from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Spoken in

Philippines ; Region: Central and South Luzon
speaker 28 million first-language speakers (2007)

45 million second language speakers (2013)

Official status
Official language in see Filipino
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


Regions whose population mainly speaks Tagalog or a Tagalian dialect.

Tagalog ( German [ taˈgaːlɔk ]) is the most widespread language in the Philippines (etymology: tagá = origin and ílog = river). Originally Tagalog is the language of the Tagalen who live in the region in and around Manila , the political and economic center of the Philippines. It served as the basis for the official national language Filipino .


Since there are no written language certificates of Tagali from before the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, little is known about its linguistic history. Nevertheless, linguists suspect that the ancestors of the Tagalen as well as those of their central Philippine cousins ​​came from northeastern Mindanao or from the eastern Visayas .

The first known book written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Cristiana ("Christian Doctrine") of 1593. It was written in Spanish and in two versions of the Tagalog. One was written in Baybayin , the other in Latin script .

During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines documented especially clerics, the grammar and spelling of Tagalog, well-known works are the Vocabulario de la lengua Tagala from the year 1835 and the Arte de la lengua Tagala y manual tagalog para la adminstraci de los Santos Sacramento emerged, 1850.

The Filipino poet Francisco "Balagtas" Baltazar (1788–1862) wrote the work Florante at Laura and some of his other works in Tagalog in the early 19th century .

Tagalog is now regulated by Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (German Commission for the Filipino Language ).


Tagalog is a central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family. As an Austronesian language, Tagalog is related to Indonesian and Malay , Tetum , Maori , Fijian , Samoan , Tahitian , Hawaiian , Chamorro , the Austronesian languages ​​of Taiwan and Malagasy .

Tagalog is directly related to other languages ​​in the Philippines such as Bikolano , Hiligaynon , Wáray-Wáray, and Cebuano .

Languages ​​that have contributed significantly to the Tagalog include Spanish , Hokkien Chinese , English , Malay , Sanskrit (via Malay), Arabic (via Malay), and northern Filipino languages ​​such as Kapampangan spoken on the island of Luzon .


For German speakers, the pronunciation is easy to learn, since all Tagalian phonemes have a German equivalent. Due to the wealth of vowels and the rare occurrence of consonant clusters , a mostly simple syllable structure from consonant vowel (KV) or consonant vowel consonant (KVK) results. Root words, as long as they are not based on loan words, are almost without exception two-syllable, whereby any combination of the simple syllables is possible (KV-KV, KV-KVK, KVK-KV, KVK-KVK).

The numerous affixes in the Tagalog do not change the phonetic structure of simple syllables. Prefixes are mostly monosyllabic in the form KV or KVK (ka-, ma-, mag-, pag-, pang-). The suffixes -an / -in and the infixes -in - / - do not form independent syllables. In the case of derivation through affixes, however, there are regular changes in sound and / or adjustments to the root word or affix. Syllable initial sound is always a consonant , this can also be the glottal plosive ʔ .


Phonemes of consonants in Tagalog
labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
nasal m n ŋ <ng>
Plosive unvoiced p t k , * ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
Fricative unvoiced f s ʃ H
voiced v <w> ʒ
Flap ɾ
Half vowel l j <y> w
<..> orthographic representation
* between vowels there is a certain allophony to x

The phonemes ʃ and ʒ have no explicit orthographic representation. They arise as a contraction of two syllables. An unstressed si or ti followed by y [ sɪ'j ] becomes [ ʃ ] or [ ʃj ] (e.g. siya [ ʃʌ ] or [ ʃjʌ ] ). Di followed by y can become [ ] (e.g. diyan [ dʒʌn ] , but also [ dɪ'jʌn ] ). The common plosive ʔ is not written. In educational texts and dictionaries there is inconsistent spelling with circumflex if the plosive follows a stressed final syllable with a vowel at the end of the word (no / not - hindî [hɪn'dɪʔ] ) or gravis if the final syllable is unstressed (child - batà [ 'ba: tʌʔ] ). There are no markings as the first consonant (dog - aso ['ʔasɔ] without an accent)


Vowels in the Tagalog
phoneme / a / / i / /O/ / u / / e /
Allophone mostly long a i O u e
mostly short ʌ ɪ ɔ ʊ ɛ
diphthong aw, ay iw, (iy) * (ow), oy (uy) (ew), (ey)
*() very rare

In addition to the allophones listed in the table, there is a limited allophony between / o / and / u / and more clearly from / e / to / i /. In contrast to German, the binding of the diphthongs is not very tight. In derivatives where the diphthong forms a syllable boundary, it is often split into a vowel and a consonant (e.g. patay + anpata | yan ).


The main stress is always on the root word, which is synonymous with the last or penultimate syllable. The emphasis is distinctive in the Tagalog . Words with the same syllable structure change their meaning if the accentuation is reversed (bu'kas - open, 'bukas - tomorrow). Affixes have secondary stresses that can also be distinctive. In addition, the addition of affixes can shift the stress from the penultimate to the last syllable in the root word.

Language examples

Universal Declaration of Human Rights , Article 1:

"Ang lahat ng tao'y isinilang na malaya at pantay-pantay sa karangalan at mga karapatan. Sila'y pinagkalooban ng katwiran at budhi at dapat magpalagayan ang isa't isa sa diwa ng pagkakapatiran. "

(All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should meet one another in a spirit of brotherhood.)

Naintindihan mo ba? Naintindihan ko na. 1 - isa
Do you understand? I understand now. 2 - dalawa
Magandang araw po. Magandang gabi po. 3 - tatlo
Good day. Good evening. 4 - apat
Kumusta ka? Mabuti. 5 - lima
How are you? I'm good. 6 - anim
Anong ibig mo sabihin? Anong ginagawa mo diyan? 7 - pito
What do you think? What are you doing there? 8 - walo
Mahal kita. Hindi kita gusto. 9 - siyam
I love you. I do not like you. 10 - sampu


To explain the grammar of a language not closely related to German with the help of the common terminology is "like trying to find your way around the Himalayas with the help of a map of Tyrol."

Tagalog is a predominantly oral language and is therefore more dynamic and less formalized than German, for example. Accordingly, there is a large number of systematics in the literature that describe Tagali's grammar. A grammatical standard work in Tagalog, which finds a noteworthy distribution in the population, does not exist. The analyzes of the language come mainly from a foreign pen or are based on Spanish or English works, which means that the target language of the treatises is only partially Tagalog. The terminology used is inconsistent and depends on the respective author.


The basic element of the Tagalog are the monosyllabic or almost always two-syllable word stems, which can be called lexemes . Apart from phonological adjustments when combining them with affixes, they are immutable. Often (75%) the root word itself is used as a stand-alone root word. The majority of these root words are nouns or adjectives. In the case of non-objective terms, an assignment is only unambiguous if a derived adjective is present in the word family ( ganda - beauty, maganda - beautiful). Other parts of speech are rare as stem words. Verbs are never stem words and always connected. An unformed short form of verbs, as used in everyday language ( sinabi ko -> sabi ko - I said), is not to be called a root word.

Words are formed by affixing the word stem, doubling syllables or stem and rarely using compound words. Adding one or more affixes is the most commonly used method to create word families. The language has a large number of prefixes, two suffixes –an and –in and two infixes –in– and –um– . Double derivations like in German (brennen-burnennen-burn) are rare.


The affixing of stems has a central meaning in the Tagalog. Most affixes are not specific to the word type, although some authors assign them to word classes based on the frequency with which they are used (see table). Prefixes can occur in combination, whereby a word can consist of significantly more affix syllables than word stem syllables. The suffixes –an and -in become –han (rarely –nan) and –hin when the stem ends with a vowel. The infixes –in– and –um– are used exclusively in verb inflection.

Some of the affixes have a similar meaning when combined with different word stems (e.g. pa ... an : place where something is done. Paaralan - place of learning / school, pagawaan - place of work / factory, pagamutan - place of healing / hospital).

Selection of common affixes in the Tagalog
Affix (s) noun adjective Verb (patient focus) Verb (agent focus)
-on + + + +
-in + + +
-in- +
–In –...– on +
-around- +
di– +
ga– +
gaga– +
gangga– +
i– + +
ika– + (Ordinal number) +
ipa– +
ipag– +
ipagpa– +
ipaki– +
ipang– +
isa– +
ka– + + (Fraction) + (Katatapos)
ka –...– an + + +
káka– +
kay– +
ma– + + +
ma –...– on +
má– + +
má –...– an +
like- + +
likes –...– +
magka– + + +
magká– +
magkang– +
magpa– +
magpaka– +
magsa– +
magsi– +
magsipag– +
May- +
maipa– +
maipag– +
maipang– +
maka– + +
maká– + (Multiple) +
makapag– +
makapagpa– +
makapang– +
maki– +
makipag– +
makipag –...– on +
mala– +
mang– + +
mapa– +
mapa –...– an +
mápa– +
mapàg– + +
mapàg –...– an +
mápag– +
mápag –...– on +
mapang– +
may– + +
n / A- + +
na –...– an + +
naka– + +
napaka– +
ni– + +
ni –...– on + +
pa– + + + +
pa –...– an + +
pa –...– in +
pa – D– +
pag– +
pag –...– at +
pag –...– in +
pag – D– +
pagka– +
pagkaka– +
pagkaká– +
pagkang– +
pagkápag– +
pagmama– +
pagpapa– +
pagsasa– +
paki– +
paki –...– on +
paki –...– in +
pakiki– +
pakikipag– +
palá– +
palá –...– on +
pampa– + +
pang– + +
pang –...– an + +
pang –...– in + +
pang – D– +
pinaka– + +
sa –...– at +
sang– +
sing– +
ta– +
Day- +
taga– +
Tagapag– +
* D = doubling of the first syllable of the root word


Verbs are formed by affixing a word stem. There are usually several derivatives that differ in their argument structure. A person or number inflection as well as different modes are not available. This is to be distinguished from the modality as a semantic property of the verbs. This is also realized through affection, since real modal verbs are missing (e.g. the unstressed prefixes ma– and maka– often express an ability in the sense of "can").

As criteria of the classification of the verbs are used

  1. morphological classification according to the affixes used
  2. syntactic / semantic classification according to the focus of the verb
  3. syntactic classification according to the argument structure of the verb
  4. semantic classification according to the modality

to (1): A very large variety of combinations. Möller gives a tabular overview consisting of more than 60 groups. Bloomfield even finds 112 combinations in his analyzed text. Schachter initially limited himself to 17 main groups in a minimalist way, but in the following remarks he also describes over 50 affiliations.

To (2): Two main groups are distinguished. Verbs in which the perpetrator is in the foreground ( active verbs , verbs with agent focus , actor-focus verbs ) and verbs in which the perpetrator is not in the foreground ( passive verbs , verbs with patient focus , goal-focus verbs ). The classification is initially only based on semantics. Active and passive clauses have the same syntax, and the rules of formation of active and passive verbs do not differ either. However, there are verbal affixes that are only used for one of the two functions (see table ).

In addition to the subject of the crime, the patient in focus can also be the recipient, the target location, a tool or something else. Accordingly, a verb with a certain affixation is chosen from the word family to indicate the semantic function of the focus. This choice of focus allows a great variety of expressions in Filipino sentence.

The language prefers passive constructions. It should be noted, however, that active and passive, as in other Austronesian languages, are not to be understood as a gender verbi , but rather serve to emphasize the subject of conversation in their application.

Flexion paradigm

A verb- specific inflection paradigm is used to create three further forms based on the basic form of the verb. In the literature, both the designation of the forms and the connotations of the forms with regard to tense and aspect are different . The following table shows terms used by different authors.

author Basic form 1. Form 2. shape 3. Shape
Bloomfield Contingent / punctual Actual / Durative Actual / punctual Contingent / Durative
Himmelmann non-realis perfective realis imperfective realis perfective non-realis imperfective
Möller Infinitive / basic form Present preterite Future tense
Schachter basic imperfective perfective contemplated

The basic form is largely without any aspect or temporal feature. It is used for general statements ( Magaling siya kumanta. - She can sing well.), Commands ( Ibigay mo ang bote. - Give me the bottle.) And special sentence constructions ( Gusto ko na kumain. - I want to eat now.).

The meaning of the inflected forms is more dependent on the context. If there is a semantic congruence between aspect and tense (perfect + past, imperfect + present, contemplative + future) the verb form is clear. In cases without this correspondence (e.g. imperfect + past tense), the appropriate aspect is preferably expressed if the temporal classification results from the context.

The schema of formation applies (almost) without exception to all verbs. The flexion is done by changing the affixation or doubling of syllables.

Affix rules:

  1. m becomes n in present and past tense.
  2. Verbs with the suffix –an or the prefix i– have an additional –in–, ni– or na– in the present or past.
  3. The suffix –in is replaced by –in–, ni– or na– in the present or past.
  4. The infix –um– is omitted in the future tense .
  5. –In–, ni– or na– rule:
    1. In general, –in– is used, which is inserted after the first consonant of the root word or prefix.
    2. The stem begins with l or y (partly in h ) is used instead of -in- a ni- used.
    3. The replacement of –in– by na– is based on phonological reasons (mainly in –in and i– verbs).

Duplication rules:

  1. Doubling of syllables in present and future. If the doubled syllable ends with a consonant, this is omitted in the doubled syllable.
  2. The prefixes ka, ki, kang, pa or sa are usually doubled as part of a prefix combination.
  3. pang becomes papang (rarely pangang ) or the first stem syllable is doubled.
  4. i– is doubled if it is not the first prefix.
  5. makapagpa becomes makakapagpa .
  6. In the case of prefixes that cannot be doubled, the first syllable of the root word is doubled. The stem is rarely duplicated, even if there is a prefix that can be duplicated, or both forms are formed.
  7. mag ...– um– verbs behave like mag– verbs.

The rules apply in descending order of priority, whereby in the case of an affix combination only the rule with the higher priority applies (e.g. a mag–… –an verb does not follow affix rule no. 2). A "flexion aid" can be found here.


In Tagalog, the grammatical relationships within a sentence are determined by the use of proclitic qualifiers (or function words) that identify the respective phrase . There is no connection in principle between the content (e.g. noun phrase , verb phrase , adjective phrase ) of the phrase and its syntactic function in the sentence. From this follows on the one hand the part of speech problem in Tagalog, on the other hand there are analogies in the designation of clauses (e.g. "subject" = "ang-phrase") or grammatical categories (e.g. "dative" = "sa phrase") ”) Is not always conducive to understanding the language.

The following table gives an overview of the terms used by various authors to describe the basic grammatical / syntactic elements. A one-to-one correspondence is not to be assumed in the individual columns.

nec ay ng sa na / -ng
Bloomfield Subject Predicate Disjunctive attribution Local attribution Conjunctive attribution
Himmelmann Predication base predicate referential attribute Circumstance determination attributive structure
Kroeger Nominative case Predicate Genitive case Dative case Compound
Möller 1 Subject phrase Predicate phrase Objunct phrase Adjunct phrase Subjunctive phrase
Schachter Topic Predicate 2 Actor / object complement Directional complement Modification constructions
  • 1 Möller distinguishes another phrase, which is marked with nang , as a disjoint phrase .
  • 2 = Schachter describes sentences with ay as Inversion constructions (Eng. Inversion )

In many cases, the position of the individual parts of the sentence can be freely selected thanks to the unique defining words. However, simple sentences usually begin with the predicate, followed by the subject and other independent phrases. Since there are no auxiliary verbs in the Tagalog , a full sentence can be verbless:

Masarap nec pagkain
delicious. PRED.ADJ PM.TOP Eat. GER
The food is delicious.

Möller differentiates between a total of six different phrases, which are designated as ang -, ay -, sa -, nang -, -ng / na - and ng -phrase according to their defining word . The first four are syntactically independent, while the last two always have a direct reference word and cannot stand alone. More precisely, these phrases can be referred to as functional phases. Apart from interjections , a Tagali sentence consists at least of ang and ay phrases, which have a certain analogy to subject and predicate .

Subject of sentence (ang-phrase)

The subject of the sentence is usually preceded by ang . In front of the article si for personal names, the specified It is essential for the subject of the sentence that it is always determined. Therefore, the term subject falls short for this part of the sentence. In the Tagalog there is a close correlation between the semantic and grammatical roles of the subject. This is made clear by the impossibility of querying the ang phrase .

Nakikita ko nec lalaki.
I see the man.
Lalaki nec nakikita ko.
I see a man.

Sentence statement (ay-phrase)

The sentence statement is marked with ay . If the sentence statement comes first - which corresponds to the canonical order of a simple sentence - the ay is omitted , so that this acronym is used less often. If a verb is the main component of the sentence statement, the other parts of the sentence are to be regarded as dependent on it, similar to German. In particular, it is specified which part of the sentence forms the ang phrase, the so-called focus. In the Tagalog, constructions that focus on the patient are preferred . In these cases the agent becomes a subordinate phrase to the verb.

Sinasara ng lalaki ang pinto.
conclude. PRED.V.PT.PRS.PROG PM.GEN .man PM.TOP .door
The man closes the door.

In addition, the ay-phrase can exchange its syntactic function with the ang-phrase . This makes it possible to assign the place of the predicate to a noun without semantic determinacy.

Adjunct (sa phrase)

Adjunct phrases are indicated by a preceding sa . They have a large semantic range and are syntactically independent. On its own, the sa phrase can resemble an adverbial with comparable classes of meaning. In these cases, it can be preceded by a preposition.

Magpapakasal tayo sa susunod = na taon.
marry. PRED.V.AT.FUT we. TOP.2PL.INCL.NOM PM.LOC next. ADJ = LK. Year
We're getting married next year.
Naliligo ako slope sa malamic nec tubular.
have a shower. PRED.V.AT.PRES.PROG I. TOP.1SG.NOM to. SR.PREP.TEMP cold. ADJ PM.TOP .water
I shower until the water is cold.

As an argument of the verb, the sa phrase can serve a wide variety of functions. These include:

  • receiver
Binigay niya ang sulat sa kanya.
give. PRED.V.PT.PST she. 3SG.GEN PM.TOP .Letter him. 3SG.DAT
She gave him the letter.
  • locative
Pupunta ako sa Maynila.
I'm going to manila.
  • root cause
Nalugod ako sa balita.
looking forward. PRED.V.PT.PST I. 1SG.NOM PM.PT. News
I was happy about the news.

In non-verbal sentences, the sa phrase can also become the content of the ay phrase or, rarely, the content of the ang phrase.

Ako ay sa bahay.
I'm home.

ng phrase

The ng-phrase is always a dependent part of another phrase. It is preceded by an ng , which is always spoken as a separate syllable and spelled as a single word. The content is mainly noun phrases or the corresponding pronoun. If the parent phrase is itself a noun phrase, the ng phrase usually has a possessive character.

Puti nec buhok ng matanda = ng babae.
White. PRED.ADJ PM.TOP .Hair. PR ng. PM.SR old. ADJ = LK. Woman
The old woman's hair is white.

As an argument of a verb phrase, the grammatical meaning of the ng phrase depends on the verb used.

Hindi tumitikim ng pagkain ang bata.
NEG . Try. PRED.V.AT.PRS PM.ACC .Eating. GER PM.TOP .child
The child does not try to eat.
Tinitikman ng bata nec pagkain.
to attempt. PRED.V.PT.PRS PM.GEN .child PM.TOP .Food
A child tries this food.

If the ng phrase is replaced by a pronoun, an enclitic sentence structure is usually used so that the sentence does not end with the pronoun. Ng phrases as the beginning of a sentence are excluded.

Subjunct (-ng / na-phrase)

Subjuncts are dependent phrases that have -ng or na as a determiner . In contrast to all other phrases, the determiner can also be added afterwards. In contrast to the ng phrase, the ng merges with the reference word in the subjunct. As an appendage, subjuncts have an attributive character and are part of a superordinate clause. According to its function, the -ng / na connection indicates a level without making a semantic statement about the direction of subordination. Therefore the word order is free.

How the subjunct is attached is phonologically justified. If a word ends with a vowel, ʔ or n, the subjunct is connected with ng . If the word ends with a consonant, na is used.

Galing ako sa maliit na pulo. sa pulong maliit.
Tribes I from a small island.

The content word of a subjunct, like the reference word, can be almost any part of speech. An irregular comparison can also be expressed with the help of subjuncts (higit na mabuti - better; mas (na) malaki - greater). A special feature of subjuncts is that the determiner can be omitted without losing their grammatical function.

nang phrase

Nang phrases are syntactically independent in the sentence and have nang as a defining word . If the phrase is at the beginning of the sentence, this is omitted. Often nang phrases are temporal additions and are formed from noun or gerund phrases.

Tumagal nang dalawang oras ang pulong.
Took two hours the meeting.
Mag-aral ako nang paglabas niya.
Learn I since he left.

Articles and pronouns

The definiteness and indefiniteness of a noun is realized syntactically. Nouns have no inflection in the Tagalog. Case relationships are expressed using the phrase system. There is no gender display. Different genders are either separate words ( inay - mother, tatay - father) or the noun is supplemented ( kapatid na babae - sister, kapatid na lalaki - brother). Pronouns are always gender neutral.

The number is also not indicated by flexives , but by presented words that express a semantic singular or plural or irregular word formations ( dual forms of some nouns). This includes numerals ( isang babae - one woman, dalawang babae - two women) and the use of adjectives that can have a plural form ( malaking alon - great wave, malalaking alon - great waves) or lexically contain a plural ( maraming mali - many Error). The explicit plural indicator mga [mʌ'ŋʌ], which can be used in front of nouns, adjectives and demonstrative pronouns, has a special position . In contrast to German, the speaker does not have to make a decision whether to speak of singular or plural.

Nakita ko ang lalaki. I saw the man.
I saw the men.

For the reasons listed, an article is superfluous as a determinative . Interestingly, a regular article only appears in front of people where it is wrong in standard German but occurs in dialect ( Tinulungan ni Monika si Peter - Monika helped Peter). The Tagali personal articles are mandatory. They differentiate between singular and plural and form special forms with the defining words of the phrases or replace them.

Pronouns replace nouns and thus usually form the core word of the respective phrase. The forms of personal demonstrative and interrogative pronouns on the one hand follow the phrase system and can accordingly be referred to as ang pronouns , ay pronouns , ng pronouns or sa pronouns . In addition, in personal and demonstrative pronouns, a distinction is made between speaker (first person), spoken word (second person) and a third person. Immediately before ang-pronouns and ng-pronouns , the phrase's defining word is omitted. There are no separate possessive pronouns. Sa and ng pronouns take on this function, but in these cases they should be viewed as attributes.

Tabular overview of articles and pronouns

Articles and pronouns in the Tagalog
  Clause, phrase
Sentence subject Sentence statement ng phrase sa phrase
Determinant Start of sentence nec {} * --- * sa
Not the beginning of a sentence nec ay ng sa
items Plural indicator nec mga ay mga ng mga sa mga
person Singular si {ay} si ni kay
ang ... si {ay} ... si ng ... si sa ... si
Plural sina {ay} sina nina kina
ang ... sina {ay} ... sina ng ... sina sa ... sina
Personal pronouns 1st person Singular ako {ay} ako ko + sa akin
dual kata {ay} kata nita sa kanita
Plural (inclusive) tayo {ay} tayo natin sa atin
Plural (exclusive) kami {ay} kami namin sa amin
2nd person Singular ka, ikaw {ay} ikaw mo sa iyo (saiyo)
Plural kayo {ay} kayo ninyo sa inyo
3rd person Singular siya {ay} siya niya sa kanya
Plural sila {ay} sila nila sa kanila
Demonstrative pronouns 1st person (close speaker) ito {ay} ito nito dito
2nd person (close address) iyan {ay} iyan niyan diyan
3rd person (further away) iyon, yaon {ay} iyon, yaon niyon, niyaon doon
Interrogative pronouns Person (plural form) --- * sino (sinu-sino) nino (ninu-nino) {sa} kanino
({sa} kani-kanino)
Thing (plural form) --- * ano (anu-ano) --- * saan (saan-saan)
* --- = not available, * {} = not applicable at the beginning of the sentence, + ko ka is merged into kita

Writers in Tagalog

One of the most famous playwrights, poets and journalists who wrote almost exclusively in Tagalog was Patricio G. Mariano . He was also the first to translate José Rizal's works Noli me tangere and El Filibusterismo into Tagalog.


  • Mario I. Miclat, Anetalia G. Ramos, Wilfreda J. Legaspi, Paulina B. Bisa, Vilma M. Resuma, Fe Laura R. Quetua, Fernanda P. Aganan, Carmelita S. Lorenzo, Romulo P. Baquiran Jr., Teresita P Semorlan: Sangguniang Gramatika ng Wikang Filipino . Quezon City 1999, ISBN 971-8781-50-1 (Tagalog).
  • Rey Agana: Tagalog 1st conversation course for beginners . regiospectra Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-940132-53-6 .
  • Paraluman S. Aspillera: Basic Tagalog . Tuttle Publishing, Tokyo / Rutland, Virginia / Singapore 2007, ISBN 0-8048-3837-2 .
  • Leonard Bloomfield: Tagalog Texts with Grammatical Analysis . University of Illinois, 1917 ( Gutenberg Project ).
  • Leo James English: Taglog-English Dictionary . 24th edition. Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, 2009, ISBN 971-08-4357-5 .
  • Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino: Ortograpiyang pambansa . Manila 2014, ISBN 978-971-019-733-0 .
  • Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, Alexander Adelaar: The Austronesian Languages ​​of Asia and Madagascar . London 2005, Tagalog, p. 350–376 (English, uni-muenster.de [PDF; 4.7 MB ]).
  • Nikolaus P. Himmelmann: Voice and Grammatical Relations in Austronesian Languages . Ed .: Peter Austin, Simon Musgrave. Stanford 2008, Lexical categories and voice in Tagalog, p. 247–293 (English, uni-muenster.de [PDF; 2.0 MB ]).
  • Nikolaus Himmelmann jr: Morphosyntax and morphology - the alignment affixes in Tagalog . Fink, Munich 1987, ISBN 978-3-7705-2493-8 .
  • Paul Kroeger: Phrase Structure and Grammatical Relations in Tagalog . CSLI Publications, Stanford, California 1993, ISBN 978-0-937073-86-5 .
  • Armin Möller: Syntax of the Filipino language . 2013, urn : nbn: de: bsz: 14-qucosa-127837 .
  • Consuelo J. Paz: Ang pag-aaral ng wika . The University of the Philippines Press, Quezon City 2003, ISBN 971-542-374-4 (Tagalog).
  • Vito Santos: Vicassan's Pilipino-English Dictionary . Anvil Publishing Inc., Manila 2006, ISBN 978-971-27-1707-9 .
  • Paul Schachter, Fe T. Otanes: Tagalog Reference Grammar . University of California Press, 1972, ISBN 978-0-520-04943-7 (English, books.google.de ).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Mikael Parkvall: Världens 100 största språk 2007 ( "The world's 100 largest languages in 2007") . In: Swedish National Encyclopedia . 2007.
  2. ^ Ethnologue, Filipino. Retrieved February 25, 2016 .
  3. ^ Komisyon see Wikang Filipino
  4. ^ Fritz Mauthner: Contributions to a Critique of Language . tape 1 : On language and psychology. Ullstein, Frankfurt, M./Berlin/Wien 1982, ISBN 3-548-35145-X . P. 23
  5. Mario I. Miclat, Anetalia G. Ramos, Wilfreda J. Legaspi, Paulina B. Bisa, Vilma M. Resuma, Fe Laura R. Quetua, Fernanda P. Aganan, Carmelita S. Lorenzo, Romulo P. Baquiran Jr., Teresita P. Semorlan: Sangguniang Gramatika ng Wikang Filipino . Quezon City 1999, ISBN 971-8781-50-1 (Tagalog). or Consuelo J. Paz: Ang pag-aaral ng wika . The University of the Philippines Press, Quezon City 2003, ISBN 971-542-374-4 (Tagalog).
  6. Leo James English: Tagalog-English Dictionary . 24th edition. Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, 2009, ISBN 971-08-4357-5 .
  7. germanlipa.de
  8. ^ Verbal Aspect, Introduction. Retrieved January 13, 2016 .
  9. ^ Paul & Bibi - Tagalog verbs. Retrieved November 11, 2019 .
  10. Nikolaus Himmelmann jr: Morphosyntax and Morphology - the alignment affixes in the Tagalog . Fink, Munich 1987, ISBN 978-3-7705-2493-8 , pp. 78 .
  • ( Blo ) Leonard Bloomfield: Tagalog Texts with Grammatical Analysis . University of Illinois, 1917 ( Gutenberg Project ).
  1. pp. 325-328
  2. p. 226 ff.
  3. pp. 154-156
  4. p. 217, p. 218
  5. pp. 153-181
  • ( HimA ) Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, Alexander Adelaar: The Austronesian Languages ​​of Asia and Madagascar . London 2005, Tagalog, p. 350–376 (English, uni-muenster.de [PDF; 4.7 MB ]).
  1. p. 352
  2. p. 353
  • ( HimB ) * Nikolaus P. Himmelmann: Peter Austin & Simon Musgrave (Eds.): Voice and Grammatical Relations in Austronesian Languages . Stanford 2008, Lexical categories and voice in Tagalog, p. 247–293 (English, uni-muenster.de [PDF; 2.0 MB ]).
  1. p. 286
  2. p. 258
  3. p. 250
  • ( Kro ) Paul Kroeger: Phrase Structure and Grammatical Relations in Tagalog . CSLI Publications, Stanford, California 1993, ISBN 978-0-937073-86-5 .
  1. p. 15
  2. a b p. 13
  3. pp. 19-36
  1. p. 358
  2. pp. 381-383
  3. p. 325 ff.
  4. p. 123
  5. pp. 139-147
  6. pp. 135-139, pp. 468-472
  7. a b p. 27
  8. p. 329
  1. p. 29
  2. p. 7
  3. pp. 98-106, pp. 198 ff., Pp. 224-229, pp. 284-293
  4. pp. 284-293
  5. p. 361 ff.
  6. p. 66
  7. pp. 361-371
  8. p. 60
  9. p. 121ff.
  10. p. 485
  11. p. 88