Part of speech

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Under part of speech , word class , part of speech , part of speech ( Latin pars orationis , majority partes orationis , ancient Greek μέρος τοῦ λόγου Meros TU LOGU , majority μέρη τοῦ λόγου Mere TU LOGU , both literally part [s] of speech ') or lexical category means the Class of words in a language based on the assignment according to common grammatical features. The part of speech theory tries to classify the lexical- grammatical units of a language.

The part of speech must be distinguished from the syntactic function (sentence function) of a word such as subject , object , adverbial , attribute , etc.

Words can be classified according to their meaning ( semantic ), according to their form ( morphological ) or according to their use in the sentence ( syntactic ) ( grammatical category ). The criteria are used individually or in combination. Accordingly, there are very different parts of speech doctrines. Which parts of speech are available depends on the underlying theory and the language to be described. It is controversial whether there are universal parts of speech at all. Sometimes only / at least “the distinction between verbs and nouns” is seen as essential.

According to its position within a sentence , a word can be assigned to a syntactic category : In German, adjectives come before the noun and after an article . Morphology differentiates between words in terms of the ability to bend them : Verbs are conjugated in German , so they have different tense forms, infinitive , imperative , subjunctive , participles , etc. The meaning of the words is also used in part-of-speech classification, often only for subclassification. For example, one differentiates between prepositions and a. in local, temporal and modal prepositions.

In computational linguistics , methods are being developed to automatically assign parts of speech to words in a text ( part-of-speech tagging ) .

History of the theory of speech

Sanskrit grammar

The classification of words into lexical categories has been undertaken since the earliest beginnings of linguistics. In Nirukta , in the 5th or 6th century BC Chr. Written defines the Sanskrit -Grammatiker Yaska four of speech.

  1. nāma - noun
  2. ākhyāta - verbs
  3. upasarga - Preverbs or Prefixes
  4. nipāta - particles (invariant words, perhaps also prepositions)

These four groups were divided into two broad classes: flexible (inflected) (nouns and verbs) and inflexible words (pre-verbs and particles).

Occidental history of part of speech

A century or two later, in the dialogue of Kratylos , Plato wrote that a sentence was a combination of a verb [rhē̂ma] and a noun [ónoma] . From Aristotle later than another class was [syndesmos] ( "link word" which is particles (uninflected speech) ) added.

At the end of the 2nd century BC The classification scheme had expanded to eight categories, for example in Téchnē Grammarḗ :

  1. Noun: case inflected part of speech that denotes a concrete or abstract entity.
  2. Verb: part of speech not inflected by the case, inflected according to time, person and number and denotes an activity or a process.
  3. Participle: part of the speech that participates in the peculiarity ( ancient Greek ἰδιότης idiótēs ) of both verbs and nouns.
  4. Article: case inflected part of speech that precedes or follows a noun.
  5. Pronouns: part of speech that can be replaced by a noun and that stands for a person.
  6. Preposition: part of speech that comes before other words in compounds and syntax.
  7. Adverb: unflexed part of speech that modifies a verb or is added to it.
  8. Conjunction: part of the speech that holds the discourse together and fills gaps in its interpretation.

The Latin technical terms for the parts of speech appear as loan translations of the Greek.

The Latin grammar of Priscian (5th century AD) dispensed with the part of speech article , which did not occur in Latin , but included the part of speech interjection in its scheme, so that it initially remained with eight parts of speech.

In German grammar, the ten parts of speech theory developed from this (see below).


Technē Grammatikē (about 100 BC) ónoma
(noun (noun or adjective))
próthesis (preposition) sýndesmos
(arithmētikón & taktikón
(basic & ordinal number))
Priscianus (about 500 AD) noun interiectio aduerbium uerbum participium praepositio coniunctio pronoun -
neo-Latin grammar noun interjectio adverbium verbum [temporale] participium praepositio conjunctio pronoun articulus
[noun] noun [noun] adjective [noun] numerale
German grammar (19th - 20th century) noun Numerals Interjection adverb verb Participle 1 preposition conjunction pronoun items
noun adjective
traditional English grammar noun numeral, number interjection adverb verb participle preposition conjunction pronoun article
[noun] substantive or substantive [noun]
also: noun (in the narrow sense)
[noun] adjective or adjective [noun]
also: adnoun
modern English school grammar noun
(naming word)
(describing word, description word)
(numeral, number) interjection adverb verb
(action word)
(participle) preposition conjunction pronoun article 2
1 Participles were often counted as a separate part of speech in traditional grammar. In today's linguistics, this view is no longer shared. Participles are seen as words or even constructions with varying proportions of verbal and adjectival components. Most German textbooks and school grammars refer to participles as verb forms.
2 article is sometimes considered a part of speech in English and sometimes not

Part of speech classification of classical German (school) grammar


Standard form: ten parts of speech teaching

A common part of speech classification of the German language names 10 parts of speech. The ten-part-of-speech theory emerged from the Latin and Greek grammar tradition (see above) and has been used for a very long time. She names the following parts of speech:

  1. Noun / noun (noun or thing word)
  2. Verb ( verb or verb )
  3. Adjective (characteristic or epithet)
  4. Adverb (circumstance or subword)
  5. Pronoun (noun)
  6. Preposition ( preposition or preface)
  7. Conjunction (connective)
  8. Numerals (numeral)
  9. Article (gender word, companion)
  10. Interjection (exclamation or sensation word)

Minor variations

The above listing is also known as the ten part of speech teaching. This can be compared to a nine, eight, etc. part of speech teaching.

Task of the part of speech article

A variant of the ten-part-of-speech theory is that the article is not viewed as an independent part of speech, but as a special form of the numerals (indefinite article) or pronouns (definite article). One also speaks of the nine-part-of-speech theory .

Problem of the part of speech Numeralia

Sometimes the independence of a category Numeralia is denied and these are then added to the adjectives. If it stays that way, you have another nine-part-of-speech-lesson , if the article is omitted an eight-part-of-speech lesson :

Arguments against: A comma is placed between two adjectives of equal rank. However, numerals must inevitably come before the attributive adjective, which is why they cannot be referred to as adjectives of equal rank and there cannot be a comma. Hence, they are not adjectives.

Replacement of the part of speech Numeralia by a part of speech Particle

Sometimes the part of speech Numeralia is negated and instead that of the particles is introduced as an independent part of speech. However, this ten-part-of-speech theory does not correspond to the classic part-of-speech theory.

Task of the part of speech interjection

The part of speech interjection is partially (additionally) hidden as an unimportant special case. If the category of the numeral is omitted, you have an eight part of speech teaching.

Parts of speech according to the classical division in detail


Noun (noun, thing word)

Noun (noun, thing word; sometimes also noun , name word, noun): Hanna, Rhine, house, garden, pig, computer, woman, milk, iron, reason, context . A distinction can be made according to the type of reference items:

  • concrete nouns (things that can be perceived and touched with the senses)
  • abstract nouns (only mentally perceptible things)
  • Proper name (nomen proprium) : requires knowledge of the subject and assignment of names
  • Generic name (nomen appellativum) : refers to the kind, genus of things
  • Collective name (noun collectivum) :
  • Substance name (nomen materiale) : denotes a substance, cannot be counted in this meaning and is not plural (then at most types are denoted: steels )

Special types that can be grammatically determined are:

  • Singular tantant or singular word: occurs only in the singular (e.g. snow, milk, anger )
  • Dualetantum : occurs in some Semitic languages, e.g. B. Hebrew מים, majim : water .
  • Plural tantum or plural word: occurs only in the plural (e.g. Alps, Canaries, people )
Verb (noun, verb)

Verb (action word, verb): laugh, run, talk, love, scream, hate . Verbs can denote processes, states or abstract facts.

Grammatical properties in German:

  • finite (conjugated) or infinite (unconjugated)
  • Can be used in six different tenses: present tense, past tense / imperfect tense, perfect past, past perfect, future I and future II
  • Genera verbi: active (deed) or passive (suffering)
  • transitive or intransitive
  • Modes: indicative , subjunctive or imperative
Adjective (adjective)

Examples: red, beautiful, handicapped, tall, tall . Adjectives can modify nouns in order to restrict a subject area (restrictive use) or to provide additional information (appositive use):

  • attributive use (adjective immediately before noun): primary use
  • predicative use (adjective mainly in verbs to be, will, seem, to remain )
  • adverbial use (adjective as a separate part of a sentence; in German adjectives usually have no special ending to mark adverbial use)
  • substantiated use (adjective is used as a noun, then capitalized accordingly in German)

For many adjectives there is the form of comparison (increase, comparison ): big, bigger, greatest ; some can be increased formally, but not semantically meaningful, for example: single, pregnant, dead .

Expressions that can only be combined with a verb such as sein, will or remain are called "Adkopula": broke, guilt, quitt . However, they have some similarities with adjectives, so they might fall into this class.


Numeralia are words that indicate a quantity or a rank. Some numerals could represent their own part of speech, provided they have properties that other parts of speech do not share. However, many of the words known as numerals (in the broadest sense) fall into other parts of speech:

  • Cardinalia (basic numerals): one, two, three ...
  • Ordinalia (ordinal numbers): first, second, third ...
  • Iteratives: once, twice, three times ... (adverbs)
  • Multiplicatives: single, double, triple ... (adjectives)
  • Partitiva (fractions): third, quarter, eighth ...
  • Spezialia (generic numerals): one thing, two things, three things ...
  • Indefinite Numeralia: all, many, some a few ... (see also: quantifiers )
Article (companion, gender)

An article (in traditional grammar also a gender word, companion) is a grammatical word that always accompanies a noun (noun or substantiated adjective).

  • definite article (specific gender): der, die, das (genitive: des, der )
  • indefinite article (indefinite gender word): one, one (genitive: one, one )
Pronoun (noun)

The pronoun (also: forwort) is a summary of words that do not describe any properties, but can refer directly to an object. They form a heterogeneous group.

Quantifiers (set word)

Quantifiers are words used to represent quantities, such as: none, all, little, much . According to IDS grammar , they can have both determinative and pronominal functions.

Not flexable

Those words that remain unchangeable in all sentences or positions cannot be inflected. They are also called particles (in a broad sense) or particles of speech.


Adverbs like here, there, there, today, therefore, are therefore single words that usually occur in the function of adverbial definition . Common types of meaning are e.g. B.

  • Adverb of the place ( local adverb ): here, there, below, there, nowhere, over, over
  • Adverb of time ( temporal adverb ): tomorrow, then, already, already, often, soon, always
  • Adverb of the way ( modal adverb ): like, different, in vain, almost, indeed, very
  • Adverb of the reason ( causal adverb ): therefore, therefore, therefore, consequently, in addition, for it

Adverbs can also help determine sentence types and

  • Introduce questions: adverbs like where? When? How? Why?
  • Introduce relative clauses: Relative adverbs

Prepositions determine the case of the group of words to which they belong ( Rection ). They only allow one of the oblique cases . In German these are: genitive, dative, accusative. Divorced by this criterion as and how that can occur with each case as prepositions from.

Prepositions can be subclassified semantically: So because of a preposition that indicates the cause, the reason; by means of a preposition that refers to a means used. This results in the meaning classes that can also be specified for adverbial terms, e.g. B .:

  • local
  • directional
  • temporal
  • causal
  • modal

Conjunctions are classically divided into:

  • associative (paratactic)
  • subordinate (hypotactic, subjunctions )
Interjection (exclamation or sensation words)

Interjections like oh, no, well, yes or hm are oral, have tones and unusual sound combinations ( brr ), steer from the listener's position. Their affiliation to the parts of speech is controversial ( onomatopoeic expressions, for example, are sometimes classified as onomatopoeia ), but they are also counted among the particles in the narrow sense.

Particle (in the narrow sense)

Particles in the narrow sense are non-inflectable expressions that cannot be expanded into groups of words:

  • Tinting particles operate on the knowledge: yes, stop, eh, well
  • Connective particles connect and structure: firstly, however, otherwise, indeed, however
  • Degree particles grade on the background of a classification scale in the sentence Weighted: even, of all things , already
  • Modal particles determine the validity of a fact and evaluate it: regrettably, unfortunately, certainly, maybe
  • Intensity particles mark the development of adjectival properties: very, right, extremely
  • Particles of negation such as not, not at all negate the validity of the facts

The affiliation of a word to different parts of speech

In a word paradigm, a word always belongs to exactly one part of speech. This requirement cannot always be met, as the following examples show:

  • Example:
    • I knocked, / but / no one opened ( but in the sense of but as a conjunction);
    • Eva was actually sick, / yet / she went to work ( but as an adverb in the sense of nevertheless );
    • You / you / knew that! ( but as (tinting) particles).

Many prepositions are also adverbs

  • Example:
    • on the table / from the point in time (in front of the actual content → prepositions )
    • The door is open. / The beard is off. (non-declinable properties → adverbs)

Critique of the traditional theory of speech

The traditional doctrine of part of speech is criticized for not fulfilling some of the basic characteristics of classification systems. It is unclear what classifies them at all: lexemes , syntactic words or word forms . The classic classification of the parts of speech is not based on a "uniform point of view", but is based on "contradicting or overlapping criteria". “For an exact structure of the grammar” it is “too vague” and the division is not disjoint either , since the same word can belong to different categories.

In a comparative language perspective, the traditional morphological classification criterion appears to be random. The morphology criterion only applies to synthetic languages ​​such as German, ancient Indian Sanskrit , Latin or Turkish . In English it is already problematic , not applicable to Chinese , which has no inflection.

Alternative part of speech teachings

Five parts of speech teaching

In the five-part-of-speech theory according to Hans Glinz , the classification is based on formal criteria.

There are five main parts of speech according to morphological criteria:

non-deflectable → particles
fixed gender → noun (sometimes also called noun)
without fixed enjoyment
cannot be increased, a series of inflections → pronouns
can be increased, two rows of inflections → adjective
conjugable → verb

The particles can be divided into four subgroups according to their syntactic behavior:

  1. Prepositions determine the case of the word groups in which they appear.
  2. Conjunctions that are further distinguished as: Beiordnende conjunctions connect equivalent units / addition grading conjunctions derived clauses a.
  3. Interjections are outside the sentence, have tones, unusual combinations of sounds (brr), can only be combined to a very limited extent.
  4. The adverbs form a residual group.

The adverbs can in turn be further differentiated, for example in local adverb (where?), Temporal adverb (when?), Modal adverb (how?), Causal adverb (why?), Interrogative adverb (question adverb) and prepositional adverb (connection of where- / where- / here- with preposition: where / where / where).

Some examples:

  • Prepositions: auf, mit, zu, an, bei, durch, ...
  • Associating conjunctions (conjunctors): and, but, but, because, namely, as, how ...
  • subordinate conjunctions (subjunctors): as, that, if, because, though, since, how ...
  • Interjection: ah, na, hm ...
  • Adverbs: below, often, very, well, with it, why, therefore ...

The pronouns are divided into ten subspecies in the five parts of speech theory, which are assigned to three other parts of speech in the classical part of speech theory (article, numerals, pronouns):

  • definite article (der, die, das)
  • indefinite article (one, one)
  • certain number pronouns (one / one, two, three, four: cardinal / basic numbers)
  • Personal pronouns (pronoun: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, she; me, you, him, she, it, us, you, she; me, you, him, her, him, us, you, them;)
  • Reflexive pronoun (backward pronoun)
  • Relative pronoun (related pronoun)
  • Possessive pronoun (possessive pronoun)
  • Demonstrative pronoun (indicative pronoun)
  • Indefinite pronouns (indefinite pronoun, this also includes indefinite numerals: some, many, few)
  • Interrogative pronoun (interrogative pronoun)

When determining the parts of speech, lexemes were used, not word forms. This means that in the sentences “he sees a beautiful house” and “he draws beautifully” the two different word forms of “beautiful” are defined as adjectives. If one wants to take into account the different functions of adjectives, one can speak of attributive (beautiful house) and adverbial (he sings beautifully) adjectives. Analogous to this, one speaks of predicative adjectives in sentences like “she is pretty”.

The five parts of speech teaching has gained a foothold in Swiss primary schools in recent years.

From a language-comparative perspective, the five-part-of-speech theory appears as a traditional part-of-speech theory adapted (only) to the German language, in which attempts are made to stringently apply clearer classification criteria.

Parts of speech in generative syntax

The generative approach has only four lexical parts of speech: noun (N), verb (V), adjective (A), preposition (P) and a number of functional categories .

Basic classifications of parts of speech

Inflectable and non-inflectable parts of speech

In languages ​​such as German, which are characterized by an inflected linguistic structure , a classification according to the criterion of inflectability is considered fundamental.

A word form change (inflection, inflection ) comes in German as a declination and conjugation . In German, inflectable parts of speech are nouns, adjectives, articles, pronouns and verbs.

Non-inflectable parts of speech in German are mainly the parts of speech adverb, conjunction and preposition.

Open and closed parts of speech

In linguistics, a distinction is made between open parts of speech (word classes) and closed parts of speech (word classes) .

An open class is a part of speech class whose inventory can be "expanded at any time". There are then productive mechanisms such as word formation or borrowing. The number of their elements is correspondingly large. Instead of an open word class, one also speaks of a lexical class . The open part-of-speech classes mainly include nouns and verbs, and depending on the language also adjectives and adverbs. (In German, at least adjectives are an open class.)

A closed (word) class is a part of speech whose stock is "not" or "little changeable". New members of closed classes arise only through individual and not individually predictable processes, e.g. B. Grammaticalization . The words of the closed word classes are also called function words . The number of function words is "relatively small". The closed word classes include prepositions, particles, conjunctions and articles. In some languages, adjectives are also a closed class.

Universal language of parts of speech?

The prevailing system of parts of speech appears largely historically due to the Greco-Latin grammar and its reception in European countries. It is controversial whether parts of speech can and should be meaningfully formed beyond the boundaries of the respective individual languages ​​or language families and whether there are universal language parts of speech.

Bühler's field theory

Functional or semantic determinations should be universal, as they were formulated in the field theory of the language psychologist Karl Bühler (1934/1978), the pointing words (“I”, “here”, “now” etc.) from symbolic words (“quickly”, "Woman", "build" etc.) separates. A corresponding suggestion to base the part of speech system primarily on semantic criteria comes from Hempel (1954/1980). This approach was expanded in functional pragmatics to a five-field theory of linguistic “procedures” ( Konrad Ehlich ), which precede or underlie parts of speech.

Universal linguistic ability to distinguish noun from verb?

The (only) essential distinction between types of speech is sometimes cited between nominal and verbal.

For some languages ​​it has been claimed that they make no distinction between nouns and verbs (or that the distinction is very weak), e.g. a. Greenlandic , Riau- Indonesian , Tagalog , Tongan , Mundari and Salish languages . In any case, it is questionable whether the concepts of the “noun” and the “verb”, which emerged from the description of the phenomenology of ancient Greek , can easily be transferred to non-European languages ​​which (in contrast to the European written languages) have syntactic functions Map onto classes of lexemes in a completely different way than ancient Greek.

See also


  • Henning Bergenholtz: On the morphology of German nouns, verbs and adjectives . Dümmler, Bonn 1976, ISBN 3-427-83851-X . Contains a purely morphological part of speech system.
  • Henning Bergenholtz / Burkhard Schaeder: The parts of speech in German. Klett, Stuttgart 1977. ISBN 3-12-910460-7 . Contains a purely syntactic part of speech system.
  • Karl Bühler: Language Theory. The representation function of the language. Ullstein, Frankfurt / Berlin / Vienna 1978, ISBN 3-548-03392-X . (Unchanged reprint of the first publication: Verlag Gustav Fischer 1934)
  • Duden. The grammar. 7th, completely new and expanded edition. Dudenverlag, Mannheim / Leipzig / Vienna / Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-411-04047-5 . Part of speech schemes: pp. 133, 574. Traditional system with primarily morphological and syntactic criteria.
  • Heinrich Hempel: Word classes and meanings. In: ders .: Theory of meaning and general linguistics. Narr, Tübingen 1980, ISBN 3-87808-131-6 , pp. 74-104. (First published in 1954) Semantic approach to a system of parts of speech.
  • Barbara Kaltz: On the part of speech problem from a scientific history perspective. Buske, Hamburg 1983, ISBN 3-87118-599-X .
  • Gisela Zifonun / Ludger Hoffmann / Bruno Strecker: Grammar of the German language. 3rd volumes. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1997, ISBN 3-11-014752-1 : Grammar of the German language.
  • Stefan Müller: Grammar Theory. Stauffenburg, Tübingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-86057-294-8 .

Web links

Wiktionary: part of speech  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: speaking part  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ So Dürr, Schlobinski: Descriptive Linguistics. 2006, p. 301.
  2. ^ RH Robins: General Linguistics . 4th ed., Longman, London 1989.
  3. Bimal Krishna Matilal: The word and the world: India's contribution to the study of language . Oxford 1990.
  4. Plato: Cratylus 431b
  5. ^ Wilhelm Pape: Concise dictionary of the Greek language . Braunschweig 1914, Volume 2, p. 1006, keyword σύνδεσμος
  6. August Matthiä: Detailed Greek grammar. First part. Form theory. Third, improved and increased edition . Leipzig 1835, p. 176
  7. Τέχνη Γραμματική Dionysios Thrax, Technē Grammatikē ( Wikisource [Greek])
  8. An overview is given e.g. E.g .: Irene Rapp: Participles and semantic structure . Stauffenburg, Tübingen 1997. (= Studies on German grammar, 54) ISBN 3-86057-444-2 .
  9. about Elke Hentschel, Harald Weydt: Handbuch der Deutschen Grammatik . 4th edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2013, p. 126f.
  10. ^ Pospiech: Syntax. In: Volmert (Hrsg.): Grundkurs Sprachwissenschaft. 5th edition. 2005, ISBN 3-8252-1879-1 , p. 129.
  11. See for example Gadler: Practical Linguistics. 3. Edition. 1998, p. 100.
  12. Duden: Spelling and grammar - made easy. 2007, p. 127.
  13. ^ Gabriel, Meisenberg: Romance Linguistics. 2007, p. 190.
  14. Comma between two adjectives. Duden.
  15. Kürschner: Grammatical Compendium. 4th edition. 2003, ISBN 3-8252-1526-1 , p. 75.
  16. See Ulrich: Basic Linguistic Concepts. 5th edition. 2002 / part of speech
  17. For example Gabriel, Meisenberg: Romance Linguistics. 2007, p. 190: "usually 8 word classes"
  18. ^ Online grammar of the Institute for German Language
  19. ^ Kessel, Reimann: Basic knowledge of German contemporary language. Fink, Tübingen 2005, ISBN 3-8252-2704-9 , p. 69 describe this as a case of homonymy
  20. ^ According to Kessel / Reimann: Basic knowledge of contemporary German. Fink, Tübingen 2005, ISBN 3-8252-2704-9 , p. 70
  21. a b Kutschera: Philosophy of Language. 2nd edition, 1975, ISBN 3-8252-0080-9 , p. 211
  22. Clément: Basic Linguistic Knowledge. 2nd ed., 2000, p. 34
  23. See also Duden, Die Grammatik. 7th edition. 2005, ISBN 3-411-04047-5 , Rn. 200, but speaking of lexical parts of speech
  24. ^ Gabriel, Meisenberg: Romance Linguistics. 2007, p. 191.
  25. ↑ Emphasizing the individual language relativity of the inflection criterion Christa Dürscheid : Syntax. Basics and theories. 5th edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010 (UTB, 3319), ISBN 978-3-8385-3319-3 , p. 23 with additional information
  26. a b Christa Dürscheid: Syntax. Basics and theories. 5th edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010 (UTB, 3319), ISBN 978-3-8385-3319-3 , p. 22.
  27. ^ A b c d Clément: Basic linguistic knowledge. 2nd ed., 2000, p. 35.
  28. Christa Dürscheid: Syntax. Basics and theories. 5th edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010 (UTB, 3319), ISBN 978-3-8385-3319-3 , p. 23
  29. Dürr, Schlobinski: Descriptive Linguistics, 2006, p. 78
  30. D. Gil: The Structure of Riau Indonesian. In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics , 17: 179-200.
  31. J. Broschart: Why Tongan does it differently: Categorial distinctions in a language without nouns and verbs. In: Linguistic Typology , 1997, 1: 123-165.
  32. K. Hengeveld, J. Rijkhoff: Federbuch, Mundari as a flexible language. In: Linguistic Typology , 2005, 9 (3): 406-431.
  33. a b H.-J. Sasse: The noun - a universal category? Language typology and universals research. 1993, 46 (3): 187-221
  34. ^ E. Luuk: Nouns, verbs and flexibles: implications for typologies of word classes. In: Language Sciences , 2010, 32: 349-365.