Malay language

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Malay ( Bahasa Melayu - بهاسا ملايو)

Spoken in

Malaysia , Brunei , Singapore , Indonesia , South Thailand , South Philippines
speaker about 200 million
Official status
Official language in MalaysiaMalaysia Malaysia Brunei Singapore Indonesia
Other official status in East TimorEast Timor East Timor (working language)
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2 ( B ) may ( T ) msa
ISO 639-3


Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia)

Spoken in

Indonesia , East Timor
speaker approx. 30 million (native speakers)

162 million (total)

Official status
Official language in IndonesiaIndonesia Indonesia
Other official status in East TimorEast Timor East Timor ( working language )
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


The Malay language is the umbrella language for several regionally spoken languages, of which the variants known as Bahasa Malaysia in Malaysia and Bahasa Indonesia in Indonesia are the most important. With around 200 million speakers, the language is one of the most widely spoken languages ​​on earth. The two language versions differ linguistically only slightly, so that they are scientifically treated as a single language.

Malay is the linguistic basis of traffic and official language , which is used mainly in the geographical area of Malaysia and Indonesia, as well as official languages of the Sultanate of Brunei, Singapore and the Republic of Indonesia. Larger groups of speakers can also be found in Myanmar , Hong Kong , the Netherlands and the USA . Malay has the language code ms, mayor msa(according to ISO 639 ), while the language code idor ind(according to ISO 639) is used for Indonesian .

  • Bahasa Malaysia ( German  Malay ) is the correct language name within Malaysia. Of the approximately 12 million speakers on the Malay Peninsula , around 7.2 million speak it as a first language and 4.8 million as a second language.
  • Bahasa Indonesia ( German  Indonesian ) is the official language in Indonesia. It is spoken by around 162 million people. It is the first language for 21 million, most of whom live on Java . 141 million use it as a second or lingua franca. Outside of Indonesia, it is spoken in Saudi Arabia , Singapore , the Netherlands, and the United States, among others . In East Timor , occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999, Indonesian has the status of a “ working language ” according to the constitution . Many of the courses at the universities of East Timor are held in this language. 36% of the population can speak, read and write Indonesian, another 1% speak and read, 11% only read and 7% only speak.

Unless otherwise stated below, the statements apply to both language variants.


Malay belongs to the western group of the Malay-Polynesian language branch within the Austronesian language family .

The first written evidence of Old Malay comes from the 7th century.

Malay received many influences from India , where Hinduism and Buddhism came from. In later times, Arabic and Persian influences came along with Islam . From the 14th century on, it was mainly written using Arabic characters. The different colonial influences have resulted in some different loanwords . See the differences between Bahasa Malaysia and Bahasa Indonesia below .

Development in Malaysia

Richard Olaf Winstedt and Richard James Wilkinson laid the foundations of today's education system in Malaysia during the colonial period and, through their work, not only researched the systematics of the Malay language, but also created the Malay-English dictionaries that are still valid today. When the Malaya Federation was granted independence, the term Bahasa Melayu was introduced into the constitution by the fathers of Malaysia's independence, above all Abdul Rahman , in order to give the multi-ethnic state an identity through a common language.

After the bloody ethnic unrest in 1969, Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak Hussain introduced the term Bahasa Malaysia in order to demonstrate the unity of the ethnic groups of Malaysia and to alleviate the dispute over the supremacy of indigenous Malays. Under the Minister of Education Anwar Ibrahim , the name Bahasa Melayu was reintroduced in 1986 . In April 2007, the Malaysian cabinet voted in favor of using Bahasa Malaysia again as the official term for the national language of all ethnic groups in Malaysia.

The Malay language belongs to Malaysians of all races and not just the Malays. The term Bahasa Malaysia would instil a sense of belonging.

“The Malay language belongs to Malaysians of all races and not just Malaysians. The term Bahasa Malaysia would develop a sense of belonging. "

- Minister of Information Technology Seri Zainuddin Maidin

The use of the term Bahasa Malaysia is mandatory for all newspapers, radio and television broadcasts published in Malaysia.

Development in Indonesia

In the Dutch East Indies , with the colonization of the Netherlands in the 19th century, the Latin script was introduced. With the declaration of independence from Indonesia in 1945, Bahasa Indonesia was declared the official state language; Originally, Malay was only widespread in eastern Sumatra and around the capital Jakarta .

In 1972 a uniform Latin writing system and largely identical orthography were created in Malaysia and Indonesia. Since the Islamization the Arabic alphabet with its own special characters was common, in 1901 the Dutch colonial administration introduced Ejaan Van Ophuijsen, based on the Dutch spelling . This was replaced in 1947 by the Ejaan Republik (Republican Spelling), which in turn was replaced in 1972 by the Ejaan yang Disempurnakan (Improved Spelling). The Arabic script is still used occasionally, however, especially in the religious field, and Malay signs with Arabic characters can still be found.

Development in East Timor

At the beginning of the 19th century, Malay was spoken as a commercial language in Portuguese Timor and was even used by the Portuguese and Topasses . Then the language disappeared in the Portuguese colony . Apparently the Portuguese administration took care of this after 1870. Tetum Prasa and Portuguese took over the function of Malay as the language of trade within Timor and abroad. Only among the Arab minority in East Timor did Malay survive as an everyday language and in 1975 in Oe-Cusse Ambeno as a second language. The influence of the surrounding Indonesian West Timor played a role here.

In 1975 Indonesia occupied the state of East Timor, which had only been proclaimed nine days earlier . The annexation took place in 1976. Since Bahasa Indonesia symbolized as a fundamental criterion of unity in the state for Indonesia, the use of Portuguese was banned. In 1999, Indonesia handed East Timor over to an administration by the UN . In 2002 East Timor's independence was restored. Bahasa Indonesia lost its status as an official language in favor of the native Tetum and Portuguese, but is still a working language according to the constitution. Many courses at the country's universities are held in Bahasa Indonesia.

In 1991, 60% of the East Timorese population could speak Bahasa Indonesia. According to the 2015 census, 36.6% of the population in East Timor can speak, read and write in Bahasa Indonesia, another 1.7% can speak and read, 17.6% can only read and 6.2% can only speak. It is the mother tongue of 2,711 East Timorese. 63 East Timorese name Malay as their mother tongue.

Differences between Indonesian and Malaysian

The differences between the two languages ​​did not develop until the colonial era and largely affect vocabulary. In the beginning they were only slightly larger than between FRG-German and GDR-German, which for example use plastic / plastic and team / collective as different words for the same term. Likewise, such specific words can be found between the two Malay languages ​​- often due to the fact that some words were introduced in Malaysia by the British colonial rulers and in Indonesia by the Dutch colonial rulers. The differences are most common in technical terms; The ever-quoted translation of exhaust is almost famous: in Indonesian it is knalpot and in Malaysian ekzos (from the English exhaust ). All words that designate things that did not exist before the colonial era are almost always borrowed from English in Malaysian and mostly from Dutch in Indonesian. A classic example, the spelling for Germans is easy to understand, is the word for “taxi” in Malay “teksi”, which corresponds to the English pronunciation, in Indonesian “taksi”, which corresponds to the Dutch pronunciation. Some Dutch words have also flowed into the Indonesian language, which literally correspond to the German words due to the close linguistic relationship to German within the West Germanic language group, such as B. helmet , cable or stamp .

In the meantime, a tendency can be seen over the last decades that words from other languages ​​native to Indonesia, such as Javanese, have increasingly found their way into the Indonesian language and thus the independent development of the two languages ​​has made a huge leap in the last 100 years . While Indonesians and Malaysians were able to communicate with each other almost fluently in the colonial times, this is only possible today among young Indonesians and Malaysians to the same extent as is the case among speakers of various Scandinavian languages.

On the other hand, many foreigners who have each learned a variant of the language report that after a short period of acclimatization they were able to communicate well in the other country, especially when they were dealing with educated people. Therefore, it seems that the differences have developed mainly on the lower language levels ( colloquial language , slang ) (the ratio of international and Quebec French is comparable ).

The incorrect assumption by many only superficial connoisseurs that the word Bahasa denotes this common language also leads to errors regarding the equality of the two languages. "Bahasa" only means "language" and not Malay, Malay or Indonesian. The correct names are for Malay Bahasa Melayu , for Malaysian Bahasa Malaysia and for Indonesian Bahasa Indonesia . The use of "Bahasa" as a generic term is slang. The fact that people speak different languages ​​in spite of the initially only minor differences has to do with the fact that there was an anti-colonial movement “One people - one country - one language” in Indonesia, which is why they did not want to have “Bahasa Melayu” after independence. As a result of the independent continuous further development of both languages, the two have now diverged from one another to a degree that they are now independent languages.

Singapore had no problem with the introduction of Bahasa Melayu, as it plays a subordinate role there to English. In Brunei, too, Malay is predominantly the language of administration and the lingua franca, while the local population speaks other languages. In general, you can get on a lot with English, especially in Singapore but also in Brunei. More people speak English than Malay in Singapore because there are more Chinese than Malay there. In Malaysia, too, around 26% Chinese and around 9% Indians prefer to speak English, but only here is Malay actually the predominant colloquial language. In Indonesia, on the other hand, English is not widely used (with the exception of tourist areas) and Bahasa Indonesia is a second language for many that is not spoken or understood by the elderly without schooling and by people in remote areas.


Indonesian (Bahasa Indonésia) is very easy to learn for German speakers. The pronunciation is not a problem because it is very similar to the German one.


  • As in German, a, i, o, u have 2 forms
    • in open syllables long and open as in "but", "victory", "upper", "rod"
    • in closed syllables short and dark as in “hand”, “will”, “still”, “mouth”.
Indonesian words in which both vowel forms occur at the same time serve as examples:
datang (to come), barang (thing): (a open and a closed)
piring (plate), mirip (similar): (i open and i closed)
bodoh (stupid), potong (cut): (o open and o closed)
kurus (lean), mulut (mouth) (u open and u closed).
  • e - There are 3 e-sounds in Indonesian:

1. e as in "reading", in open syllables, e.g. B. méja (table), héran (amazed), séhat (healthy), often in loan words from Portuguese or Arabic.

2. e as in "human", e.g. B. léhér (neck), bérés (done); often in words from regional languages ​​such as Javanese.

3. e as in “say” (in closed syllables) or as a marble vowel (unstressed e) in open or closed syllables like the two e in “came”, e.g. B. keras (loud), berat (difficult), gelas (drinking glass).

Here, too, as in most dictionaries (including official Indonesian ones, such as the Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia ), the open or stressed “e” is provided with an accent (é) to distinguish it.


  • ai as final: as in "May" z. B. pandai (clever), damai (peace), sometimes colloquially shortened to -é.
  • ai as initial: both vowels are spoken separately as in "Zaire" z. B. air (water), lain (different), baik (good).
  • au as final: as in "blue" z. B. kalau (if), hijau (green), sometimes colloquially shortened to -o (kalo, ijo).
  • au as intro: both vowels are spoken separately, e.g. B. house (thirsty), loud (sea), down (leaf)
  • oi like "eu" in "heute", e.g. B. koboi (cowboy), boikot (boycott), sepoi (gentle), rarely occurs.


  • c - like ch in "mud" z. B. cari (looking), kecil (small). (c was written tj before the 1972 spelling reform),
  • f - as in "barrel"; occurs only in loan words (often Arabic), e.g. B. fajar (dawn), féri (ferry), film (film), foto (photo), fungsi (function). Often replaced by p.
  • h - the initial sound is barely audible, e.g. B. hijau (green), habis (over).
  • h - clearly audible on the inside between the same vowels, e.g. B. mahal (expensive), léhér (neck), bohong (lying).
  • h - hardly audible in the interior between different vowels, e.g. B. lihat (see), tahu (know), pahit (bitter).
  • h - in the final clearly audible breath, e.g. B. rumah (house), téh (tea), bersih (clean), bodoh (stupid), sepuluh (ten). The final h is not a connecting h as in German “nah” or “sah”, but closes the syllable and means that the preceding vowel is spoken short and dark.
  • j - like voiced j in "jungle" or in English "Jim", e.g. B. saja (only), jalan (street), belanja (shopping). (j was written dj before the 1972 spelling reform),
  • k - initial and internal as in German, but without aspiration, e.g. B. kaki (foot), bukan (not).
  • k - only audible as a crackling sound at the end, e.g. B. anak (child), bapak (father).
  • kh - (before the spelling reform ch) as in “subject” or “throat”, e.g. B. akhir (end), khusus (special).
  • ng - as in “crowd” or “sing”, without an audible g, z. B. jangan (don't do), angin (wind), bangun (stand up).
  • ngg - as in "Tango", with an audible g, e.g. B. mangga (mango).
  • ny - like "gn" in "champagne", e.g. B. nyanyi (singing), hanya (only), nyata (clear).
  • r - rolled tongue-r, e.g. B. rokok (cigarette), barat (west), also clearly audible in the final: sabar (patience), sisir (comb).
  • s - always voiceless and sharp, also in the initial sound, e.g. B. sarung (sarong), usus (intestine), terus (next)
  • sy - weak s-ch as in "Pils-chen", e.g. B. syarat (condition), masyarakat (society), syah (legally valid), occurs only in loan words from Arabic.
  • v - always like f in "father" or "Karl Valentin", e.g. B. vitamin (vitamin), vonis (judgment); occurs only in European loanwords.
  • w - like the English "w" in "water", e.g. B. waktu (time), wujud (shape), bawang (onion).
  • y - like "j" in "ja", z. B. yakin (convinced), saya (me), ya (yes).
  • z - voiced "s" as in "say", e.g. B. zaman (time), izin (permission), occurs only in loan words from Arabic.
  bilabial labio-
alveolar post-
palatal velar glottal
Plosives p b   t d     k g ʔ
Affricates     t͡ʃ d͡ʒ      
Nasals m   n   ɲ ŋ  
Vibrants     r        
Fricatives   ( f ) ( v ) s ( z )   x  
Approximants w       j    
Lateral     l        

The sounds in brackets only appear in loan words.

  front central back
closed i   u
medium e ə O
open   a  


The Indonesian and Malay languages ​​are predominantly agglutinating languages with isolating tendencies, that is, there is no declension , no conjugation and very little verb inflection and derivation . There is also no article , but there are prefixes, infixes and suffixes, as is usual with the other agglutinating languages. There is no grammatical gender, only a few words borrowed from Sanskrit (eg: putra = "the son", putri = "the daughter") differentiate according to the natural gender.


A single noun can have both singular and plural meanings. However, the plural can also optionally be specially marked by doubling it or by number or other words from the context of which the plural is already evident:

  • orang ("people"), orang-orang ("people"), dua orang ("two people"), guru ("the teacher / teachers"), para guru ("the teachers - the teachers"). With some doublings, however, the word gets a new meaning e.g. B. mata = "eye", mata-mata = "secret service". However, there is the word “spy” in Indonesian which has the same meaning.

When using numerals, additional classifiers are often needed, but usually no longer in informal conversations. How to use:

  • for objects the size of a cherry or a melon buah ( meaning "fruit") z. B. dua buah kelapa (two coconuts)
  • for animals ékor (Bed .: tail) z. B. empat ékor ayam (four chickens)
  • for people orang (condition: human) z. B. sembilan orang jérman (nine Germans)
  • for paper lembar or helai (for both conditions: sheet) z. B. satu lembar kertas (a sheet of paper), shortened to selembar kertas.
  • for small, round objects biji (Bed .: core) z. B. sepuluh biji batu (ten (small, round) stones)
  • for long, stick- like objects batang (Bed .: stick) z. B. tujuh batang rokok (seven cigarettes)


All tenses are not expressed by changing the verb, but by additional adverbs or auxiliary verbs.

  • I write just one letter: Saya sedang Menulis surat (literally, I just write letter)
  • Yesterday I wrote a letter: Kemarin saya menulis surat (literally: Yesterday I write letter)
  • Tomorrow I will write a letter: Besok saya akan menulis surat (literally: Tomorrow I will write letter)
  • I will write a letter: saya akan menulis surat (literally: I will write letter)
  • I have already written the letter : Saya sudah menulis surat (literally: I already write the letter)

You can see that the verb “menulis” (to write) does not change in any form. The temporal connection is expressed exclusively through the adverbs or auxiliary verbs (here: akan = to be).

Word formation

Prefixes and suffixes can also change the meaning of the words - similar to in German. In some forms, certain initial sounds are assimilated.

Example: stem: tulis (to write)

  • men ulis: to write (active verb form) - the t is omitted here.
  • di tulis: written (passive verb form)
  • pen ulis: writer (someone who writes)
  • men ulis i: describe, label (in the sense of "write on something")
  • di tulis i: to be described (in the sense of "to be provided with writing")
  • men ulis kan: write down (sth.)
  • di tulis kan: to be written down
  • ter tulis: written down; in writing (state passive)

Rules of assimilation

The assimilation takes place according to clear rules depending on the first sound of the root word and the prefix. The prefix me- and pe- follow the same rules of assimilation, while the syllables di-, ke-, memper- and se- are not assimilated. Here the rules are shown using the prefix me- with examples, the assimilation of the prefix pe- is done accordingly.

me → mem
b: baca → membaca (read), → pembaca (reader)
p (p is dropped!): pesan → memesan (order)
me → meny
s (s is omitted!): séwa → menyéwa (rent)
me → men
c: cari → mencari (search)
d: dengar → mendengar (to hear)
j: jual → menjual (sell)
t (t is dropped!): tari → menari (to dance)
me → quantity
all vowels: ambil → mengambil (take, fetch), elak → mengelak (evade)
g: gambar (picture, drawing) → menggambar (drawing)
h: hitung → quantity (count)
k (k drops out!): kirim → mengirim (send)
me → me
all others: larang → melarang (forbid)

Use of the root word and the assimilated form

Since Indonesian dictionaries are often sorted according to the word stems, it is helpful to be able to use these rules to infer its stem from a word. The Indonesian stem of the word is also used in subordinate clauses in which a verb is used in a manner similar to the passive one. Example: surat yang saya tulis ... = The letter I wrote ... (Explanation: Since there are no declensions in Indonesian, the relative pronoun 'yang' becomes the subject of the subordinate clause due to its position, so it is the use of the verb passive - the letter was written - even if it is expressed differently in German. This grammatical peculiarity is often difficult to understand for speakers who are used to declinations, because the missing declination is automatically inserted when translating.)


The most common script for the Malay language is a Latin script. A variant called Rumi has official status in Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore, Indonesia has a different Latin orthography. In Brunei, a variation of the Arabic script called Jawi is co-official.


  • Selamat pagi !: "Good morning!" ( Selamat is a general congratulatory word, pagi: "Morning")
  • Selamat siang! / Selamat tengah hari! (Malay only): "Hello!" (siang: "day", tengah hari: "noon")
  • Selamat petang! / Selamat soré! (Indonesian only): "Good (afternoon) day!" (from 3 to 6 pm) - (petang / soré: "afternoon")
  • Selamat malam !: "Good evening!" / "Good night!" (Malam: "evening" / "night")
  • Selamat makan !: "Bon appetit!" (Makan: "eat")
  • Selamat tidur !: "Good night!" (Before sleep) - (tidur: "to sleep")
  • Selamat datang !: "Welcome!" (Datang: "come")
  • Selamat jalan !: "Have a good trip!" (Jalan: "run / drive / travel")
  • Sampai jumpa (lagi) !: "Goodbye!" (Literally "see you / see again")
  • Apa khabar? (ms) / Apa kabar? (id): "How are you?" (literally "what (your / your) news?")
  • Khabar baik (ms) / Kabar baik (id): "I'm fine" (literally "(my) news is fine")
  • Terima kasih !: "Thank you!"
  • Awas !: "Watch out!"
  • Hati-hati !: "Be careful!"
  • nama: "name"
    • Nama saya Lukas: "My name is Lukas / my name is Lukas"
    • Saya Anna: "My name is Anna"
    • Siapa nama Anda / kamu ?: "What's your name / is your name?" ("What's your / your name?")
  • asal: "origin"
    • Saya (berasal) dari Jérman / Austria / Switzerland (ms) / Swiss (id): "I'm from Germany / Austria / Switzerland"
    • Saya orang Jérman / Austria / Switzerland (ms) / Swiss (id): "I am German / Austrian / Swiss"
  • cakap (ms) / bicara (id): "speak"
  • bahasa: "language"
    • Boléh cakap bahasa Jérman / Inggeris? (ms) / Bisa (bicara) bahasa Jérman / Inggris? (id): "Do you speak / do you speak German / English?"
    • Saya cakap (ms) / bicara (id) bahasa Jérman: "I speak German"
    • Saya tak boléh cakap bahasa Melayu (ms) / Saya tidak bisa (bicara) bahasa Indonésia (id): "I don't speak Malay / Indonesian"
  • orange: "human"
    • orang utan: " orangutans " (literally "human forest" - "forest man")
    • orang Jérman: "German (r)" ("Human German")
    • orang asli: "native" (literally "human real / original")
    • orang asing: "foreigner" / "stranger" (literally "human stranger")
  • ya: "yes"
  • tidak: "no / not" (negation of activities and characteristics)
    • tak (Malay) / ngga (k), ga (k) (Indonesian only): slang forms of "no" (like "nö" or "nee")
    • Saya tidak mau: "I don't want" (literally "I don't want")
  • bukan: "no / no" (negation of nouns)
    • Saya bukan orang Inggeris (ms) / Inggris (id), saya orang Jérman: "I am not English, I am German"
  • belum: "not yet"
    • Saya belum menikah: "I am not yet married" (literally "I will not marry yet")
  • sudah: "already"
    • Saya sudah menikah: "I'm already married" (literally "I'm getting married")
  • Jangan !: "No! / Not!" (In the sense of "don't do that")
    • Jangan datang !: "Don't come!"
    • Jangan (pergi) ke sana !: "Don't go there!" (Literally "don't (go) there!")
    • Jangan dibawa !: "Don't bring that!" (Literally "not to be brought!")
  • ini - itu: "this - that"
    • Saya mau ini: "I want this"
  • makan-minum-datang-pergi-tidur-mengerti: "eat-drink-come-go-sleep-understand"
    • Saya mau makan: "I want to eat"
    • Sudah makan (kah) ?: "Have you already eaten?"
  • Awak boléh pergi makan tengah hari dengan saya? (ms) / Kamu mau pergi makan siang dengan saya? (id): "Are you going to lunch with me?"
    • sarapan / makan pagi: "breakfast"
    • makan tengah hari (Malay only) / makan siang: "lunch"
    • makan malam: "dinner"
  • Saya belum mengerti / paham: "I don't understand that yet"
    • Mengerti? / Paham ?: "Understood?"
  • Berapa ?: "How much?"
    • Berapa harganya ?: "What does this cost?" (Literally: "How much does this cost?")
  • nombor (ms) / nomor (id): "number"
    • 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10: "sifar (ms) / nol (id) / kosong, satu, dua, tiga, empat, lima, enam, tujuh, lapan (ms) / delapan (id), sembilan, sepuluh "
    • 11, 12, 13, 14, ...: "sebelas, dua belas, tiga belas, empat belas, ..."
    • 20, 21, 22, 23, ...: "dua puluh, dua puluh satu, dua puluh dua, dua puluh tiga, ..."
    • 100, 1000, 10,000, 100,000, 1,000,000: "seratus, seribu, sepuluh ribu, seratus ribu, satu juta"

Language example

Sukarno's Indonesian declaration of independence in Jakarta on August 17, 1945 (Indonesian):

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menyatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.
Hal-hal yang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain, diselenggarakan dengan cara saksama dan dalam tempo yang sesingkat-singkatnya.
Jakarta, tujuh belas Agustus, seribu sembilan ratus empat puluh lima.
Atas nama bangsa Indonesia,
Soekarno / Hatta.

Language regulation

Bahasa Malaysia is regulated by:

Bahasa Indonesia is regulated by:


  • Erich-Dieter Krause : Textbook of the Indonesian language . 6th edition. Buske, Hamburg 2004. ISBN 3-87548-328-6 .
  • Reni Isa: Bahasa Indonesia. A work textbook. Percakapan, Contoh Kalimat dan Keterangan, Latihan. Paperback. Regiospectra, Berlin 2007. ISBN 3-940132-01-2 .
  • Harald Haarmann: Small Lexicon of Languages. From Albanian to Zulu. CH Beck, Munich 2001. ISBN 3-406-47558-2 .
  • Hans Kähler : Grammar of Bahasa Indonesia. 3rd, revised edition. Wiesbaden 1983. ISBN 3-447-02345-7 .
  • Yohanni Johns: Bahasa Indonesia - Introduction to Indonesian Language and Culture. Periplus, London 1987, 1990. ISBN 0-945971-56-7 .
  • Bernd Nothofer, Karl-Heinz Pampus: Bahasa Indonesia. Indonesian for Germans . 2 parts. Dictionary. Edition Julius Groos in Stauffenburg Verlag, Tübingen 2001, 2002, 2007. ISBN 978-3-87276-827-8 .
  • Frank D. Wickl: The classifier system of Bahasa Indonesia . Abera, Hamburg 1996. ISBN 3-934376-02-9 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Direcção Nacional de Estatística: Population Distribution by Administrative Areas Volume 3 English ( Memento of the original from October 10, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (2010 census; PDF file; 3.38 MB) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  2. Wikisource: Article 152 of the 1957 Constitution of Malaysia
  3. a b The Star: Back to Bahasa Malaysia ( Memento of the original from May 3, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , June 4, 2007; Accessed May 6, 2013 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. ^ A b c d John Hajek: Towards a Language History of East Timor , in: Quaderni del Dipartimento di Linguistica - Università di Firenze 10 (2000), pp. 213-227
  5. Direcção-Geral de Estatística : Results of the 2015 census , accessed on November 23, 2016.
  7. Youtube video with Sukarno's original sound


  1. Translation: We, the Indonesian people, hereby declare the independence of Indonesia. Matters relating to the transfer of power and other matters are treated as carefully as possible in a timely manner. On behalf of the Indonesian people, Sukarno / Hatta .