnish, Lithuanian, Sami, Hungarian, Zazaisch
Inessive Inside at home Basque, Estonian, Finnish, Lithuanian, Hungarian
Instructive (1) way by means of teachers Finnish
Instrumental / Instructive (2) Tool, means with the teacher Basque, Georgian, Finnish, Latin, Latvian, Lithuanian, Upper Sorbian, Sanskrit, Slavic languages , Tibetan, Turkish, Hungarian
Comitive / associative Along with with the teacher Basque, Estonian, Finnish, Sami, Sumerian, Tibetan, Hungarian, Zazaisch
locative place at home Latvian, Lithuanian, Upper Sorbian, Sami, Sanskrit, Slavic languages, Sumerian, Tibetan, Turkish
Motivational Motivation for the sake of her beautiful blue eyes Basque
Nominative / rectus / Werfall subject the teacher all Indo-European languages , Arabic, Estonian, Finnish, Georgian, Sami, Turkish, Hungarian
Obliquus (oblique) Comprising all roles except subject the teacher, the teacher ... Old French , English , Kurmanji , Zaza, Akkadian
Partitive Part of a crowd of teachers (not lacking) Basque, Estonian, Finnish
Perlative Movement through something through the house Tocharian , Greenlandic , Warlpiri
Possessive possession belonging to the teacher Basque
Prepositive Case after prepositions Preposition + teacher Russian
Prolative (1) Movement on the surface through the house Estonian
Prolative (2) for or in place of for the teacher Basque
Separative / locative-genitive away from one thing Zaza, Basque
Sublative (1) Movement on something on the ship Hungarian, Zazaisch
Sublative (2) Zazaisch
Superessive Position on on the ship Hungarian
Tendency Direction of movement towards the teacher Basque
Terminative End of a movement or time up to the teacher Basque, Estonian, Sumerian, Tibetan, Hungarian
Translative Change of state to become a teacher Estonian, Finnish, Georgian, Hungarian
vocative Salutation (Lord) teacher! Georgian, Urindo-European , Sanskrit, Hindi and Urdu , Sinhala , Ancient Greek, Modern Greek , Latin, Romanian , Original Celtic and its successor languages Irish and Cymrian , Lithuanian, Latvian, many Slavic languages ​​(such as Bulgarian , Slavo Macedonian , Upper Sorbian, Polish , Štokavian. , Czech and Ukrainian ), Kurdish , Zazaisch

Case and adpositions in the language typology

In the languages ​​of the world it can be seen that some languages ​​use case markings, while others use adpositions (prepositions or postpositions), i.e. In other words , the difference between the two strategies is often only expressed in the morphology , but not in the function ( semantics ). Some contemporary language typologists therefore use the Engl. The term flag or flagging ("flag" or "flagging") is used to summarize both phenomena in terms of their semantics under one umbrella term.

See also


  • Barry J. Blake: Case. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge u. a. 2001, ISBN 0-521-80761-1 .
  • Ivan G. Iliev: On the Nature of Grammatical Case ... (Case and Vocativeness) On the Nature of Grammatical Case ...
  • Thomas Stolz : Local case systems. Aspects of a structural dynamic (= Pro lingua. Vol. 13). Egert, Wilhelmsfeld 1992, ISBN 3-926972-23-8 .
  • Uwe Hinrichs, Uwe Büttner (Ed.): The European languages ​​on the way to the analytical language type. Volume 1. Eurolinguistic works, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-447-04785-2 .

Web links

Wiktionary: case  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: case  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Franz Dornseiff : The Greek words in German. Berlin 1950, p. 86.
  2. turn after Hadumod Bußmann (Hrsg.): Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft. 3rd, updated and expanded edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-520-45203-0 (case).
  3. Duden: The grammar. 4th edition. Marg. 372.
  4. In detail compare Hadumod Bußmann (Ed.): Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft. 3rd, updated and expanded edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-520-45203-0 (case).
  5. ^ After Gadler: Practical Linguistics. 3. Edition. (1998), p. 179 (there is no explicit mention of the abstract case)
  6. Formulation by Hadumod Bußmann (Ed.): Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft. 3rd, updated and expanded edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-520-45203-0 (case), but there without an explicit distinction between a morphological and an abstract case term.
  7. Hadumod Bußmann (Ed.): Lexicon of Linguistics. 3rd, updated and expanded edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-520-45203-0 (case grammar).
  8. Ulrich: Basic Linguistic Concepts. 5th edition. (2002) / Case
  9. Georg Bossong: Analyticity and Syntheticity. Case and adpositions in typological comparison. In: Uwe Hinrichs (Ed.): The European languages ​​on the way to the analytical language type. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-447-04785-2 , pp. 431-452
  10. Guy Deutscher : You Jane, I Goethe. A history of language. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57828-1 , p. 188 f.
  11. ^ Carlotta Viti: Variation and change in the syntax of the ancient Indo-European languages. Bd. 542 Tübingen Contributions to Linguistics. BoD - Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2015, ISBN 3-8233-6796-X , p. 106 ff.
  12. ^ Georg Curtius: On the chronology of Indo-European language research. BoD - Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2011, ISBN 3-86382-168-8 , p. 78
  13. Vocative example: O Auto
  14. Accusative example: I see the car
  15. Instrumental example: by means of the car
  16. Dative example: I thank the car
  17. ablative example: I come from the car
  18. Genitive example: the color of the car
  19. Locative example: in the car
  20. Marc Oliver Lilienthal: Case dismantling in the Indo-European languages ​​- Guy Deutscher's interpretation approach. Workshop: Genus and Case - single language and typological Carmzow-Wallmow 10.12.-11.12.2011, winter semester 2011/2012; Institute for German Language and Linguistics, Prof. Norbert Fries, Humboldt University of Berlin ( Memento of the original from January 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  21. ^ Wilhelm Havers: Investigations on the case syntax of the Indo-European languages. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1911.
  22. August Dauses: Universals of grammar and the Indo-European language structure. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-515-08180-1 , p. 55 f.
  23. ^ Christian Voggenreiter: Adverbs in Indo-European. Development and typology of adverbs in the Indo-European languages. Master's thesis, Grin-Verlag, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-640-31050-0 .
  24. a b c Gabriel / Meisenberg, Romance Linguistics (2007), p. 140
  25. ^ Terminology according to Duden, Die Grammatik. 4th edition. Marg. 372 (distinction for the German language).
  26. Gerd Hentschel, Thomas Menzel: Nominal categories: case. In: Sebastian Kempgen (ed.): The Slavic languages: an international handbook on their structure, their history and their research. Volume 1. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2009, pp. 161–175 ( here: pp. 161 f. In the Google book search).
  27. Kauderwelsch Volume 51, Bulgarian word for word, ISBN 3-89416-240-6 , 4th edition 2003, pages 31 (pronouns), 50 (prepositions with reference to missing declination)
  28. Kauderwelsch Volume 131, Macedonian / Macedonian word for word, ISBN 3-89416-494-8 , 2nd edition 2002, pages 43 (pronouns), 74 (prepositions)
  29. Gerd Hentschel, Thomas Menzel: Nominal categories: case. In: Sebastian Kempgen (Ed.): The Slavic languages. Volume 1, Berlin 2009, p. 162.
  30. Kauderwelsch Volume 54, Lithuanian word for word, ISBN 978-3-89416-244-3 , 5th edition, pages 44–51
  31. a b The Baltic Languages, ISBN 3-324-00605-8 , pages 113 (Lithuanian), 283 (Latvian).
  32. ^ Kauderwelsch Volume 35, Polish word for word, ISBN 3-89416-527-8 , 7th edition 2002, pages 70-76
  33. Kauderwelsch Volume 82, Latvian word for word, ISBN 3-89416-273-2 , 3rd edition 2002, page 65.
  34. ^ Jan Henrik Holst: Latvian Grammar, ISBN 3-87548-289-1 , pp. 106–121.
  35. Martin Haspelmath: Argument marking in ditransitive alignment types . In: Linguistic Discovery . Vol. 3, Issue 1, 2005, pp. 1-21.