Plosives / plosives (also Explosive / plosives , Occlusive / Okklusivlaute , Klusile , mutes or plosives ), the consonants mentioned wherein the articulation of the respiratory airflow is blocked. The immediate re-release of the blocked air flow creates a small "explosion" that creates the sound. The naming is based on the type of articulation . The closure is effected, for example, by a contact of the lips (Example: [ p ] , [ b ] ) or tongue with the articulation in the vocal tract or extension tube (examples: [ t ] , [ d ] , [ k ] , [ g ] ).
Similarly as in English with the competing names plosive and stop is also available in the German phonetics not complete agreement about whether under plosive or occlusive only those sounds are to understand where the Phonationsstrom is completely blocked, or those in which a partial blockage occurs. If one follows the further definition, in which a partial interruption ("occlusion") also creates a plosive sound, then all clicks , implosives , ejectives and the nasals , in which the air flow also flows out through the nasal cavity during the closure, would also be closed count the plosives. In particular, the status of the nasals is controversial here. The closure of the consonant can take place transiently (= limited in time), ie the closure is implemented using a different articulation . This produces affricates , nasal or lateral Plosionen.
When describing the classical languages, the plosives are referred to as Mutae (singular Muta ). The name is derived from the Latin muta 'mute' , since the plosives “have no duration when pronounced”.
Stop sounds are set here in contrast to the continuous sounds. According to the classic classification, the mutae include the tenues (voiceless plosives , here in the order of their articulation points labial , alveolar , velar ; p, t, k) and the mediae (voiced plosives; b, d, g). In a broader sense, the mutae also include the aspiratae (connected with h; usually in the notation pʰ, tʰ, kʰ, bʰ, dʰ, gʰ or p c , t c , k c , b c , d c , g c ) .
Both in the terminology used by the Duden and in the more recent textbooks, however, “plosive”, “occlusive” and “plosive” are regarded as synonyms. Only those sounds in which the phonation flow is completely blocked are valid as plosive sounds. In order to avoid terminological uncertainty, it is nevertheless better to use the term “plosive” only.
- Bilabial plosives (lip closure sounds)
- Labiodental plosives
- Linguolabial plosives
- Interdental plosives
- Dental plosives
- Alveolar plosives (teeth locking sounds)
- Postalveolar plosives
- Retroflex plosives
- Palatal plosives
- Velare plosives (posterior palate closure sounds)
- Uvular plosives
- Epiglottal plosives
- Glottal plosives (vocal cord closure sounds)
- Peter Ladefoged , Ian Maddieson : The sounds of the world's languages. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford et al. 1996, ISBN 0-631-19814-8 .